TIBETAN ETIQUETTE AND CUSTOMS

TIBETAN ETIQUETTE

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Khatang

Tibetans are very polite and can be exceedingly courteous and have rules governing their relationships. For example, polite language is widely used in Tibet. Tibetans use it when they are addressing seniors, people with higher social status or people of the same age and same status. If they call someone, they add 'la' after the name to show their respect. [Source: Chloe Xin, Tibetravel.org]

In your dealings with both Tibetans and Chinese try make sure no one loses face, looks bad or is wronged or forced to back down in front of others. Negotiations, persistent and patience often achieve more than anger and confrontation. Tibetans pray and smile a lot. Some Tibetan children are fascinated by the hairy arms of Western males and like to rub their heads in the hair. Other Tibetans aren’t so fond of foreigners — the Tibetan kingdom was closed to outsiders after all for a thousand years — and sometimes they throw rocks at them. Instead of saying grace before a meal some Tibetans dip their forth finger into their tea and flick the droplets in the four directions.

Do’s in Tibet: 1) Always add a "La" after one's name to show your respect. 2) If you are presenting a khata to a statue or a high lama, raise the khata above your shoulders and bow. When you receive a khata, it is proper to accept it with both your hands. 3) When receiving a present, always take it in both hands; when presenting a present, always bow with hands holding the present high above the head. 4) Smile and bow to guests when seeing them off. 5) When offering tea, wine, or tobacco to the guests, always hold the product level with both hands. [Source: chinaculture.org, Chinadaily.com.cn, Ministry of Culture, P.R.China]

Tibetan Greetings

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Khatang offering

When Tibetans meet, they stretch out their arms with their palms turned up, and bow to each other. They do not touch each other's shoulder. To show respect, one person nods his head and sticks his tongue out. The other nods and smiles. When two people meet for the first time, one gives the other a khata. This is a long, narrow strip of white or light blue silk that is a sign of respect. It is held in both palms while bowing. When you walk on the road, you should not cross in front of other people and, when encountering others, you should give way to them out of courtesy.

When Tibetans greet each other, they use long polite words. They add 'la' after the name to show their respect. While everybody is being greeted, the listener must listen carefully without any impatience. Tibetans can be very verbose in saying good bye. In particular, if one person is elderly, they are repeatedly given expressions of good wishes, auspiciousness, safety, and good fortune. Tibetan consists of both honorific and non-honorific languages. Using honorific language with respecters and guests shows respect.

If a Tibetan encounters a friend or an acquaintance, he removes his hat and bows while holding his hat in front of his chest. However, if he meets an official, a senior, or a highly respected person, he should lower his hat as much as possible when he bows. The other person should show exactly the same courtesy in return. Although this custom is fading, it is still regularly used. Don't someone on the head. [Source: Chloe Xin, Tibetravel.org, June 3, 2014 ]

Khatas (also called khatags and hadas) are white scarves that are presented to holy images or important people and as a greeting gesture and sign of respect. Tibetans greet one another by exchanging khatas. Scarfs are also given as good will or welcoming gesture to potential friends or guests. If you receive a scarf hold the scarf out with both hands, palms turned face up. You are expected to keep wearing the scarf until after you leave. More on Khatas, See Below

Tibetan Gestures

Don't be alarmed if a Tibetan man sticks out his tongue when he meets you for the first time — it’s a greeting. Tibetans used to believe that people with black tongues intended to poison somebody, and that devils had green tongues. By sticking out his tongue a man is showing you that he isn't planning to poison you and he isn’t a devil. Don't greet Tibetans this way if you have been chewing licorice or sucking on green candy.

Some Tibetans greet one another by touching foreheads. Others gesture hello to strangers by opening their hands at waist level. This form of greeting dates back to a period of time when it was important to show a person you were meeting that you weren't concealing any weapons. When Tibetans families are reunited after being apart for a long time often there are no emotional hugs or tear of joy, instead prayerful bows and murmured words of greeting are exchanged.♣

Don’t point. In some areas in Tibet places with a Tibetan population, pointing can be seen as a rude gesture. Instead of using your fingers to point at a person or object, the customary gesture is to use your full hand with your palm facing up and your fingers flat.

Tibetan often indicate directions with their lips. The most common hitchhiking gesture is sticking out one or two fingers towards the ground and waving them up and down.

