Barkhor Market (outside Jokhang Temple) is the heart of the Old Town of Lhasa. A crowded and colorful neighborhood of shops, hawkers, teahouses and market stalls, it was designed to accommodate visitors, pilgrims and monks visiting Jokhang Temple. The area between Barkhor and Jokhang Temple is filled with pilgrims with kneepads and elbowpads repeatedly prostrating themselves.
Barkhor is a neighborhood of ancient streets and a public square surrounding Jokhang Temple in the old area of Lhasa. The oldest street appeared about 1,300 years ago after Jokhang Temple was built in 647, attracting thousands of Buddhist pilgrims. The streets are full of religious atmosphere and show the original Lhasa. Shops offer prayer wheels, chubas (traditional Tibetan clothing), Tibetan knives and religious articles for sale. Walking in a clockwise direction along the street is recommended. Because of many lanes there, it is better not stay too late in the street.
Barkhor is usually busy and bustling with activity. Vendors sell pictures of the Dali Lama that were forbidden not long ago, storytellers and draw crowds, entertainers, fortunetellers read faces, and old women in black robes and rainbow-colored aprons twirl prayer wheels. Items on sale include antiques, silver, pewter, semiprecious stones, knives, swords, saddles, horse harnesses, whips, carpets, Buddhist prayer wheels, and heavy Tibetan jewelry with turquoise and coral, pigs feet, frozen ducks, peaches and plums, bowls of Sichuan-style bean jelly noodles, eggplants, chili peppers and Chinese string beans.
See Separate Article on POTALA PALACE
Living in Barkhor
Xinhua reported: As the first beam of morning sunlight hits the tops of the flagpoles in front of Lhasa's Jokhang Temple, Drolma Lhamo begins her daily ritual walk along Barkhor Street. Strolling clockwise along the street, which encircles the temple in the heart of historic Lhasa, has long been a regular religious practice by Tibetan Buddhists. [Source: Xinhua, May 8, 2011]
“For Drolma Lhamo, the street has changed considerably since the 79-year-old first began walking there with her mother as a child. Stone pavement has covered a previously barren earth road, and street lamps now light the street's dark and narrow side alleys. Signs hanging in front of stores are written in a mix of Tibetan, Chinese and English. However, in front of the 1,300-year-old Jokhang Temple, pilgrims are kneeling to the ground and praying in much the same way they did centuries ago.
“Drolma Lhamo was born and raised in a traditional-style courtyard located on one of the 35 labyrinthine lanes leading to Barkhor Street. This area used to be a major residential district in old Lhasa. "When I was a child, the courtyard was larger, but the buildings were also much more shabby, with mud walls and rough wood pillars. There was no electricity and we shared a well in the yard," she recalls."I remember the courtyard was owned by a temple and the families living here rented rooms from them." Today, the three-floor buildings enclosing the courtyard are gleaming with windows framed by black and yellow trim. Some families have grown brightly-colored flowers on the balconies facing the yard.
“In 1994, every home in the courtyard was equipped with electricity and tap water access. Although there used to be just one public bathroom for the entire courtyard, there is now a bathroom on every floor of every building. Many of the courtyards around Barkhor Street have undergone similar renovations since 1979. Last year, the local government decided to restore and rebuild 56 of the most well-known courtyards. However, even these refurbished homes cannot compete with the newly-built modern apartments in the city's younger areas. "Most of my old neighbors have moved out. At least half of the neighbors now are small-business owners and migrant workers," Drolma Lhamo says. She doesn't want to leave the area, even though her children keep asking her about it. "I'm used to the life here. It's really convenient for me to do my ritual walk," she says.”
“Although Barkhor Street is a very sacred place for Tibetan Buddhists, it also has a worldly aspect. It has been the commercial center of Lhasa for centuries. When the sun hits its peak at mid-day, the street is packed with traditionally-dressed shoppers from the countryside and tourists wearing fashionable coats and sunglasses. In Drolma Lhamo's memory, horses carrying bags of black tea from neighboring Yunnan Province were a frequent sight on Barkhor Street in the 1930s and 1940s. The horses have completely disappeared, now that Tibet is linked with the rest of China by planes, trains and automobiles.”
