EASTER AND EASTER-RELATED HOLIDAYS

EASTER- HOLY WEEK SEASON


Easter procession

According to the BBC: “Easter celebrates Jesus Christ's resurrection from the dead, three days after he was crucified. Easter Sunday is the culmination of Holy Week. According to the BBC: “Easter is the most important Christian festival, and the one celebrated with the greatest joy. The date of Easter changes each year, and several other Christian festivals fix their dates by reference to Easter. Churches are filled with flowers, and there are special hymns and songs. But not all Easter customs are Christian; some, such as the Easter Bunny, are pagan in origin. [Source: July 5, 2011 BBC |::|]

“The Easter story is at the heart of Christianity On Good Friday, Jesus Christ was executed by crucifixion. His body was taken down from the cross, and buried in a cave. The tomb was guarded and an enormous stone was put over the entrance, so that no-one could steal the body. On the following Sunday, some women visited the grave and found that the stone had been moved, and that the tomb was empty. Jesus himself was seen that day, and for days afterwards by many people. His followers realised that God had raised Jesus from the dead. |::|

"Holy Week is the week leading up to Easter, beginning on Palm Sunday, including Maundy Thursday and ending on Holy Saturday. It is the most solemn week of the Christian year. Christians remember the last week of Jesus's life. Pilgrims in Jerusalem enact the Way of Suffering of Jesus at this time." [Source: October 7, 2011 BBC |::|]

Websites and Resources: Christianity Britannica on Christianity britannica.com//Christianity ; History of Christianity history-world.org/jesus_christ ; BBC on Christianity bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/christianity ;Wikipedia article on Christianity Wikipedia ; Religious Tolerance religioustolerance.org/christ.htm ; Christian Answers christiananswers.net ; Christian Classics Ethereal Library www.ccel.org ; Bible: Bible Gateway and the New International Version (NIV) of The Bible biblegateway.com ; King James Version of the Bible gutenberg.org/ebooks

Easter

Easter is held on the First Sunday after the first full moon after the vernal (spring) equinox. It celebrates the resurrection of Christ after his crucifixion, signifying his triumph over death and the promise of eternal life. For both Catholics and Orthodox Christians, Easter is the most important religious holiday of the year. It grew out the Jewish holiday of Passover and the pagan spring festivals.


Resurrection

According to the 7th century English historian Venerable Bede, Easter is named after Easter, a the goddess worshiped by the Anglo-Saxons that may have been honored in festival that took place around the same time as Easter. According to some sources, Christian missionaries from Rome encountered the Saxon holiday while traveling in Germany. In an effort to win converts they incorporated element of Christianity into the festival and brought home elements of the Saxon holiday for their celebration of Christ' resurrection.

James Martin wrote in the Washington Post: “When death and resurrection mix with magical bunnies and chocolate eggs, you get Easter — perhaps the most misunderstood Christian holy day. Yet it is also the most essential; without this holiday, the Christian faith would be meaningless. In the popular mind, Easter was subsumed by Christmas long ago. People don’t spend weeks shopping for Easter gifts, hours writing Easter cards to friends and relatives, or days on end watching “An Easter Story” on TBS. [Source: James Martin, Washington Post, April 18, 2014. Martin is a Jesuit priest and author of “Jesus: A Pilgrimage” |~|]

“Yet Easter is the key event in Christian history. This is not to denigrate the importance of what Christians call the “Incarnation,” the belief that God became human in Jesus, which we celebrate on Christmas. But the Resurrection changes everything: It’s a reminder not just that Jesus rose from the dead but that love is stronger than hatred, that hope is stronger than despair, and that life is stronger than death. More simply, it reminds us that nothing is impossible with God. Choose not to believe in the Resurrection, and Jesus is just another prophet. Believe in the Resurrection, and your whole life changes.” |~|

Timing of Easter

Easter is celebrated on a Sunday between March 22 to April 25th. Fixed by the Nicea Council in A.D. 325m it is always on the first Sunday after the full moon which happens after the 21st of March. If the full moon falls on the March 21st it is celebrated on the following Sunday.

