ENDANGERED ANIMALS IN CHINA
Clouded leopard Of the 640 internationally listed endangered species, 156 of them are in China. The nations with the most threatened species include: 1) Indonesia (128 mammal and 104 bird species); 2) Brazil (71 mammal and 103 bird species); 3) China (75 mammal and 90 bird species); 4) India (75 mammal and 73 bird species); 5) The Philippines (49 mammal and 86 bird species); 6) Peru (46 mammal and 64 bird species); 7) Mexico (64 mammal species); 8) Columbia (64 bird species); 9) Australia (58 mammal species); 10) Papua New Guinea (57 mammal species); 11) Ecuador (53 bird species); 12) Madagascar (46 mammal species); 13) the U.S. (50 bird species); 14) Vietnam (47 bird species).
Endangered Animals: mammals: 74; birds: 82; reptiles: 29; amphibians: 87; fish: 91; molluscs: 8; other invertebrates: 24; plants: 446; total: 816; Red List in 2009: [Source: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), The Guardian theguardian.com ]
Endangered species in China include the the Chinese alligator, Amur (Siberian, Manchurian), tiger, Yarkand deer, Shanxi sika deer, South China sika, North China sika, Elliot's pheasant, Cabot's tragopan,, Thailand brow-antlered deer, white-lipped deer, Bactrian camel, the Siberian white crane and lancelet, an ancient species of fish representing a transitional stage between invertebrate and vertebrate development, now found only in Fujian Province. There are about nine extinct species, including the Yunnan box turtle and the wild horse. The giant panda was recently taken off the endangered list. [Source: Worldmark Encyclopedia of Nations, Thomson Gale, 2007]
Endangered animals found in in the mountains of central China, Sichuan, Yunnan and Eastern Tibet include the red panda, the golden money, white-lipped deer, snow leopard, clouded leopard, goral, serow, burhel, Alpine musk deer, lynx, Pallas's cat and Asiatic black bear. [Source: Science Museum of China kepu.net.cn
Bags and apparel made of exotic skins are big sellers in China. In 2006 and 2007, authorities seized 104 furs of rare animals, including 27 snow leopard pelts, and furs of clouded leopard, lynx and bears, from a fur dealer in Gansu Province who purchased the furs in Qinghai Province and Tibet. It was the largest seizure of snow leopard pelts since records were kept on such matters beginning in 1949.
The Chinese government planned to hold an auction in 2006 in which foreign hunting organizations could bid for licences to hunt 14 of species wild animals with bidding starting at $200 for a wolf and $40,000 for a wild yak. Once word got out on the Internet criticism rose to a howl and the auction was put on hold.
Biodiversity Hotspots in China
The mountains of southwest China were declared a Biodiversity Hot Spot in 2005. This area is rich in unique wildlife and plant life but is also threatened by the encroachment of people. More than 3,500 plant species are unique to the south-central Chinese mountains. In recent years China has established more nature reserves than any other country but the reserves are poorly policed and poaching and illegal logging remains a problem.
With dramatic variations in climate and topography, the Mountains of Southwest China support a wide array of habitats including the most endemic-rich temperate flora in the world. The golden monkey, giant panda, red panda, and a number of pheasants are among the threatened species endemic to this hotspot. Illegal hunting, overgrazing and firewood collection are some of the primary threats to biodiversity in this region. The construction of the largest dam in history, the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River, has already and will continue to heavily threaten the biodiversity of this region.[Source: Conservation International Biodiversity Hotspot]
VITAL SIGNS: 1) Hotspot Original Extent (km²) 262,446; 2) Hotspot Vegetation Remaining (km²) 20,996; 3) Endemic Plant Species 3,500; 4) Endemic Threatened Birds 2; 5) Endemic Threatened Mammals 3; 6) Endemic Threatened Amphibians 3; 7) Extinct Species: 0; 8) Human Population Density (people/km²) 32; 9) “Area Protected (km²) 14,034; 10) Area Protected (km²) in Categories I-IV*;4,273, Recorded extinctions since 1500. *Categories I-IV afford higher levels of protection.
The Mountains of Southwest China Hotspot stretches over 262,400 km² of temperate to alpine mountains between the easternmost edge of the Tibetan Plateau and the Central Chinese Plain. It lies to the north of the Indo-Burma Hotspot, and to the immediate east of the Himalaya Hotspot, and is bounded in the northwest by the dry Tibetan Plateau, in the north by the Tao River of southern Gansu, and in the east by the Sichuan Basin and the plateau of eastern Yunnan.