Businesses and Shops in Barkhor
Xinhua reported: Small stores selling daily necessities have been replaced by souvenir and antique shops, galleries, restaurants and cafes.Tourism has boomed since the 1980s; about 6.85 million people visited Tibet last year. Ratna Kumar Tuladar's shop remains in the same place where his grandfather opened his shop in 1925. The business itself, however, has changed a lot. His grandfather sold Nepali food, clothes and spices, whereas Tuladar sells Buddha statues and Nepali jewelry. His grandfather exported Tibetan wool to Kathmandu; Tuladar sends clothes and porcelain made in eastern Chinese provinces. "Barkhor Street has changed a lot since I arrived here to take over the shop 26 years ago," Tuladar says. [Source: Xinhua, May 8, 2011]
He no longer needs to wait for a month or more to receive goods from Kathmandu by horseback. It takes just one or two days by highway. "Decades ago, there were only Tibetans and a few Nepali running businesses on Barkhor Street. Now, we have people from everywhere. Tibetans, Muslims and Han people," he says. The competition is also much heavier than it was during his grandfather's time. "Decades ago, profits accounted for 50 to 60 percent of total revenues, but now only account for 10 to 20 percent," Tuladar says. However, Tuladar wants to carry on the family business and even plans to open a bigger shop to sell Nepali artwork in Beijing. "The market potential is still big," he says.
“Compared with Tuladar, Drugla is a newcomer on Barkhor Street. She left her hometown of Dege in neighboring Sichuan Province in 1987 and sold antique jewelry collected from households in the countryside. At first, her stall was a simple blanket spread out on the ground, but now she has her own covered booth. "My clients were mainly foreign tourists 20 years ago, but now, a majority of them come from other areas of China," she says. She admits that antiques are very rare now, and her goods are mainly new jewelry made in Nepal or the coastal regions of China. "Small business, thin profits," Drugla complains. "The booth rent is high."
“However, she has obtained a permanent residence certificate in Lhasa and bought a small apartment there. She plans to send her son to a high school outside of Tibet, with eventual plans for college. "I would like him to have a good education and find a stable job, since I haven't been able to," she says. The strong afternoon sun makes her squint in her westward-facing booth. She wears a large hat and sits with her back to passersby to shield herself from the sun.
“Not far away from Drugla's booth, Li Ou complains about a lack of sunshine inside her small jewelry shop, located deep in one of the street's side alleys. On her worktable, there are boxes of gems of varying qualities and colors. She designs all the jewelry in the shop herself. "Tibet inspires me. People here have a long tradition of making beautiful designs and are good at picking out different colors of stones and gems," she says. In her hands, a piece of iron from an old saddle found in the home of a nomad can become a bracelet.
“Li arrived in Lhasa six years ago after graduating from a fine arts college in Sichuan. After taking several jobs, including a position as an assistant in an art gallery, she opened her own shop last year. On Barkhor Street, there are dozens of young people from outside of Tibet, just like Li. They are largely satisfied with their small businesses and simple jobs, and spend a lot of time soaking up the sun in front of the temple or chatting in teahouses. "Running the shop is done for my own survival, rather than to make more money. I want to learn more about Buddhism and art in Tibet, create my designs and live a simple life," Li says.
Jokhang Temple (on Barkhor Square in central Lhasa) is the most important shrine in Lhasa and regarded by many as the holiest place in Tibet. Originally constructed in A.D. 647 to commemorate the marriage of a Chinese princess to a Tibetan king, this four-story temple-monastery covers over 25,000 square meters and incorporates architectural styles of India and Nepal. The roofs are covered with gilded bronze tiles; numerous small chapels house relics and statues; and a life-size gilded statue of Buddha as a young man occupies the holiest shrine.