Easter occurs in the Jewish Passover season. The Bible says that Jesus came to Jerusalem to take part in Passover celebrations, implying that it is likely the Last Supper took place during the Passover Seder (dinner). The Bible also says the crucifixion took place before the Jewish Sabbath of Saturday, and the resurrection took place after it. Fixing a date for Easter was an efforts to pick a day which matched up with Passover — which falls in early spring and is set by the lunar calendar but can fall any day of the week — and make that jive with the Jewish Sabbath, which is always on Saturday.

One reason Easter takes place when it does is that the church wanted to pick a date that didn't interfere with Passover. Calculation were initially made using the Julian calendar. By the 12th century the normal ways of predicting the date had gone way wrong. Later dates were fixed with the Gregorian calendar.

Most movable feasts and at least a dozen other important Holidays that takes place before and after Easter — including Shrovetide, Lent, Holy Week, the Ascension, Whit Sunday, Holy Trinity — are all fixed according to the date set for Easter. Thus the accurate fixing of Easter has traditionally been of great importance.


Easter date graphs


Easter, Catholics and Orthodox Christians

Orthodox Easter is celebrated on a different day than Catholic and Protestant Easter. One of the reasons for the split between the Byzantine (Orthodox) Church and the Catholic Church was the controversy over which day Easter should be celebrated on.

The problem arose because the Jewish holiday of Passover falls on the 14th day of a lunar month on the Jewish calendar, which does not always fall on the same day of the week every year. Christians believed that Jesus died on Friday and in turn was resurrected on a Sunday. The Orthodox Byzantine and the Catholic church chose different methods for determining Easter based on predicting the phases of the moon in conjunction with the solar year. Things became even more complicated when the Catholics adopted the Gregorian calendar and the Orthodox Christians stayed with the Julian calendar.

Easter Sunday Mass

The Proper for the Mass on Easter Sunday from the medieval English Sarum Missal: “Officium (Ps. 138 [139]. 5,6). I have risen and I am with you, alleluia; you have placed your hand over me, alleluia; your wisdom has become a thing of wonder, alleluia, alleluia. Psalm (Ps. 138 [139]. 1,2). Lord, you have tested me and you have known me; you knew when I sat down and when I got up again. Glory be to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Spirit, as it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen. [Source: translated from the Latin text printed in the edition of Francis H. Dickinson, London, 1861-83, sourcebooks.fordham.edu]

“Prayer. God, who on this day, having conquered death through your only-begotten Son, reopened the path to eternal life for us: may you, through your prevenient grace, inspire our prayers, and aid us in their fulfillment. Through the same Jesus Christ your Son, our Lord, who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, One God, for ever and ever. Amen. A reading from the Letter of St. Paul to the Corinthians ( I Cor. 5.7-8). Brothers, throw away the old yeast, so that you might be fresh dough, as you are unleavened bread. For Christ our paschal offering is sacrificed. Let us, therefore, celebrate the festival, not with the old yeast, not with the yeast of malice and evil, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth. Gradual (Ps.117 [118]. 24, 1). This is the day the Lord has made: let us rejoice and be happy in it. V. Give thanks to the Lord because he is good: because his mercy endures forever. Alleluia. V (I Cor. 5.7). Christ our paschal offering is sacrificed.

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Stuttgart

“Sequence. A very bright light shines out . . . .From the Gospel according to Mark (Mark 16.1-7). At that time, Mary Magdalene and Mary the wife of James and Salome bought spices so that, coming (to the tomb) they might anoint Jesus. And very early on the first day of the week, they came to the tomb, soon after sunrise. And they were saying to one another, "Who will roll back the stone from the opening of the tomb for us?" And looking up, they saw the stone rolled back. It was a huge stone. And going into the tomb, they saw a young man sitting to the right, dressed in white robes, and they were stupefied. And he said to them, "Don't be frightened; you are looking for Jesus the Nazarene, who was crucified. He is risen, he is not here. Look at the place where they laid him. But go, tell his disciples and Peter, that he goes ahead of you into Galilee. There you will see him, as he told you."

Offertory (Ps. 75 [76].9-10). The earth trembled and lay still when God rose up in judgment, alleluia. Secret. Accept, we beg you, the prayers of your people, and their offerings of sacrifice, so that what has begun in these Easter mysteries may bring us, through your power, to eternal salvation. Through our Lord . . . . Communion (I Cor. 5.8,9). Christ our paschal offering is sacrificed, alleluia. Let us, therefore, celebrate the festival with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth, alleluia, alleluia, alleluia. Postcommunion. Pour out on us, O Lord, the spirit of your charity, so that you may, through your mercy, make of one mind those whom you have filled with your Easter sacraments. Through the Lord Jesus Christ.”