The Mountains of Southwest China are characterized by extremely complex topography, ranging from less than 2,000 meters in some valley floors to 7,558 meters at the summit of Gongga Shan (Mountain). The mountain ridges are oriented in a generally north-south direction, perpendicular to the main Himalayan chain. The region includes the Hengduan, Gaoligong, and Nu Shan of western Yunnan; the Nyainqentanglha, Ningjing, Taniantaweng Shan, and others at the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau; the Shaluli, Daxue (including Gongga Shan), Chola, and Qionglai Shan systems of Sichuan; and the Min Shan on the Sichuan-Gansu border. The Ailao Shan and Wuliang Shan of central Yunnan are not part of this hotspot (both are included in the Indo-Burma Hotspot).
The Mountains of Southwest China feed the most species-rich temperate and tropical river systems in Asia. Major river systems that traverse or originate in the hotspot include the Jingshajiang, Yalongjiang, Daduhe, and Minjiang, all branches of the Yangtze River, which empties in the East China Sea. The Lancangjiang (Mekong River), passes through Yunnan Province, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam on its way to the South China Sea. The Nujiang reaches the Indian Ocean through Yunnan Province and Burma.
The complex topography results in a wide range of climatic conditions. Temperatures range from frost-free throughout the year in parts of Yunnan and short, frost-free periods at the northern boundary of the region, to permanent glaciers on the high mountain peaks of Sichuan, Yunnan, and Xizang. Annual average rainfall in the region exceeds 1,000 millimeters on southwestern slopes at higher altitudes in Yunnan, while areas of the northwestern part of the region, in the rainshadow of the Tibetan Plateau, rarely receive more than 400 millimeters annually. Climatic and topographic conditions result in a wide variety of vegetation types across the hotspot, including broad-leaved and coniferous forests, bamboo groves, scrub communities, savanna, meadow, prairie, freshwater wetlands, and alpine scrub and scree communities.
Large Endangered Mammals and Fish in China
The Chinese paddlefish, also known as the swordfish and Yangtze paddlefish, was one of the world’s largest freshwater fish species and a native of the Yangtze River system. It was declared extinct. The species grows up to 7 meters long and is believed to have vanished between 2005 and 2010. Chinese scientists made the announcement in a research paper published in Science of the Total Environment. According to Sup China: “pollution and overfishing have decimated the unique ecosystem of the river, endangering species such as the Yangtze finless porpoise and the Chinese alligator. Also in 2020, the Chinese government announced a 10-year ban on commercial fishing on the Yangtze River. [Source: South China Morning Post, Sup China, January 6, 2020]
Gaur (Bos gaurus) have a body length of two meters and weigh 1000-1500 kilograms and live in broad-leaved forests, broad-leaved and needle-leaved forests and grass slopes in mountains of tropical and sub-tropical areas. They eat tree leaves, all kinds of grass, bamboo leaves and bamboo shoots. In China, they can be found in South Yunnan and are regarded as an endangered species. [Source: Center of Chinese Academy of Sciences, kepu.net.cn]
The Takin is an odd-looking cow-goat-like animal with musk-ox-style horns that is found in mountainous areas with forest and shrub growth in the eastern Himalayas and western China in Sichuan, Yunnan and eastern Tibet at an altitude of 2000 to 5,000 meters. There are four subspecies: 1) the Mishmi Takin; 2) the Shanxi or golden takin; 3) the Tibetan or Sichuan takin; and 4) the Bhutan Takin. Mitochondrial research shows that takin are related to sheep, its similarity to the musk ox being an example of convergent evolution.
Gorals and Serows
The goral (Naemorhedus goral) live in forests and on the bare rocks and mountain cliffs in Sichuan, Yunnan, Eastern Tibet and the eastern Himalayas. Gorals often move about singly or in pairs, but sometimes also in groups of three. Acute both in hearing and seeing, they are agile jumpers and runners. They bleat like goats, but their alarming sound sounds like sharp hissing. Arboreal in its habits, gorals often hide themselves in the thick woods or caves and sleep at day time. In the morning or evening they come out to eat tender leaves and twigs, green grass and mosses. The mating season of the goral is winter. After about six months' pregnancy, a pregnant female goral often gives birth to one cub. The animal is unique to central Asia, On China’s National List for Specially Protected Wild Animals, it is listed as a threatened species.