Buddhist Customs

Always walk clockwise around Buddhist monuments, keeping the religious landmarks to your right. This is true with shrines, stupas, Mani (prayer) stones, and prayer wheels. However, if you visit a Bon monastery, then walk counterclockwise! The Buddhist practice of circling stupas and religion sites is believed to have been derived from cults that circled solar temples. Although the monks remove their shoes upon entering a chamber, it is acceptable to enter a chamber without removing your shoes. Entering a monastery during a chanting session is permissible. Sit or stand in the rear, with no loud and irreverent conversation. Also, it is considered proper etiquette to offer some money or butter fuel while visiting a monastery

Don't walk in front of praying people. Don’t take photos during prayers or meditation sessions. Don’t use a flash. As a rule don’t take photos unless you are sure it is okay. Taking photographs of Buddhist statues or images is considered to be sacrilegious. People should have their arms and legs covered and remove their hats when they enter a temple. Wearing improper attire — such as men with no shirts or women in short skirts — in a religious shrine is also considered disrespectful. There are rules that people who have ingested alcohol or garlic are not allowed in temples because such things are said to disturb the human mind. Some temples however allow smoking because Buddhism does not directly ban smoking. Although smoking is not banned and sometimes you see monks lighting up the temples hope that smokers will voluntarily refrain from smoking.

Buddha images are sacred objects and one should not pose in front of them or point their feet at them. When sitting down many local people employ the “mermaid pose” to keep both feet pointed towards the rear. Photographing Buddha images is considered disrespectful, but again, is tolerated from foreign tourists. The Tibetans have niches in their homes for keeping Buddha statues. Never do anything disrespectful here. Most people wear a metal amulet box, about the size of a cigarette case, on the breast, and turn prayer wheels.

In Tibet people must are expected to make a detour from left to right when passing religious facilities such as temples, piles of Mani stones, and pagodas. And people are not allowed to cross Buddhist ceremonial implements and braziers. It is forbidden to turn prayer wheels in the wrong direction — counter-clockwise.

Buddhist Monastery Customs in Tibet

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women praying
When you pay a visit to a monastery, remove your hat as entering the temple. Generally, it is not necessary to remove your shoes, even though monks do that. Tourists are allowed to come inside while monks are chanting. If you do so sit or stand in the rear, and walk clockwise around the room — unless it's a Bon monastery, in which case walk counterclockwise. [Source: Chloe Xin, Tibetravel.org, June 3, 2014 ]

Do not talk loudly or engage in irreverent conversation. Do not photograph anything inside without permission (photography outside is okay). Don't touch the murals, butter sculpture, or other things you see displayed. Do not sit with the soles of your feet facing the altar or any other sacred object or person. It would be a nice gesture to add some money to the little piles of cash you see around, but it's not required.

If you have purchased butter or oil as an offering, spoon it into the lamps yourself. You may follow the lead of other pilgrims in bowing to various shrines, but if your heart isn't in it then it's quite acceptable not to. In general, it's okay to wander around the building, and you can go to the roof or enter any room that's not locked — however you should stringently avoid entering chambers on the roof of the monastery where monks may be in retreat. Don't worry a lot about committing faux pas in a monastery, because if you're about to do something wrong, and there's someone around, then they will stop you. Tibetans are generally very good natured and will not take offense.

Praying is done by prostrating oneself or bowing with hands clasped to the forehead from a standing or seated position in front of an image of Buddha or other religious object or image . Prayers are often made after tossing a coin or banknote into an offering box and leaving an offering of yak butter, holy water or something else. Many people visit different altars, leaving burning incense and praying at each one. Others bow at the altar and sprinkle water, a symbol of life. In big temples money can be left in a donation boxes near the entrance. If there is no donation box. You can leave the money on the floor.

When Tibetans worship the Buddha at stupas or temples, they often prostrate themselves. Devoutly, they raise their hands together high above their heads, take one step forward, lower their hands to the height of their forehead, take another step forward, lower their hands before their chest and take a third step forward. Then they kneel down and stretch themselves out upon the ground. After arising, they repeat this process. While they are performing prostrations, they chant sacred words, usually: Om Mani Padme Hum. Many pilgrims spend several years traveling from other provinces to Tibet performing prostrations each and every step of the way. Even though some people have died while on the road, it is never considered a pity as having traveled toward Tibet in this manner is a lifelong honor.