Easter Bunnies and Easter Eggs

Why are eggs and bunnies linked with Easter? Some say it is because eggs and bunnies are associated with rebirth and resurrection. According to legend, Simon of Cyrne, who helped Christ carry the cross, was an egg merchant. Many historians also link rabbits and eggs to pagan symbols of new life. Lilies are also associated with Easter. They too are linked with the resurrection.

Ukrainians have developed Easter egg decorating into a high form of folk art. The custom is believed to date back to pagan times when the Slave worshiped a sun god and dedicated eggs as a symbol of rebirth in the spring. The eggs are called “pysanky” (meaning "to write") in Ukrainian. When blessed by a priest there are regarded as having talismaic powers. People keep them at homes as protection from fire and lightning. Many Ukrainians believe should the custom ever stop, a giant monster will rise up and destroy the earth. Giving Easter eggs as a gifts is an Eastertime tradition. Girls have traditionally given their finest works to boys they liked. The Fabrege eggs were created for the tsars as gifts for family members. [Source: Robert Paul Jordan, National Geographic, April 1972]


Ukrainian Easter eggs

Ukrainian Easter eggs are covered with symbols that have a religious significance. A triangle represents the Holy Trinity. A fish signifies Christ and a cross symbolizes for suffering, death and resurrection. Wheat betokens a bountiful harvest; dots symbolize stars; waves suggest eternity and animals such as deer represent prosperity. An eight-pointed star is the symbol of the ancient Ukrainian sun god. Eggs with roosters or hens on them are sometimes given to childless women in hopes of giving them fertility.

There is nothing in the scriptures about Easter eggs nor a bunny that delivers them. James Martin wrote in the Washington Post: “Easter eggs are an ancient means of representing religious beliefs. Depending on the source, either the custom originated in Mesopotamia with early Christians — who stained eggs red to commemorate the shedding of Christ’s blood — or it began as a symbol of rebirth. Others link the practice to parallels between a hatching bird leaving behind an empty shell and a risen Christ leaving behind the empty tomb. The consumption of eggs on Easter Sunday may also be linked to the conclusion of Lent, a time when, in addition to meat, some Christian cultures avoided eggs and dairy. Despite the candy industry’s attempt to bury Easter under boatloads of chocolate and caramel, many Christians, most notably those from the Eastern Orthodox tradition, still decorate their eggs with religious symbols. Filled with chocolate or not, eggs are heavy with meaning on Easter.” [Source: James Martin, Washington Post, April 18, 2014. Martin is a Jesuit priest and author of “Jesus: A Pilgrimage” |~|]

Alexandra Sifferlin wrote in Time: “The exact origins of the Easter bunny are clouded in mystery. One theory is that the symbol of the rabbit stems from pagan tradition, specifically the festival of Eostre—a goddess of fertility whose animal symbol was a bunny. Rabbits, known for their energetic breeding, have traditionally symbolized fertility. Eggs are also representative of new life, and it’s believed that decorating eggs for Easter dates back to the 13th century. Hundreds of years ago, churches had their congregations abstain from eggs during Lent, allowing them to be consumed again on Easter. According to History.com, in the 19th century Russian high society started exchanging ornately decorated eggs—even jewel encrusted—on Easter...Bunnies aren’t the animal traditionally associated with Easter in every country. Some identify the holiday with other types of animals like foxes or cuckoo birds. [Source: Alexandra Sifferlin, Time, April 1, 2015]


Easter Bunny poastcard from 1900

The Easter Bunny is believed to be of German origin. According to History.com: “According to some sources, the Easter bunny first arrived in America in the 1700s with German immigrants who settled in Pennsylvania and transported their tradition of an egg-laying hare called “Osterhase” or “Oschter Haws.” Their children made nests in which this creature could lay its colored eggs. Eventually, the custom spread across the U.S. and the fabled rabbit’s Easter morning deliveries expanded to include chocolate and other types of candy and gifts, while decorated baskets replaced nests. Additionally, children often left out carrots for the bunny in case he got hungry from all his hopping.”