Gorals are small ungulates with a goat-like or antelope-like appearance. Until recently, this genus also contained the serow species. The name "goral" comes from an eastern Indian word for the Himalayan goral. There are four species: 1) Himalayan goral (also known as ghural, Naemorhedus goral), found in northwestern and northeastern India, as well as Nepal and Bhutan; 2) long-tailed goral (Naemorhedus caudatus), found eastern Russia and China and western Thailand and eastern Myanmar and the DMZ between North and South Korea; 3) red goral (Naemorhedus baileyi), found in Yunnan province of China, to Tibet and northeastern India and northern Myanmar; and 4) Chinese goral (Naemorhedus griseus, found in Myanmar, China, India, Thailand, Vietnam, and possibly Laos)
The mainland Serow (Capricornis sumatraensis) lives mainly on the bare rocks, mountain cliffs, and shrub lands in river valleys in the Southeast mountains and the edge of the Sichuan Basin. Serows are good jumpers and different impressively display their skills the cliffs. A tough animal though, they are acute and agile runners. Arboreal in its habits, serows often hide themselves at day time, but move about singly or in pairs, but sometimes also in groups of three in the morning or evening. Their favorite food consists of mushrooms, tender leaves, and twigs. The mating season of the serow lasts from late September to October. After eight months' pregnancy, a female serow gives birth to one young. The animal is found in China, Sumatra, South Asia and Southeast Asia On China’s National List for Specially Protected Wild Animals, it is listed as a seriously threatened species in danger of extinction.
The mainland Serow is sometimes called the burhel in China. In Sichuan it lives mainly in broadleaved forest as well as the bamboo forests.However, it rarely appears in the artificial forest. Timid in natura, they are good tree climbers. The route serow follows is relatively fixed, because they make marks with tailbone gland oil on stumps and rocks. The serow is also a clean animal that often covers its dung with forefeet. Its diet consists of mosses, lichen, and grass. The mating season is winter and a pregnant female burhel often gives birth to two young in June of the following year.
Chinese Pangolins (Manis pentadactyla) have a body length of 40-50 centimeters and a tail length of 30 centimeters and weigh 1500-3000 grams. Their preferred habitats are forests, bush lands, and grass slopes in hills and mountains. They dig up ant mounds with their sharp fore claws and lick up ants and white ants with their thin and sticky tongue. They also eat bees and other insects. They can be found in the provinces in South China. They are regarded as threatened not endangered species.
Chinese pangolins are good at digging. Usually, their fore limbs dig and their hind limbs push the soft soil away. Since their bodies are covered with scales, they can dig without being bothered by biting ants. They have method for penetrating ant mounds which gives them their Chinese nick name — which translates to “means to penetrate the mountain”.
Chinese pangolins are usually solitary. They rests in their den during the daytime and seek food during the night. Their senses of hearing and their visual ability are poor but they have very good sense of smell. Their teeth are not pronounced. They have sands and stones in their stomach them digest their foods. Chinese pangolin can not only dig up caves, they can also swim and climb trees.
They mate in the spring and females give birth the next winter or spring. They produces one to three young pangolins each time. When young Chinese pangolins become larger, they ride on their mother's back to go out to seek food. When they are threatened Chinese pangolin curl up and hide their head beneath their abdomen. This defense method is quite effective in dealing with other animals. Chinese pangolin scales are valued in traditional Chinese medicine. Their meat is regarded as fresh and delicious.
Pere David's Deer
Pere David deer The Pere David's deer (milu deer) of the Yangtze River Basin has made a comeback despite having its population decimated by habitat loss and hunting. Native to China, it is a large brown 220-kilogram (500-pound) deer named after the French missionary who first described them — as well as giant pandas — to Europeans in 1865. According to Chinese folklore the animals were harnessed to heavenly chariots of some Chinese gods and the appearance of a pure white Pére David's deer foretold great events. It is said that pregnant women who looked at the deer risk giving birth to four-eyed children. Among Chinese nobility the deer was considered second only to the bear as the animal of choice among of hunters, which explains they they hung on in deer parks long after they ceased to exist in the wild. [Source: Nigel Sitwell, Smithsonian, June 1986]
The last native herd of Pere David's deer was kept in the Imperial Hunting Park, a walled-in 144-square-mile royal preserve located a few miles outside of central Beijing. The deer were dealt a severe blow in 1894 when the walls of the Imperial Hunting Park were breached by a severe flood and many deer escaped into the surrounding countryside, where they were killed by starving peasants. Six years later, foreign troops shot the remainder during the bloody Boxer Rebellion.