Tibetan Home Customs

When acting as hosts, Tibetans generally allow guests to go first, whether it be walking or talking. People must sit cross-legged as it is very rude to let the sole of your shoes or feet point towards other people. Don’t pour drinks for yourself. The lady of the house or one of the family's children generally pours a bowl of yak butter tea for the guest. The guest must wait quietly until the host carries and presents the bowl of tea with both hands and the guest takes the tea from the host in the same manner. Then, the guest can enjoy the tea and conversation. As a polite guest, one does not empty his bowl as a never empty bowl signifies lasting abundance. The host adds more tea to your bowl to ensure that it is never empty. [Source: Chloe Xin, Tibetravel.org]

If you have a chance to visit a local family, let the oldest people go first when you walk together with them. Do not touch the heads of children with your hands. When the host hands you something, for example a cup of wine, hold it with both hands to show your respect. Do not drink wine fast, otherwise the host will give you more wine until you are drunk. Bring some small gifts like pens, pencils or candies. Tibetan children like them very much.

People should offer tea, alcohol, and cigarettes with both hands and their fingers should not be put into cups or bowls. People should bow and bend their knees with smiles on their faces when welcoming visitors and seeing visitors off. People should pick up a gift with both hands and give a gift by bending their bodies with hands over heads.

When drinking butter tea, guests should not take cups by themselves until the host holds the tea in front of them. After taking his first cup a guest should dip some alcohol on their third finger and flip the alcohol in the air three times when toasting. This indicates toasting towards heaven, earth and their ancestors, and the guests should sip a little alcohol while the host replenishes the cup. This is repeated for three times and on the fourth time, the guest must drink up.

Bowls with cracks or breaches should not be used to serve dishes or tea for guests. If you take some barley wine or butter tea to a Tibetan family as presents when you visit a home, the Tibetans may give something else in return or leave some of your present to you. This doesn’t mean they don’t like your presents, it's just their custom.

Social Customs in Tibet

When Tibetans visit relatives, the visitor usually carries a basket filled with gifts on his or her back. The baskets are covered with a cloth so no one can see what is inside. In addition, the visitor always takes a thermos flask of buttered tea and a plastic bucket of barley beer. These two items are indispensable. [Source: Chinatravel.com chinatravel.com \=/]

When a guest arrives, the host and hostess greet them with the words, "ah, you're welcome here." Then they begin to chat while drinking the tea and barley beer that the guest brought. After 2 or 3 hours of chatting, the guest will ask the host to accept the gifts in the basket. The host won't take all the gifts, but will leave something like food or eggs for the guest to take back. This is because taking all the gifts would spoil a person's good and modest name. What's more, the host will put something new in the basket in return, something inexpensive such as fresh cabbage, fresh fruits, or clothes for the children. The host will take great care to remember what has been received, so that gifts of similar value can be taken on a return visit at a later time.

According to traditional customs, when guests visit a Tibetan's home, the men are always seated on the first seat on the right, which is called the "guest seat," and women are sat on the first seat on the left, which is called "kitchen range." During the holidays, guests often stay very late.

Tibetan Eating Customs

Tibetan people are expected to eat and drink quietly and not eat too much in one bite. When eating tsampa—a staple food of Tibetan people made from parched barley— place some flour with salted butter tea in a bowl, rotate the bowl with the left hand and mix the food with your fingers of your right hand. Then roll it into small lumps and squeeze it into your mouth with your fingers.

Tibetans sometimes use silver or high-quality porcelain dinner wares to serve dishes to guests, while the most common ones are wooden. Tibetan cuisine is traditionally served with bamboo chopsticks, in contrast to other Himalayan cuisines, which are eaten by hand. Small soup bowls are also used. Rich Tibetans like to use bowls of gold and silver.

At home Tibetans usually sit cross-legged on the floor while eating with their hands. In rural areas, sometimes flies buzz around the food. Some Tibetan eat by passing around food and a hunting knife from hand to hand. In some Himalayan cultures, men and women eat the same food but it is prepared differently for each sex. What is good for a man is judged unfit for woman and visa versa.