Easter in Jerusalem

Kristin Romey wrote in National Geographic: “Throngs of pilgrims from many nations converge on Jerusalem at Easter—a potentially volatile mix and a tempting target for terrorists. To ensure safety and keep the peace, Israeli security forces deploy throughout the city, including along the famous Via Dolorosa. “Ethiopian Orthodox pilgrims celebrate Easter atop the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. In a long dispute with Egyptian Copts, Ethiopian monks have occupied a rooftop monastery for more than 200 years to press their claim to a portion of the church. [Source: Kristin Romey, National Geographic, November 28, 2017 ^|^]

At 4:00pm on Good Friday, during Holy Week, thousands of Christians from all over the world rent robes and crosses and parade through the streets of Jerusalem , following the route of Jesus, singing, chanting, reading passages from the bible and stopping at the 14 stations on Via Dolorosa. Sometimes individuals carrying smaller crosses, follow the entire route on their knees. "My faith became gigantic," one pilgrim told National Geographic. "We felt Him walking among us."

Dan Belt wrote in National Geographic, “Christians form all over the world pour in like a conquering horde surging down the Via Dolorosa's narrow streets and ancient alleyways, seeking communion in the cold stones or some glimmer, perhaps, of the agonies Jesus endured in his final hours. Every face on earth seems to float through the streets... every possible combination of eye and hair and skin color, every costume and style of dress, from blue-back African Christians in eye-popping daskikis to pale Finnish Christians dressed as Jesus with a bloody crown of thorns to American Christians in sneakers.

Easter Vigil in the 4th Century

Egeria wrote in the A.D. 380s: “XXXVIII Now, on the next day, the Sabbath, everything that is customary is done at the third hour and also at the sixth; the service at the ninth hour, however, is not held on the Sabbath, but the Paschal vigils are prepared in the great church, the martyrium. The Paschal vigils are kept as with us, with this one addition, that the children when they have been baptised and clothed, and when they issue from the font, are led with the bishop first to the Anastasis. [Source: “Egeria's Description of the Liturgical Year in Jerusalem” based on the translation reproduced in Louis Duchesme's Christian Worship (London, 1923), published online by Michael Fraser, Department of Theology, University of Durham. June 1994, users.ox.ac.uk ]

“2. The bishop enters the rails of the Anastasis, and one hymn is said, then the bishop says a prayer for them, and then he goes with them to the greater church, where, according to custom, all the people are keeping watch. Everything is done there that is customary with us also, and after the oblation has been made, the dismissal takes place. After the dismissal of the vigils has been made in the greater church, they go at once with hymns to the Anastasis, where the passage from the Gospel about the Resurrection is read. Prayer is made, and the bishop again makes the oblation. But everything is done quickly on account of the people, that they should not be delayed any longer, and so the people are dismissed. The dismissal of the vigils takes place on that day at the same hour as with us.

“Now, on the Lord's Day at Easter, after the dismissal of lucernare, that is, at the Anastasis, all the people escort the bishop with hymns to Sion. 5. And, on arriving, hymns suitable to the day and place are said, prayer is made, and the passage from the Gospel is read where the Lord, on the same day, and in the same place where the church now stands in Sion, came in to His disciples when the doors were shut. That is, when one of His disciples, Thomas, was absent, and when he returned and the other Apostles told him that they had seen the Lord, he said: " Except I shall see, I will not believe." When this has been read, prayer is again made, the catechumens and the faithful are blessed, and every one returns to his house late, about the second hour of the night.


Easter Cross procession in Corfu, Greece


Services in the Easter Octave in the 4th Century

Egeria wrote in the A.D. 380s: “XXXIX Moreover, the Paschal days are kept up to a late hour as with us, and the dismissals take place in their order throughout the eight Paschal days, as is the custom everywhere at Easter throughout the Octave. But the adornment (of the churches) and order (of the services) here are the same throughout the Octave of Easter as they are during Epiphany, in the greater church, in the Anastasis, at the Cross, in Eleona, in Bethlehem, as well as in the Lazarium, in fact, everywhere, because these are the Paschal days. [Source: “Egeria's Description of the Liturgical Year in Jerusalem” based on the translation reproduced in Louis Duchesme's Christian Worship (London, 1923), published online by Michael Fraser, Department of Theology, University of Durham. June 1994, users.ox.ac.uk ]

“2. On the first Lord's Day they proceed to the great church, that is, the martyrium, as well as on the second and third weekdays, but always so that after the dismissal has been made at the martyrium, they go to the Anastasis with hymns. On the fourth weekday they proceed to Eleona, on the fifth to the Anastasis, on the sixth to Sion, on the Sabbath before the Cross, but on the Lord's Day, that is, on the Octave, (they proceed) to the great church again, that is, to the martyrium.

