Abbot of Watkungtaphao in Tat Hong Waterfall

In Thailand there are 61,416 full-time monks and about 32,000 monasteries. The Sangha (brotherhood of monks) in Thailand consists of about 200,000 monks (full-time and part-time monks) and 85,000 novices at most times of the year. However, these numbers increase during the Buddhist ‘Lent’ to around 300,000 and 100,000 novices. Young boys may become novices at any age, but a man cannot become a monk until he reaches the age of twenty. He can then remain a monk for as long as he wishes, even for just one day. Three months is more usual, although some choose to remain in monkhood for the rest of their lives. [Source: Buddha.net]

In Thervada Buddhism, monkdom is something that all young men go through for a period of time as a kind of maturing and coming of age ritual for the young man and a way for his family to earn merit. Ordination usually takes place when a young man reaches the age of 20. Traditionally Thai women have considered a suitor to be "unripe" if he hasn't spent a portion of his life as a monk. Phra is the honorific title for monks in Thailand.

Many monks who become ordained for their entire lives serve as scholars or teachers, with some specializing in healing, folk magic, fortunetelling and astrology. Thailand's chief Buddhist monk is known as the Supreme Patriarch. Abbots are high ranking monks. They are usually well educated or have some other skill that commands respect. Many are heads of temples. Some run charitable foundations. Many high ranking monks are from the poor Northeast. Monkdom has traditionally been a way for poorer people to advance.

The Sangha in Thailand is broken down into two main Nikayas. The first is the Maha Nikai, and the second is the Thammayut Nikai. The later was formed by King Mongut (Rama IV, who most Westerners know from the “King and I”). This was patterned after an earlier Mon form of monastic discipline, which had been practised by King Mongut before he ascended the Thai throne. Both adhere to the 227 monstic vows but Thammayut is regarded as stricter. For example they eat only once a day—before noon—and must eat only what is in their alms bowl. In addition, they are expected to become proficients in both mediation and scholarship. By contrast Mahanikai eat twice before noon and specialize in either meditation or scholarship. The Thammayut Nikai makes up only about 3 percent of the total Buddhist Sangha in Thailand.

On top of this is the forest monk tradition. Urban monks stress scholarship while forest monks emphasize mediation. Phra Paisan is a modern forest monk. Thomas Fuller wrote in the New York Times: “His life is a portrait of traditional Buddhist asceticism. He lives in a remote part of central Thailand in a stilt house on a lake, connected to the shore by a rickety wooden bridge. He has no furniture, sleeps on the floor and is surrounded by books. He requested that a reporter meet him for an interview at 6 a.m., before he led his fellow monks in prayer, when mist on the lake was still evaporating.”

See Separate Articles Under Theravada Buddhism

Websites and Resources on Buddhism: Buddha Net buddhanet.net/e-learning/basic-guide ; Religious Tolerance Page religioustolerance.org/buddhism ; Wikipedia article Wikipedia ; Internet Sacred Texts Archive sacred-texts.com/bud/index ; Introduction to Buddhism webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/buddhaintro ; Early Buddhist texts, translations, and parallels, SuttaCentral suttacentral.net ; East Asian Buddhist Studies: A Reference Guide, UCLA web.archive.org ; View on Buddhism viewonbuddhism.org ; Tricycle: The Buddhist Review tricycle.org ; BBC - Religion: Buddhism bbc.co.uk/religion ; Buddhist Centre thebuddhistcentre.com; A sketch of the Buddha's Life accesstoinsight.org ; What Was The Buddha Like? by Ven S. Dhammika buddhanet.net ; Jataka Tales (Stories About Buddha) sacred-texts.com ; Illustrated Jataka Tales and Buddhist stories ignca.nic.in/jatak ; Buddhist Tales buddhanet.net ; Arahants, Buddhas and Bodhisattvas by Bhikkhu Bodhi accesstoinsight.org ; Victoria and Albert Museum vam.ac.uk/collections/asia/asia_features/buddhism/index ;