Fortunately a few of the deer were sold to European zoos before they were wiped out in China, and the zoos in turn sold 18 of them to the 11th Duke of Bedford, who raised the animals within a 13 mile wall on his 3,000-acre estate in southern England. By the late 1980s the duke' herd had grown large enough so that the deer could be reintroduced into China. A herd reintroduced to the 250-acre Nan Haizu Milu Park on the southwestern part of the Imperial Hunting Park grew from 20 to 55 animals in ten years. Another herd near Shanghai expanded from 39 to 50 animals. There are more than 1,500 Pére David deer worldwide, and about 600 of them live on the Duke of Bedford's estate. [National Geographic Geographica, March 1989].
Wild Cats in China
Clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa) live mainly in broadleaf forests. They are around 75-110 centimeters long, excluding their 72-92 centimeter-long tail, and weigh 15-20 kilograms. They live in tropical and sub-tropical broad-leaved evergreen forests Light and agile, it hunts wild fowls, medium-size mammals for food; sometimes, however, it may also attack large-size ungulates. When females are in heat varies; often it is in late autumn or early spring. After about three months' pregnancy, a female clouded leopard gives birth to two cubs. They can be found in mountain forests of Yunnan, Sichuan and eastern Tibet and all provinces south of the Yangtze River. In China, the Clouded Leopard is listed as a seriously threatened species in danger of extinction.
The Chinese desert cat lives in an area of China that stretches from the Tibetan plateau to the mountains in Sichuan to Inner Mongolia. An elusive creature, it is slightly larger than a domestic cat and has dense yellowish gray fur, slightly tufted ears and feet that are protected by tufts of fur growing between the pads. The Chinese desert cats lives in variety of environments — mountains, forests and steppes — but usually not deserts. Little is known about their diet and social and breeding behavior. They are more often spotted in cages in Sichuan markets than in the wild.
The Golden Cat (Felis temmincki) is mainly found in the mountains at an altitude less than 3000 meters. Solitary in nature and nocturnal in habit, golden cats are good climbers. A fierce carnivore, the golden cat feeds on birds, rodents, and medium-size ungulates like tufted deer. Sometimes, it may also attack young giant pandas for food. It has no fixed breeding season. After 91 days' pregnancy, a female golden cat often gives birth to two or three young in each pregnancy. On China’s National List for Specially Protected Wild Animals, it is listed as a threatened species.
Lynx (Felis lynx) can be found in northwest Yunnan, Sichuan, northern and south east China .In Sichuan they are mainly found in the mountain thick forests, shrub forests and meadows. Solitary in nature, lynxes are good climbers and swimmers. A carnivore, the lynx feeds mainly on wild fowls, squirrels, conies, and plateau rabbits; it also hunts medium-size mammals like elks, deer, and goas. It has strong resistance to hunger and can go for days without food. The mating season of the lynx is in January or February. After 63 to 74 days' pregnancy, a female lynx often gives birth to two or three young in each pregnancy. They are regarded as threatened not endangered species.
Pallas's cat (Felis manul) is mainly found in the mountain plateau, grasslands and forests. Solitary in nature, Pallas's cats often live in rock caves or holes. Being a nocturnal animal, the Pallas's cat is most active in the morning and evening. It has acute hearing and vision. A carnivore, the Pallas's cat mainly feeds on alpine marmots, conies, small-size rodents, wild fowls, and sometimes domestic fowls. Its mating season is mostly in February. In April or May, a pregnant female Pallas's cat often gives birth to two or three young in each pregnancy. On China’s National List for Specially Protected Wild Animals, is listed as a threatened species.