If you are invited into a home, remember that it is considered rude to ask for tea or food directly. You must wait to be offered food. Additionally, it is considered rude to request seconds. If there is additional food, you are offered food. If you are in a Sherpa home, you must decline the first offer of food, regardless of how hungry you are. To do otherwise is to insult your hosts. Informal social rules denote that is appropriate to refuse three times and accept on the fourth time. Use only the fingers of your RIGHT hand when touching food. If you are served the tail of a white sheep, it means that they are honoring you as the guest of honor. [Source: Catherine Go, tibetravel.org]

In Tibet, eating the meat of donkeys, horses and dogs is an absolute taboo. Some regions also do not eat fish. Otherwise, many Tibetans eat a lot of meat, particularly yak meat. This a bit surprising in that Buddhism discourages the killing of animals and Buddhists are encouraged to be vegetarians. One reason Tibetans eat a lot of meat is that there is not much land that is good for agriculture on the Tibetan plateau. Grazing land for animals such as yaks and sheep is more plentiful.

Tibetan Drinking Customs and Toasts

When toasting to male guests, Tibetans tend to use a dock-glass or big bowl; for female guests, they always usually use a small can or bowl. When drinking tea, the guests should wait for the cup to be offered to them before drinking; otherwise, they will be considered disrespectful. According to the Tibetan custom, butter tea is drunk in separate sips, and after each sip the host refills the bowl to the brim. Thus, the guest never drains his bowl; rather, it is constantly topped off. If the visitor does not wish to drink, the best thing to do is leave the tea untouched until the time comes to leave and then drain the bowl. In this way etiquette is observed and the host will not be offended. Butter tea is also used for eating tsampa by pouring onto it, or dipping the tsampa into it, and mixing well.

When Tibetans offer guests chang (wine or beer made of highland barley), they fill their glasses or cups and offer them to the guests. The guests should take the cup in both hands, then raise the glass with the right hand, and, using the third finger of the left hand, dip into the liquid lightly and flick to the sky. That means heavenly-mindedness. Guests should then flick a second and third time, which means terra-respectfulness and Buddha-respectfulness respectively. Such a kind of traditional custom tells people the derivation of Chang is connected nearly with the benefaction of the sky, the terra, and Buddha. So before drinking, people should toast the deity.

There is a custom to follow when drinking. The host takes the first sip of his wine and then drinks it down. When it's the guest's turn, first, he or she should drink a little and allow the host to fill it back up. Then the guest drinks a little again and the host fills it up once more, and so on. When the glass is filled the fourth times, the guest downs it all; only in this way will the host feel respected. The more the guest drinks, the much happier the host will be because of his or her excellent wine brewing.

Drinking in Tibet can have many rules. One concerns a ritual performed by guests at another’s house. The host first pours some chang.. The guest must dip his finger in the chang and flick some away. This is done three times to represent respect for the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha. The cup is then refilled two more times and on the last time it must be emptied or the host is insulted. After this, the host presents a gift of butter tea to the guest, who accepts it without touching the rim of the bowl. The guest then pours a glass for himself, and must finish the glass or be seen as rude. Tea drinking and its accompanying rules have a long and important history tied directly to respecting others. Therefore it is wise to ask advice from your host about the proper etiquette for your specific situation.

During festivals, a guest is offered chang. Before drinking, the guest first lightly dips his third finger in the bowl, and upon withdrawing his finger from the bowl, snaps the liquid on the finger into the air. This should be done three times as a symbol of making a sacrifice to the sky, the earth and one's ancestors. Afterwards, the guest sips only once from the bowl, and then allows the host to fill it. This is also done three times, and the fourth time the guest drinks, he must empty the bowl. After this process is completed, the guest can drink as much as he likes. In fact, he must drink a lot or the host thinks that he is not pleased with the treat or that he is very unfriendly. There is a saying that underlines the importance of this ritual: 'One bowl only will make good friends enemies.' [Source: Chloe Xin, Tibetravel.org]

Taboos and Topics to Avoid in Tibet

Tibetans have a distinct culture and strong religious belief and unique customs and beliefs about etiquette and behavior that go along with them. Political issues are sensitive in Tibet. Avoid talking about sensitive topics like the Dalai Lama and political repression with your tour guide, driver, monks and local people. Listening devises are planted here and there and Chinese spies are about and Tibetans can get into a lot of trouble for saying the wrong thing.

Tibetan practice a kind of funeral called a “sky burial”— the disposition of a corpse by letting it be devoured by vultures. These are very private ceremonies where the family and close loved ones of the deceased pay their last respects. It is considered highly offensive for outsiders to intrude upon a family the time of a sky burial, especially taking pictures.