Theravada Buddhism: Readings in Theravada Buddhism, Access to Insight accesstoinsight.org/ ; Readings in Buddhism, Vipassana Research Institute (English, Southeast Asian and Indian Languages) tipitaka.org ; Wikipedia article Wikipedia ; Encyclopædia Britannica britannica.com ; Pali Canon Online palicanon.org ; Vipassanā (Theravada Buddhist Meditation) Wikipedia article Wikipedia ; Pali Canon - Access to Insight accesstoinsight.org ; Forest monk tradition abhayagiri.org/about/thai-forest-tradition ; BBC Theravada Buddhism bbc.co.uk/religion

Somdet Phra Nyanasamvara; Thai Buddhism's Supreme Patriarch

emblem of the Nyanasamvara

The Supreme Patriarch promotes Buddhism and leads the Sangha Supreme Council, which oversees the country's Buddhist monks and novices of all sects. The council's job is to make sure monks follow Buddha's teachings and do not violate the rules set by the council. As the head of the religion, the patriarch has legal authority to oversee different sects of Buddhism. The patriarch is formally appointed by Thailand's king.

Somdet Phra Nyanasamvara (SOM-ded PRA YA-na-SUNG-WORN) was Thailand's Supreme Patriarch from 1989 to his death in 2013. Associated Press reported: “The Supreme Patriarch was a friend of His Holiness Dalai Lama of Tibet, who called the Thai monk "my elder brother." The Dalai Lama paid several visits to Thailand since his first state visit in 1967, and each time he would visit the temple where the Supreme Patriarch resided to have a discussion. [Source: Thanyarat Doksone, Associated Press, October 24, 2013]

The Supreme Patriarch was born Charoen Gajavatra on Oct. 3, 1913, in Thailand's western province of Kanchanaburi, the eldest of the three sons. He was still a boy when his father died, and was raised by his aunt. He became gravely ill as a boy, and his family made a promise to sacred spirits that he would become a monk if he recovered. He did, and he became a novice when he turned 14.

The future Supreme Patriarch moved to Bangkok in 1929 to a well-respected Buddhist temple to continue his religious studies. He returned briefly to his hometown to get ordained and became a monk in 1933. He was named Suvaddhano — "one who prospers well" — by the Supreme Patriarch of the time, and rose through the ranks of the monkhood. In 1956, when King Bhumibol spent 15 days as an ordained monk, the future patriarch taught and supervised him. He served as secretary of the Supreme Patriarch who preceded him, and was appointed the top Buddhist monk in 1989, when he took on the name Somdet Phra Nyanasamvara — "a person of great insight."

Thai Buddhism's Supreme Patriarch Dies At 100

Somdet Phra Nyanasamvara in 2010

In October 2013, Associated Press reported: “Thailand's Supreme Patriarch, who headed the country's order of Buddhist monks for more than two decades, died Thursday. He was 100. Doctors said that Somdet Phra Nyanasamvara (SOM-ded PRA YA-na-SUNG-WORN) died at Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital in Bangkok, where he had been treated since being admitted for an illness more than a decade ago. "(The Supreme Patriarch's) overall condition deteriorated and he passed away at 7:30 p.m. from septicemia," or a severe blood infection, the doctors said in a statement. After he was admitted to the hospital on Feb. 20, 2002, the Supreme Patriarch was able to perform leadership duties for a time, but in 2004, a senior Buddhist monk was appointed to work on his behalf. That monk died earlier this year, raising speculation about who the Supreme Patriarch's successor will be. [Source: Thanyarat Doksone, Associated Press, October 24, 2013]

His successor will be formally appointed by Thailand's King Bhumibol Adulyadej. The permanent secretary of the Prime Minister's Office, Thongthong Chandrangsu, said government offices in Thailand will fly the national flag at half-staff for three days and government officials will wear black outfits for 15 days to mourn the Supreme Patriarch's death.