For centuries Jokhang Temple was the spiritual retreat for the Dalai Lamas. Outside its walls of this temple, where pilgrims spin prayer wheels as they perform one of three Tibetan koras, or sacred circuits. Built in Tang Dynasty (618-906)-style architecture, Jokhang Temple is a four-story timber complex. A statue of Sakyamuni at age 10 is one of only three statues designed by Sakyamuni himself.
The Jokhang Monastery, known as Da Zhao Si in Chinese, according to Beijing, is symbol of unity between the Tibetan and Han peoples.When Tibetan Tubo King Songtsan Gambo married Tang Dynasty (618-907) Princess Wencheng in 641 and the Nepalese Princess Khridzun, he built two monasteries respectively for them — the Ramoche Monastery to house the statue of Sakyamuni (which equals the size of the Buddha when he was 12 years old) brought by Princess Wencheng, and the Jokhang Monastery to house the statue of Sakyamuni (which equals the size of the Buddha when he was 8 years old) brought by Princess Khridzun.
The temple used to be called Tsulag Khang ("House of Wisdom"), but it is now known as Jokhang ("House of the Buddha"). When the Jokhang Monastery was built, the monastery was named Rosa (Goats Temple), in memory of the goats that carried clay to fill up the lake for the monastery's construction.When Tang Princess Jincheng came to Tubo in the 8th century, she brought the statue of Sakyamuni (which Princess Wencheng brought to Tubo) from the Ramoche Monastery to the Jokhang Monastery; hence, the Jokhang Monastery became the worshipping center. Therefore, Rosa was renamed Lhasa, meaning "Holy Land of Buddha.''
Jokhang Temple is Tibet's first Buddhist temple and is viewed as part of Potala Palace. It is the ultimate pilgrimage destination for Tibetan pilgrims. In 2001 Jokhang was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site as part of the Historic Ensemble of Potala Palace. Admission: 85 yuan; Hours Open: 9:00-6:00pm
History of Jokhang Temple
According to legend, the site for Jokhang Temple was selected by Wen Cheng, a Tang-era Chinese princess who came to Lhasa to marry Songtsan Gambo, the king of the Tibetan Tubo Kingdom and the man credited with bring Buddhism to Tibet. According to UNESCO: ““Building of the Jokhang Temple Monastery began in the reign of Srong-brtsan-sgam-po XXXII in the 7th century CE, during the Tang Dynasty (618-906) in China. This ruler united Tibet and moved his capital to Demon (present-day Lhasa). The Tibetan imperial court eagerly espoused Buddhism when it was introduced, and this process was intensified when Princess Bhikruti of Nepal and Princess Wen Cheng of the Tang Dynasty (618-906) came to Tibet as royal consorts.
“The site of the Temple Monastery was selected, according to legend, when the cart in which Wen Cheng was bringing the statue of Sakyamuni sank into the mud by Wotang Lake. The Princess used divination to identify this as the site of the Dragon Palace, the malign influence of which could only be counteracted by the building of a monastery. The foundation stone was laid in 647 and the foundations were completed within a year.
“In 823 the Tibetan regime and the Tang Dynasty (618-906) entered into an alliance. To commemorate this event a stone was erected outside the monastery, known as the Stone Tablet of Long-Term Unity. The first major reconstruction of the Jokhang Temple Monastery took place in the early 11th century. The Jokhang Buddhist Hall was extensively renovated and the Hall of Buddha Sakyamuni was added to its eastern side. The circumambulatory corridor around the hall was added around 1167, when the mural paintings were restored. Upward curving tiled eaves were added in the early 13th century.
“During the century following the reunification of the Tibetan kingdom by the Sakya Dynasty in the mid-13th century, a number of new developments took place. These included extension of the Hall of Buddha Sakyamuni, construction of a new entrance and the Hall of Buddha Dharmapala, and the introduction of sculptures of Srong-brtsan-sgam-po, Wen Cheng, and Bhikruti Devi. Buddhist halls and golden tiled roofs were added on the third storey on the east, west, and north sides.