There are a lot of taboos associated with sky burials. Strangers are not allowed to attend the ceremony as Tibetans believe it could negate the efforts of the ascending souls. So visitors should respect this custom and keep away from such occasions. Family members are also not allowed to be present at the burial site. Despite all this, sky burials intrigue the morbid curiosity of many people. If you have an opportunity to witness a sky burial in Tibet, please respect local custom. Do not get close to the sky burial site and do not take photos, talk or ask any questions on site. Just stay quiet.

Don'ts in Tibet

1) Don't touch somebody’s head or shoulders or point. 2) Don't step across or tread on another person’s clothes. 3) Never step over another person. 4) Don't step across or tread on the tableware. 5) Don't spit or clap your palms behind someone. 6) Don't kill any animals or insects in monasteries. 7) Don't drive away or hurt vultures or eagles, for they are holy birds for Tibetans. [Source: Chloe Xin, Tibetravel.org]

8) Women clothes, especially, women pants and underpants are not supposed to be aired to dry in a place where people pass. 9) Don't whistle or shout or cry inside a house. 10) One is not supposed to sweep the floor or throw out the trash after some family member goes away from home, or guests have just left, or at noon or after the sunset, or on the first day of Tibetan New Year. 11) Non-relatives can not mention the name of the dead face to face with the relatives of the dead. 12) Tasks, such as knitting a sweater or making a carpet, should be finished before the end of the year.

13) One should not go to the house of others at twilight, especially when there are women who's going to give birth to a baby or have just given birth to a baby, or heavily ill people in that house. This especially applies to strangers. 14) Objects are not allowed to be taken outside a home after noon. 15) Two family members are not supposed to go out at the same time if they are heading in opposite directions. They should go outside at different times. 16) Tibetan women can not comb or wash their hair in the evening, neither can they go outside with their hair not being tied up.

17) Don’t walk over ritual objects, braziers or an appliance, utensil or bowl that is used for eating. 18) When you are using a broom and dustpan, you can transfer them from one hand to another. But you must put them on the ground at first, and someone will pick them up from the ground and hand them to you. 19) Don't make a racket when you arrive at a mountain or canyon that is entirely strange to you. 19) Eating donkeys, horses, and dogs are forbidden. In some places fish is also forbidden.

Do not take photos of people without their permission. Some Tibetans still believe that photos can steal their soul and taking pictures of people without their permission is viewed as intrusive. For smooth transmigration in the afterlife Tibetans believe that no trace left of earthliness should be left behind. One reason why Tibetans don’t like their picture taken is that a photo could remain behind after they die. Ask for permission before taking pictures of Tibetan people. Sometimes they will let you if you pay them money or give them a gift like a piece of chocolate.

Khatas: Tibetan Scarves

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Tibetan Farmer Lady

Khatas (also called khatags and hadas) are white scarves that are presented to holy images or important people and as a greeting gesture and sign of respect. If you meet a lama you should present him with a khata. The scarfs can usually be purchased at the temples where the lama resides and placed around the lama's neck when he is greeted. Not presenting a scarf is considered very, very rude, even sinful. People also show respect by placing khatas around pictures of the Dali Lama and others they respect. In some formal situations, Tibetans greet one another by exchanging khatangs. Scarfs are also given as good will or welcoming gesture to potential friends or guests. If you receive a scarf hold the scarf out with both hands, palms turned face up. You are expected to keep wearing the scarf until after you leave.

Khata are usually made of a kind of raw silk that is spun sparsely like a net. Higher qualities ones are made with higher excellent silk. khata is often 3 to 5 chi or 1 to 2 zhang (1 zhang equals about 3.3 meters) in length. “Khata” means silk in Tibetan language. Top grade ones are often knitted with patterns signifying good luck and happiness such as lotus flowers, bottles, umbrellas and conches. They come in various lengths. Longer one can be 10 or 20 meters in length, while shorter ones are 1 or 1.5 meters. The material varies in quality, but generally that is not a concern as long as the khata can express good wishes.

Khatas are usually white. Tibetan people revere the color white, believing it symbolizes purity, auspiciousness, sincerity, kindness, justice and prosperity. White symbolize the pure heart of the giver. Yellow gold khatas are also highly valued. There is a special kind of khata with five colors on: blue, white, yellow, green and red, respectively indicating sky, cloud, land, river and the God in charge of Buddha dharma. Five-colored khata is very valued gift which can be given to the Buddha statues or intimate relatives. According to the Buddhism teachings, five-colored khata represents the clothes of Buddha. Therefore, five-colored khata can only be presented in some special occasions. Multicolored khatas are given with cai jian (swords) as the best ceremonials gifts.