Leopards in China
Some leopards (Panthera pardus) are found in China. They have a body length of 100-150 centimeters and a tail length of 75-85 centimeters and weigh 50 kilograms. Their preferred habitats are forests, bush lands and meadows in mountain areas. They attack from secret hiding place and kill their prey with paws. They eat monkeys, gazelle, wild boars, small-sized deer, wild rabbits, birds and domestic animals. They can be found in mountain areas of Yunnan. Other districts of China except the West. They are regarded as an endangered species. [Source: Center of Chinese Academy of Sciences, kepu.net]
Leopards are fierce nocturnal animals and their adaptability is very good.They are very strong and nimble and they can jump as high as 5-6 meters and as far as 12 meters. They are good at climbing trees. Chinese believe they are more daring, fiercer and more uncontrollable than lions and tigers. News about leopards attacking people was often heard in mountain areas in the past. Nowadays, the number of leopards are reduced greatly and they are rarely seen to threaten people's safety.
In the Wolong Natural Reserve in Sichuan, leopards live in mountain broadleaved forests at an altitude of less than 2600 meters. Arboreal in their habits, they often move alone and makes their home in the hedge, bush, or caves in rocks or big trees. Following the footsteps of animals along hillcrests or hillsides, they ambush deer, wild rabbits and boars. Sometimes they feed on and even store wild fowls, monkeys, sambars (cervus unicolor), young giant pandas, and domestic fowls. The mating season of the leopard is uncertain. After about 100 days' pregnancy, a pregnant female leopard gives birth to one to four cubs. On China’s National List for Specially Protected Wild Animals, leopards are listed as a seriously threatened species in danger of extinction.
Bears in China
Malayan sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) have a body length of one meter and a tail that is five centimeters long and weigh 50 kilograms. They live in tropical and sub-tropical forests and get food or catch their prey with their paws or teeth and eat various kinds of vegetation, fruits, insects, honey, bees and small animals. They can be found in the provinces of South China. They are regarded as an endangered species. They are solitary and usually move around in the forest and like to spend their time in trees. Compared with black bears, their action are more nimble.They are fiercer than black bears. When hunted by man, they attack people. [Source: Center of Chinese Academy of Sciences, kepu.net]
The Asiatic black bear (Selenarctos thibetanus) is mainly found in the broadleaved forest or the mixed forest. Solitary in nature, black bears sleep at night as well as in summer afternoons. It has a very acute senses of smell and vision. Its diet includes both vegetarian and animal foods, consisting of green grass, mushrooms, wild fruits and nuts, wild bees, small-size vertebrates. It also feeds on crops in Autumn. After seven to eight months' pregnancy, a female black bear usually gives birth to two cubs On China’s National List for Specially Protected Wild Animals, it is listed as a threatened species.
The "pika-eating bear" (U. a. pruinosus) is mainly found in the broadleaved forest, the bamboo forests, the coniferous forest, mountain shrub lands, and grasslands. It has acute olfactory sensation. Diurnal in nature, the pika-eating bear moves in a slow and awkward manner. Sometimes, they may walk straight. It is also good tree climber and swimmer. Its diet includes both vegetarian and animal foods- they have more animal foods than black bears, consisting of tender twigs, shoots, roots, green grass, seeds, conies, plateau rabbits, birds and insects, and sometimes domestic animals like goats. Its mating season is in June or July. After seven to eight months' pregnancy, a female bear often gives birth to two cubs in each pregnancy. The animal is unique to China, it is a subspecies of Ursus arctos. In the On China’s National List for Specially Protected Wild Animals, it is listed as a threatened species.
Ili Pika — One of the World’s Cutest and Most Endangered Animals
There are believed to be are less than 1,000 Ili pikas in existence. In 2014 one was photographed for the first time since the 1990s. It is native to Xinjiang in western China. CNN reported: Rarer — and some would argue cuter — than the panda, these teddy bear-like creatures living in the Tianshan mountain range in the Xinjiang region of northwestern China, says conservationist Li Weidong. Li discovered the pika, formally known as Ochotona iliensis, in 1983 and named it after his hometown, Ili. In July 2014, Li spotted and photographed the elusive creature for the first time since the early 1990s. He estimates its numbers have declined by almost 70 percent since its discovery. "I discovered the species, and I watched as it became endangered," he told CNN. "If it becomes extinct in front of me, I'll feel so guilty." [Source: Shen Lu and Katie Hunt, CNN, March 25, 2015]
“In 2008, the animal was listed as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. “The mammal, only 20 centimeters long, lives on sloping bare rock faces and feeds on grasses at high elevations. Li says the pika's habitat has been affected by global warming. Due to rising temperatures, glaciers have receded and the altitude of permanent snow has risen in the Tianshan mountains, forcing the pikas to gradually retreat to mountain tops, Li said. Ili pikas were originally found at elevations between 3,200 to 3,400 meters, he said. Now they have retreated to elevations of 4,100 meters. "They have nowhere else to retreat," he added. It's also a solitary animal and is not as vocal as other pika species, so if predators are near, Ili pikas are not able to alert each other, Li said. Disease may also be a factor in its decline.