“Tsongka Pa founded the reforming Gelugpa School of Tibetan Buddhism in the early 15th century, initiating the Great Prayer Festival. At his instigation part of the inner courtyard of the main Jokhang Hall was roofed. Tibet was formally included in the Chinese domain during the Yuan Dynasty (1279–1368) (1279-1368). In 1642 the 5th Dalai Lama, who had received an Imperial title from the Qing rulers of China, began a project of restoration that was to last thirty years. It was continued during the regency of Sangyetgyatso (1679-1703). The main entrance of the Temple Monastery, the Ten Thousand Buddha Corridor (Qianfolang), the Vendana Path, and the third and fourth storeys of the main Buddhist Hall all date from this period.
Cultural Revolution Violence at Jokhang Temple
During the early part of the Cultural Revolution Jokhang Temple was the site Red Guard factional fighting. The Tibetan activist Woeser wrote: “The Jokhang was occupied by “rebels”. The room facing the street to the left on the third floor was used as their broadcasting station; countless “rebels” were stationed there to defend it (most of them were local Red Guards from the resident committee and the factories, there were also some local enthusiasts and Red Guards from Lhasa Middle School). It is said that this broadcasting station was carrying out fierce propaganda campaigns, which is why on June 7, 1968, the PLA, that was supporting the “conservative faction”, attacked the Jokhang with guns, leaving many casualties."Source: “ Lhasa's ‘Red Guards Graveyard’ and the Tibetan Cultural Revolution Controversy”, Woeser, August – September, 2013, highpeakspureearth.com]
“The “Historical Tibetan Communist Party Records of Major Events” published in 1995, described this event in only one sentence: “Troops of the 6th and 7th Lhasa garrison entered the Jokhang that had been occupied by communal organisations but they were obstructed and it came to a conflict with casualties."
“In fact, during this blood-reeking murder case, 10 people died inside the Jokhang and two were killed in the streets right outside. They were about 20 year old Red Guards from the Hebaling and Banak Shol neighbourhood committees. I heard from people who witnessed the event that back then they could hear the sounds of gunfire: “dadadadada”; and they also heard the broadcasting station giving out the message that “the rebels have been attacked!” The fighting was over very quickly, the number of injured people exceeded those that died; they were randomly thrown onto carriages and transported to the entrance of the Tibetan Hospital."
Architecture of Jokhang
Jokhang is four-story temple-monastery that covers over 25,000 square meters and incorporates architectural styles of India and Nepal. The roofs are covered with gilded bronze tiles; numerous small chapels house relics and statues. According to UNESCO: The Jokhang Temple Monastery was founded by the regime also in the 7th century, in order to promote the Buddhist religion.
“Covering 2.5 hectares in the centre of the old town of Lhasa, it comprises an entrance porch, courtyard and Buddhist hall surrounded by accommodation for monks and storehouses on all four sides. The buildings are constructed of wood and stone and are outstanding examples of the Tibetan Buddhist style, with influences from China, India, and Nepal. They house over 3,000 images of Buddha and other deities and historical figures along with many other treasures and manuscripts. Mural paintings depicting religious and historical scenes cover the walls.
“The Temple Monastery is in the centre of the old town of Lhasa. It comprises essentially an entrance porch, a courtyard and a Buddhist hall, surrounded by accommodation for monks and storehouses on all four sides. The buildings are constructed of wood and stone. The 7th Dalai Lama is reported to have had health problems and he used to come here for a cure.