Khatas are often offered by Tibetan Buddhists to Buddhist images or statues, holy sites, lamas or are used in certain rituals. They represent the highest respect to the recipient. On the origin of the khata tradition, there are various stories. Tibetan people used to give animal skins as gifts because there was no silk in Tibet. According to the Bon historical record, people would put sheep wool around their necks during the time of the ninth king, Degong Jayshi, and head for some religious rituals. This tradition was passed down from that moment onwards. People began making scarves and using silk over time. So, the scarf replaced the plain sheep’s wool and people put scarves on the neck and head.

Presenting a Khata

Presenting a khata is very popular in Tibet. It is a traditional practice of respect and hospitality in Tibet, and is appreciated by a host. People present Khata when they visit parents; worship the Buddha; see somebody off; welcome someone home; at weddings, funerals, or celebrations; when having an audience with people of higher status ; and when praying on religious forms. Some Tibetans even take a Khata with them when they go out in case that they meet friends or relatives; and some Tibetans even seal Khata in letters so that they can send their very best wishes. This custom is derived from the ancient practice of adorning deities with clothing and has evolved into a greeting of respect and caring.

Generally, the presenter holds the Khata with both arms stretched out evenly before him, and makes a little bow. The receiver accepts it with both hands held in front of himself (but not overly stretched out) and immediately puts it on around his neck and wears it, because putting it down immediately is very rude. However, when presenting Khata to seniors, the two arms should be raised up above the head. When presenting a Khata to people of the same age or younger, the presenter can tie the Khata directly to their necks.

Presenting a khata shows purity, honesty, sincerity and respect to others. It is done at funeral and at weddings; when receiving or sending off someone, visiting elders or going to temples and monasteries. When Tibetan people go to a temple they present a khata first and then visit the Buddha statues or visit halls. When they decide to leave the temple, they also leave a khata, suggesting that they have physically left, but their hearts are still in the temple. [Source: Chloe Xin, Tibetravel.org]

People offer khata when they visit parents, worship the Buddha, see somebody off, welcome someone home, and greet a visitor and so on. In different circumstances, the meaning a khata transmits is different. In festivals, it shows congratulations or happiness. After a wedding ceremony, it conveys the wish that the newlyweds couple reach old age together. When presenting khata to guests, it implies sincere prayers to God for the blessing and protection. When presenting at a funeral ceremony, it suggests grieving over the dead and comfort for the families of the deceased.

The ways that khata is presented varies from person to person. Most people take the khata with their both hands, lift it up to the same level as the shoulder, reach out their hands, bend over, and pass it to the guest. Make sure that the top of one's head is in the same level with the khata. Only in this way can you express your respect and best wishes. For the receiver, he should receive it with both hands. [Source: Chinatravel.com chinatravel.com \=/]

When offering the khata the presenter makes a little bow and the receiver accepts it with both hands held in front of them and immediately puts it on around his neck and wears it. Sometimes honored guests are greeted Tibetan style with a scarf around the neck. If you are honored in this way you expected to keep wearing the scarf until you leave. When presenting a khata to seniors, you should lift the khata up over your head with your body bent slightly forward and put it in place in front of their seats or feet. For peers or those below you, you can hang the khata around their necks. Some Tibetans even take a khata with them when they go out in case that they meet friends or relatives; and others even seal khata in letters so that they can send their very best wishes. [Source: Chloe Xin, Tibetravel.org]

Image Sources: Purdue University, China National Tourist Office, Nolls China website , Johomap, Tibetan Government in Exile

Text Sources: 1) “Encyclopedia of World Cultures: Russia and Eurasia/ China”, edited by Paul Friedrich and Norma Diamond (C.K.Hall & Company, 1994); 2) Liu Jun, Museum of Nationalities, Central University for Nationalities, Science of China, China virtual museums, Computer Network Information Center of Chinese Academy of Sciences, ~; 3) Ethnic China *\; 4) Chinatravel.com \=/; 5) China.org, the Chinese government news site | New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Times of London, Lonely Planet Guides, Library of Congress, Chinese government, Compton’s Encyclopedia, The Guardian, National Geographic, Smithsonian magazine, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, AFP, Wall Street Journal, The Atlantic Monthly, The Economist, Foreign Policy, Wikipedia, BBC, CNN, and various books, websites and other publications.

Last updated September 2022


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