“3. Moreover, on the eight Paschal days the bishop goes every day after breakfast up to Eleona with all the clergy, and with all the children who have been baptised, and with a]l who are apotactitae, both men and women, and likewise with all the people who are willing. Hymns are said and prayers are made, both in the church which is on Eleona, wherein is the cave where Jesus was wont to teach His disciples, and also in the Imbomon, that is, in the place whence the Lord ascended into heaven.

“4. And when the psalms have been said and prayer has been made, they come down thence with hymns to the Anastasis at the hour of lucernare. This is done throughout all the eight days.

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Christ leaving the tomb at the Oberammergau passion play in 1900

After Easter in the 4th Century

Egeria wrote in the A.D. 380s: “XL Again, on the Octave of Easter, that is, on the Lord's Day, all the people go up to Eleona with the bishop immediately after the sixth hour. First they sit for awhile in the church which is there, and hymns and antiphons suitable to the day and to the place are said; prayers suitable to the day and to the place are likewise made. Then they go up to the Imbomon with hymns, and the same things are done there as in the former place. And when the time comes, all the people and all the apotactitae escort the bishop with hymns down to the Anastasis, arriving there at the usual hour for lucernare. [Source: “Egeria's Description of the Liturgical Year in Jerusalem” based on the translation reproduced in Louis Duchesme's Christian Worship (London, 1923), published online by Michael Fraser, Department of Theology, University of Durham. June 1994, users.ox.ac.uk ]

“2. So lucernare takes place at the Anastasis and at the Cross, and all the people to a man escort the bishop thence with hymns to Sion. And when they have arrived, hymns suitable to the day and to the place are said there also, and lastly that passage from the Gospel is read where, on the Octave of Easter, the Lord came in where the disciples were, and reproved Thomas because he had been unbelieving. The whole of that lesson is read, with prayer afterwards; both the catechumens and the faithful are blessed, and every one returns to his house as usual, just as on the Lord's Day of Easter, at the second hour of the night.

“XLI Now, from Easter to the fiftieth day, that is, to Pentecost, no one fasts here, not even those who are apotactitae. During these days, as throughout the whole year, the customary things are done at the Anastasis from the first cockcrow until morning, and at the sixth hour and at lucernare likewise. But on the Lord's Days the procession is always to the martyrium, that is, to the great church, according to custom, and they go thence with hymns to the Anastasis. On the fourth and sixth weekdays, as no one fasts during those days, the procession is to Sion, but in the morning; the dismissal is made in its due order. [Source: “Egeria's Description of the Liturgical Year in Jerusalem” based on the translation reproduced in Louis Duchesme's Christian Worship (London, 1923), published online by Michael Fraser, Department of Theology, University of Durham. June 1994, users.ox.ac.uk ]

Ascension Day


Ladder of Divine Ascent

Ascension Day celebrates Jesus's ascension to heaven after he was resurrected on Easter Day. According to Mark 16:9-20: He appeared first to Mary of Magdala. She went and carried the news to his mourning and sorrowful followers, but when she told them that he was alive they did not believe her. Later he appeared to two of the disciples as they were walking into the countryside. They also went and took the news to the others, but again they did not believe that the Lord was alive. [Source: February 4, 2004, BBC |::|]

“Then, when the eleven disciples were at the table. He appeared to them and reproached them because they had not believed those who had seen him after he was raised from the dead. Then he said to them: 'Go forth to every part of the world, and proclaim the good news to the whole creation. Those who believe it and receive baptism will find salvation; those who do not believe will be condemned, Faith will bring with it these miracles: believers will cast out devils in my name and speak in strange tongues; if they handle snakes or drink any deadly poison, they will come to no harm; and the sick on whom they lay their hands will recover.' So after talking with them the Lord Jesus was taken up into heaven, and he took his seat at the right hand of God. Jesus's prophecy in this passage is believed to foreshadow the later events of Pentecost.