Rooms and Places in Jokhang Monastery
Jokhang was originally a temple in the shape of a two-story boat. After repeated expansion, the monastery is now a combination of large buildings covering an area of 25,100 square meters. The Hall of Sakyamuni is the most important in the monastery. It enshrines a statue of Sakyamuni, which Tang Dynasty Princess Wencheng brought to Lhasa. The city is called Lhasa, meaning "holy land," because of the statue's presence. The statue attracts an endless flow of worshippers every day. Around the Hall of Sakyamuni are eight low-lying, dark halls where butter lamps flicker in front of Buddha images. These halls were all built during the Tubo Kingdom period.
The southern part of the second floor is the Hall of the Prince of Dharma, which enshrines the statues of Tubo King Songtsan Gambo, Tang Dynasty Princess Wencheng, and Nepalese Princess Bhributi, as well as Tubo Minister Gar Tongtsan's statues that were products of the ancient times.
Between the second and third floors is the Hall of the Bandan Lhamo, a female deity who guards the Jokhang Monastery and Lhasa. Four giant golden tops built during the mid-14th century and the 17th century towers on the top floor. Located in the center of Lhasa City, like a holy bird spreading his wings, they glisten in the sunshine.
Treasures and Sacred Objects in Jokhang Monastery
Sometimes called the "Vatican of Tibetan Buddhism," Jokhang is filled with gold statues, drums and flutes made from human bones, garish murals of heaven and hell, and incense burners filled with sandalwood and cypress leaves. In the corner of one chapel, there is a small stone buffalo that the faithful say miraculously materialized one day. In the shrine of the holiest Tibetan figure, Jowo Shakyamuni, the Precious Lord, the Chinese kept pigs during the Cultural Revolution. Other shrines were spared by direct intervention by Zhou Enlai. Some relics are guarded by monks. Monks at Jokhang complain they are so busy keeping the place maintained for tourists they have no time to study and meditate. The monastery is located in the middle of Barkhor Bazaar.
According to the Dalai Lama, among the many images in the temple was an image of Chenrizi, made of clay in the temple, within which the small wooden statue of the Buddha brought from Nepal was hidden. The image was in the temple for 1300 years, and when Songtsen Gampo died his soul was believed to have entered the small wooden statue. During the Cultural Revolution, the clay image was smashed and the smaller Buddha was given by a Tibetan to the Dalai Lama.
Golden Urn, called Jinbenbaping, which Qing (1644-1911) Emperor Qianlong had cast in the 57th year of his reign (1792) for the reincarnation of the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Erdeni, is enshrined in front of the Zongkapa statue. The urn is 34 centimeters high, and is covered with patterns such as lotus flower petals and plantbranches. Inside the urn are five ivory lots. When the soul boy of the Dalai Lama or the Panchen Erdeni has to be determined, names of the soul boy candidates are written on lots. The urn is then sealed and shaken repeatedly. After this, one lot is drawn out of the urn and the chosen boy houses the soul of the demised Living Buddha.
Pillars and and Sacred Willows at Jokhang Monastery
In front of the Jokhang Monastery is the Princess Willow Tree. Legend has it that when Tang Dynasty Princess Wencheng was married in Tubo, she planted this willow tree. There are also stories that say she planted three other willow trees, respectively at the foot of Potala Palace, in front of the Ramoche Monastery, and at Balangxoi (Black Tent) in the eastern district of the city. Next to the Princess Willow Tree is the Uncle-Nephew Peace Pledge Monument, erected in 822 to mark the alliance between the Tang Dynasty and the Tubo Kingdom.
Two flagstone doring (inscribed pillars) outside the temple, flanking its north and south entrances, are worshiped by Tibetans. The first monument, a 1794 edict known as the "Forever Following Tablet" in Chinese, records advice on hygiene to prevent smallpox. Over the years pieces of it have been chiseled out by Tibetans who believed the doring’s stone had curative powers.