“In 1983, when Li first came across the mammal, nobody knew what it was. Two years later, Li found another two and it was declared a new species. In the decade following, Li and his colleagues conducted a number of studies, including a census at 14 different sites. However, in 1992, Li left Ili to work with Xinjiang Academy of Environmental Protection in the regional capital Urumqi. No studies were conducted on Ili pika in the following decade. No one saw the pika, either. In 2002 and 2003, Li, with a team of volunteers, conducted a fresh census. Despite spending 37 days searching the mountains for the pikas on seven separate trips, they came up empty handed.
“However, by analyzing droppings and snow tracks, Li, along with Arizona State University biologist Andrew Smith, was able to conclude that the Ili pika population had seen a dramatic decline. Together they calculated that there might be 2,000 mature animals, down from 2,900 in the early 1990s. The research, published in 2005, recommended that the animal should be listed as endangered.
“In 2007, Li retired early to throw himself into searching for the pika. In 2014, he organized a group of 20 volunteers to conduct another survey with infrared cameras. This time, on the second day of the field trip, they finally spotted a pika, who jumped and stepped over Li's feet while he was trying to photograph it. The volunteers dubbed it a "magic rabbit." They concluded that there were fewer than 1,000 Ili pikas, said Li. "This tiny species could be extinct any time," he said. "They don't exist in the sites where they used to be anymore."
Chinese Wildlife Protection Plan
In October 2010, Jonathan Watts wrote in The Guardian, “China unveiled its most ambitious conservation plan in a generation, ahead of the opening of a crucial in biodiversity conference. Foreign supporters say the move will put China at the forefront of global efforts to reverse habitat and species decline. But critics have warned that the good intentions, as with many of the proposals at the conference are likely to be outweighed by economic interests. They also allege the plans are so domestically focused they will do little to halt the over-consumption and illegal trade of scarce species. [Source: Jonathan Watts, The Guardian, October 18, 2010]
“China's biodiversity action plan designates 52 priority conservation areas, covering 23 percent of the country; it promises state funds for protection; and sets a target of controlling biodiversity loss by 2020. Sichuan, has been the first province to put the plan into action. It has set aside about 930 million yuan ($150 million) and identified five ecological protection areas: one links to existing giant panda reserves, another restores an area damaged by industry, two conserve semi-tropical flora and fauna, and another offsets the impact of dams. The national plan, which builds on China's existing 2,500 nature reserves, has been praised by foreign conservationists.”
"These are solid commitments. If China can implement this plan systematically, then they will be managing better than any other country," said Matthew Durnin, lead scientist in north Asia for the US group Nature Conservancy, which has advised the drafters of the new strategy. Ouyang Zhiyun, vice president of the Ecological Society of China, said moves were also afoot to revise wildlife protection laws and ramp up "ecological transfer funds" that reward counties for safeguarding areas that sequester carbon, conserve soil and biodiversity. This year the government has budgeted 30bn yuan for such environmental service payments, up from 12bn yuan last year. Gretchen Daily, associate professor at Stanford University, claimed China went further than any other country in embedding "natural capital" into decision making.”
“But some conservationists have warned that poor enforcement often undermines such initiatives. "Sometimes the laws are not well implemented so the destruction goes unpunished," said Yan Xie, of the Wildlife Conservation Society. "China has done a great deal, but we cannot be optimistic about biodiversity conservation while the underlying problems remain of habitat loss, pollution, overuse of pesticides and over consumption."
Image Sources: Kostich; Wild Alliance; AAPA; Tooter for Kids; China Science Academy; Environmental News, CNTO
Text Sources: New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Times of London, National Geographic, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, Lonely Planet Guides, Compton’s Encyclopedia and various books and other publications.
Last updated July 2022