Describing the Ascension Festival in Bethlehem in the A.D. 380s, Egeria wrote: “On the fortieth day after Easter, that is, on the fifth weekday — (for all go on the previous day, that is, on the fourth weekday, after the sixth hour to Bethlehem to celebrate the vigils, for the vigils are kept in Bethlehem, in the church wherein is the cave where the Lord was born) — On this fifth weekday, the fortieth day after Easter, the dismissal is celebrated in its due order, so that the priests and the bishop preach, treating of the things suitable to the day and the place, and afterwards every one returns to Jerusalem late. [Source: “Egeria's Description of the Liturgical Year in Jerusalem” based on the translation reproduced in Louis Duchesme's Christian Worship (London, 1923), published online by Michael Fraser, Department of Theology, University of Durham. June 1994, users.ox.ac.uk ]

Ascension Day, Corpus Christi Day, Assumption and the Pentecost

Ascension Day, 40 days after Easter, honors the day Christ rose to heaven. Pentecost, or Whitsunday, 50 days after Easter, honors the coming of the Holy Spirit to the Church with the Apostles. Marking the end of Easter period and regarded as the day of the inception of the church, Pentecost is a Christian adaption of a Jewish holiday that commemorates the day in which the Law was given to Moses on Mt. Sinai.

Trinity Sunday is the Sunday after Whitsunday. It honors the Holy Trinity (Father, Son and Holy Ghost). It comes very late on the liturgical calendar because the unity of Father, Son and Holy Ghost is regarded as the beginning and the end of the entire Christian life. Whitmonday is the day after Whitsunday.

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Pentecost by Kirillo-Belozersk
Corpus Christi Day is two Thursdays after Whitsunday and the Thursday following Trinity Sunday. Celebrating the Eucharist, it is a popular festival marked by the worshipping and procession of the Holy Sacraments. Several towns around he world are famous for their spectacular processions. The procession route is sometimes strewn with foliage or decorated with designs made from dyed sawdust.

The Corpus Christi Day feast dates back to early medieval times when a nun in Liége, Belgium had a strange vision of a moon with a dark object in front it every time she prayed. She didn't understand what the vision meant until Christ came to her and told the dark object represented the lack of a celebration dedicated the presence of Christ in the Eucharist. Official recognition of the holiday by the Catholic church was given in 1246. Later it was decreed that the body of Christ should be part of a solemn procession which takes place on the Thursday following the eighth day of Whitsunday

Sacred Heart is a festival celebrated on the second Friday after Trinity Sunday. It is centered around the idea that Christ’s humanity lives as suggested by the episode during which his heart was pieced after his death on the cross and blood and water flowed from the wound, symbolizing the sacraments, which spring forever from Jesus’s open heart.

Transfiguration, August 6, is when Christ's disciples saw him talking with Moses and Elijah, and his face "did shine as the sun, and his raiment was as white as the light." The Assumption, on August 15, marks the day when the Virgin Mary was bodily taken into heaven, where she rejoins her son. As opposed to Christ who ascended to sky on his own, Mary was taken up by angels. Assumption is from the Latin word “assumere”, “to lift up, to raise.”

Image Sources: Wikimedia, Commons

Text Sources: Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Christian Origins sourcebooks.fordham.edu “World Religions” edited by Geoffrey Parrinder (Facts on File Publications, New York); “ Encyclopedia of the World’s Religions” edited by R.C. Zaehner (Barnes & Noble Books, 1959); King James Version of the Bible, gutenberg.org; New International Version (NIV) of The Bible, biblegateway.com; “Egeria's Description of the Liturgical Year in Jerusalem” users.ox.ac.uk ; Complete Works of Josephus at Christian Classics Ethereal Library (CCEL), translated by William Whiston, ccel.org , Metropolitan Museum of Art metmuseum.org, Frontline, PBS, “Encyclopedia of the World Cultures” edited by David Levinson (G.K. Hall & Company, New York, 1994); National Geographic, New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Smithsonian magazine, Times of London, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, AFP, Lonely Planet Guides, Compton’s Encyclopedia and various books and other publications.

Last updated September 2018


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