The second, much older , doring is 5.5 meters (18 feet) high with a crown in the shape of a palace and an inscription dated 821 or 822 — recording treaty between the Tibetan king Ralpacan and the Tang Chinese emperor Muzong delineating the boundary between their countries — that reads: “Tibet and China shall abide by the frontiers of which they are now in occupation. All to the east is the country of Great China; and all to the west is, without question, the country of Great Tibet. Henceforth on neither side shall there be waging of war nor seizing of territory. If any person incurs suspicion he shall be arrested; his business shall be inquired into and he shall be escorted back". The pillar is known by various names, including "Uncle and Nephew Alliance Tablet", "Lhasa Alliance Tablet", "Changing Alliance Tablet", "Number One Tablet in Asia" and the "Tang Dynasty-Tubo Peace Alliance Tablet".
Pilgrims at Jokhang Monastery
Barkhor, the market square in central Lhasa, has a walkway for pilgrims to walk around Jokhang Temple. It takes about 20 minutes to make the clockwise circuit. There are four stone sankang (incense burners), two of which are in front of the temple and two in the rear.According to Xinhua: “Among them were grandmothers in traditional robes, middle-aged men coiling their plaits on top of their heads and teenagers wearing jeans. Some of them live just five minutes away, while others have traveled all the way from neighboring provinces. Many of them have been standing in line to enter the temple since before dawn.”
Everyday thousands of pilgrims arrive at dawn to walk clockwise around the temple three times. Pilgrims come from all over Tibet to Jokhang. They include half-naked beggars with matted hair and monks in crimson robes. Some of them have spent years traveling on foot to reach it. They are joined by old ladies with dogs, businessmen with cell phones and Western tourists. There are also monks and armed police.
Many pilgrims circle the temple, prostrating themselves at body length intervals, like a giant inch-worms. So many pilgrims have circled the temple on their hands and knees, that the stones around the temple have a polished finish. They also light yak butter lamps and pray before each of the hundreds of statues within the temple, and kneel, circle and prostrate themselves in front of the shrines and images fond there.
Some pilgrims spin prayer wheels, chant "Om mani padme hum" and place ceremonial scarfs (katak) around the Buddha's neck or touch the image's knee. A walled enclosure in front of the Jokhang, near the Tang Dynasty-Tubo Peace Alliance Tablet, contains the stump of a willow — known as the "Tang Dynstay Willow" or the "Princess Willow" — that is said to have been planted by Princess Wencheng.
According to Xinhua: “Among them were grandmothers in traditional robes, middle-aged men coiling their plaits on top of their heads and teenagers wearing jeans. Some of them live just five minutes away, while others have traveled all the way from neighboring provinces. Many of them have been standing in line to enter the temple since before dawn.”
Ramoche Monastery(600 meters north of Jokhang Temple) is situated in the northwest of Lhasa and covers a total area of 4,000 square meters. This temple is an important cultural relic and historical building used mainly by Tibetan monks to study Mi Zong (a Buddhist sect). Ramoche Monastery is known as Xiao Zhao Si in Chinese. [Source: chinaculture.org, Chinadaily.com.cn, Ministry of Culture, P.R.China]
During the reign of King Songtsan Gambo in the 7th century, Potala Palace, the Jokhang Monastery, and the Ramoche Monastery were built. When Tibetan Tubo King Songtsan Gambo married Tang Dynasty (618-907) Princess Wencheng in 641 and the Nepalese Princess Khridzun, he built two monasteries respectively for them — the Ramoche Monastery to house the statue of Sakyamuni (which equals the size of the Buddha when he was 12 years old) brought by Princess Wencheng, and the Jokhang Monastery to house the statue of Sakyamuni (which equals the size of the Buddha when he was 8 years old) brought by Princess Khridzun. When Tang Princess Jincheng came to Tubo in the 8th century, she brought the statue of Sakyamuni (which Princess Wencheng brought to Tubo) from the Ramoche Monastery to the Jokhang Monastery.
The original building complex has a strong Tang (Han) architecture flavor, for it was first built by Chinese Han architects in the middle of the 7th century during the Tang Dynasty (618-907), when Tang Princess Wencheng took charge of the project and ordered the temple be erected facing east to show her homesickness. The Ramoche Monastery fell into ruins and went through many reconstructions. Only the Buddha palace on the first floor is left in its original state. The present temple is the result of the large restoration in 1986.
The main building in the temple has three stories. The first story includes an atrium, a scripture hall, and a Buddha palace with winding corridors. The third story was the bedroom once reserved for the Dalai Lama. Upon entering the main building, one can see the ten pillars holding some of the remaining Tibetan relics such as the encased lotus flowers, coiling cloud, jewelry, and particular Tibetan characters. The golden peak of the monastery with the Han-style upturned eave can be seen from any direction in Lhasa city. Needless to say, the temple is a wonderful example of the combination of Han and Tibetan architectural styles.
One of the temple's prized artifacts is the life-sized statue of the 12-year-old Sakyamuni, which Princess Wencheng brought from the capital Chang'an (today's Xian in North China's Shaanxi province) of the Tang Dynasty. As one of the precious cultural relics of Tibet, the statue is now placed in the Jokhang Temple, 500 meters south of the Ramoche Monastery. Residing within the Ramoche Monastery is the life-sized statue of the 8-year-old Sakyamuni, which was brought into Tibet by the Nepalese Princess Khridzun, and is regarded as the greatest saint in the Ramoche Monastery.
Norbulinga (on the banks of the Lhasa River two kilometers west of Potala Palace) is the summer palace of the Dalai Lama. Built starting in 1755, it was shelled in 1958 during a Tibetan uprising, defaced in the Cultural Revolution and rebuilt since then. The room filled with white scarves is the one used by the Dalai Lama.
Norbulinga (Norbu Lingka) means "Precious Garden" in Tibetan. Located in the western suburbs of Lhasa, it was once the site of the Dalai Lamas' summer palace, a residence that allowed an escape from the summer heat, while Potala Palace was their winter residence. [Source: chinaculture.org, Chinadaily.com.cn, Ministry of Culture, P.R.China]
Norbulinga was once a place of bathing and rest site for the 7th Dalai Lama, who favored the peacefulness of the area and the banks shaded by many willow trees. He spent much time studying Buddhist texts here. The Qing (1644-1911) minister stationed in Tibet built the first palace here. It was during his lifetime that the tradition of a "summer retreat" began. Since then, each successive Dalai Lama moved to the park during the summer season, and carried out all religious and political affairs from there. The 8th, 13th and 14th Dalai Lamas built their own palaces here too. Continuous expansions in the past 200-odd years have turned it a large scale and Tibetan-style palace complex and garden.
On festivals and holidays, local people in their splendid attire come with food and tents to sing and dance overnight. When the trees turn green, families come here to celebrate the Dzamling Chisang Festival. Setting up tents and camps in the woods or by the river, they sing and dance and drink Qingke barley wine and buttered tea until midnight. Admission: Norbulingka: 60 yuan;
Buildings and Gardens Norbulinga
Norbulingka (treasure garden) consists of a large garden with several palaces, halls, and pavilions on a site covering 36 hectares divided into five sections. Norbulinga Park contains some stands of trees. There are also some chapels built during the rule of the seventh Dalai Lama.
The New Summer Palace, built by the 14th Dalai Lama, is located in the center of the Norbu Lingka. This palace is filled with interesting murals and is definitely the highlight of the Norbu Lingka. Among the green trees stands the palace with carved beams, painted pillars, traditional upturned eaves, and corbel brackets. The building is surrounded by trees, with ponds, terraces, and towers nearby. This elegant palace contains many valuable objects, including gold, silver, jade, antiques, Buddhist artifacts, murals, and luxurious furniture.
In 2000 Norbulinga was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site as part of the Historic Ensemble of Potala Palace. According to UNESCO: Norbulingka, the Dalai Lama's former summer palace constructed in the 18th century, is located on the bank of the Lhasa River about 2 kilometers west of Potala Palace in a lush green environment. It comprises a large garden with four palace complexes and a monastery as well as other halls, and pavilions all integrated into the garden layout to create an exceptional work of art covering 36 hectares. The property is closely linked with religious and political issues, having been a place for contemplation and for signing political agreements.
“The site of Norbulingka was a place with gentle streams, dense and lush forest, birds, and animals known as Lava tsel. The 7th Dalai Lama is reported to have had health problems and he used to come here for a cure. The construction of Norbulingka started in 1751 with the Uya Palace, benefiting from financial assistance from the central government. Successive Dalai Lamas continued building pavilions, palaces, and halls, making it their summer residence, and soon the site became another religious, political, and cultural centre of Tibet, after Potala Palace. The Gesang Palace was built in 1755 and included a court for debates. The Tsoje Palace and the Jensen Palace were built by the 13th Dalai Lama in the 1920s, influenced by his time in Beijing; the Gesang Deje Palace was constructed in 1926. The Tagtan Migyur Palace was built in 1954-56 with support from the Central People's Government. Since the departure of the 14th Dalai Lama in 1959, Norbulingka has been managed first by the Culture Management Group under the Preparatory Committee of the Autonomous Region and later directly by the Cultural Management Committee and Bureau.”
Dalai Lama and Norbulingka
After his enthronement, the 14th (present) Dalai Lama lived and underwent rigorous training at Norbulingka summer palace. He studied Tibetan art and culture, Sanskrit, medicine, and Buddhist philosophy, metaphysics, epistemology and logic. At the age of 24, he was awarded a Geshe Lharampa degree (doctorate in Buddhist philosophy).
During his training, the Dalai Lama lived in seclusion, slept on hard, woolen cushions, had no playmates, ate his meals alone, spent most of time meditating, praying or studying and associated mostly with old men. When he had he free time he liked to fix machines, shoot at his toys with an air rifle and take apart watches, a music box, and other devices. He spent so much time looking at the night sky through a telescope that he concluded, contrary to Tibetan beliefs, that the moon was not lit up from within. On his time at Norbulingka palace, the Dalai Lama wrote, "It was very pleasant there, and I was very happy. I remember everything was fresh, calm and peaceful. There were lots of flowers."
Norbulingka was also where the Dalai Lama launched his dramtic escape from Tibet. In 1959, the he wrote, "the crisis had almost reached Lhasa. I had to leave." In March 1959, 30,000 Tibetans surrounded Summer Palace at Norbulingka, where the Dalai Lama was staying, as 30,000 Chinese soldiers were preparing to move on the palace. Followers of the Dalai Lama were worried he might be kidnaped, imprisoned or even killed. One pro-Beijing lama was stoned to death. The Dalai Lama later wrote he felt like he was between "two volcanoes, each likely to erupt an any moment."
The Dalai Lama decided it was time go. On the night of March 17, after mortar shells had exploded in the palace ground, the Dalai Lama disguised himself as a soldier — donning “unfamiliar trousers and a long black coat” and flung a gun over his shoulder and fled Lhasa with 52 monks in similar disguises who pretended to be on patrol. His golden robe was left on a coach at Potala Palace awaiting his return. Monks and warriors aided the Dalai Lama's escape by staying behind and fighting the Chinese. Tibetans caught helping the Dalai Lama escape, were given long prison sentences and placed in horrible camps, where many starved to death.
Image Sources: Wikimedia Commons, Nolls China Web site; CNTO; Perrochon photo site; Beifan.com; University of Washington; Ohio State University; UNESCO; Wikipedia; Julie Chao photo site
Text Sources: CNTO (China National Tourist Organization), China.org, UNESCO, reports submitted to UNESCO, Wikipedia, Lonely Planet guides, New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, National Geographic, China Daily, Xinhua, Global Times, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Bloomberg, Reuters, Associated Press, AFP, Compton's Encyclopedia and various books and other publications.
Updated in July 2020