Lay People, Monks and Etiquette Towards Monks

The relationship between monks and lay people in Theravada Buddhism is very strong. This type of Buddhism could not, in fact, exist in its present form without this interaction. It is a way of mutual support - lay people supply food, medicine, and cloth for robes, and monks give spiritual support, blessings, and teachings. But this is not a tit for that situation. Monks are not allowed to request anything from lay people; and lay people cannot demand anything from the monks. The spirit of it is more in the nature of open-hearted giving.[Source: BBC]

The system works well and is so firmly established in most Theravadan countries that monks are usually amply provided for, Monasteries often have facilities for lay people to stay in retreat. The accommodation is usually basic and one has to abide by Eight Precepts (to abstain from killing, stealing, engaging in sexual activity, unskilful speech, taking intoxicating drink or drugs, eating after midday, wearing adornments, seeking entertainments, and sleeping in soft, luxurious beds). There are numerous ceremonies and commemoration days which lay people celebrate, such as Wesak which marks the birth, enlightenment, and parinibbana (passing away) of the Buddha, and for these events everyone converges on the local temples.

Laymen are expected to eat after, walk behind and seat themselves lower than monks.Do not eat after noon; be mindful about eating or snacking around them. f a monk is sitting, show respect by sitting before starting a conversation. Avoid sitting higher than a monk if you can help it. Never point your feet at any Buddhist while sitting.Only use your right hand when giving or receiving something from a monk.

Women and monks: It is taboo for a woman to touch a monk or his robes or hand something directly to a monk. A woman should never touch or hand a monk something. Even accidentally brushing against their robes requires that they fast and perform a cleansing ritual. Food or donations must be passed to a man first and then on to the monk. Women also should not sit on the back seat of a bus because this is wear monks usually sit. Even the monk's own mother must follow these rules. If a woman does accidently touch a monk’s robes an elaborate purification ritual needs to be performed.

According to Buddha.net: “If a layperson wishes to give something to a particular monk, but is uncertain what he needs, he should make an invitation. Any financial donations should not be to a monk but to the stewards of the monastery, perhaps mentioning if it's for a particular item or for the needs of a certain monk. For items such as travelling expenses, money can be given to an accompanying anagarika (dressed in white) or accompanying layperson, who can then buy tickets, drinks for a journey or anything else that the monk may need at that time. It is quite a good exercise in mindfulness for a layperson to actually consider what items are necessary and offer those rather than money. [Source: buddhanet.net]

Monk Customs in Thailand

Vocabulary used when speaking with a monk is not the same as everyday vocabulary. Monks deserve respect. Depending on the age of the monk different words are used when talking to a monk. 1) "LUANG PHI" means "YOU" with a monk that could be a brother. 2) "LUANG PHO" means "YOU" with a monk that could be a father. 3) "LUANG PU" means "YOU" with an old renowned monk. 4) "LUANG TA" ( often a man that did become a monk when he was quite old ) is less respectful that "LUANG PHO". 5) "LUANG THERA" is a Thai word used for a man being a monk for 10 years. [Source: Thai World View

monk teaching

A boy has to be seven years old at least in order to be ordained ("BANPHACHA" - ) and become a Buddhist novice. A person who has spent a Lent in monkhood is called "THIT" meaning a cultivated person who is mature enough to have a family of his own. Even for monks, the rank and status appear in Buddhist ceremonies. When a group of monks go for their morning alms walk, the monk with the highest rank and age is at the front of the line while the youngest monk is at the end.

See Buddhism

Monk Life in Thailand

The daily routine of the monks in all of Thailand monasteries is pretty much the same. Thai monks wear saffron robes and have shaved or closely cropped hair. Even the king had his head shaved when he was a monk. During their early morning rounds, monks are given beautifully-packaged offerings of rice and vegetables by Thais who bow gently as they present them.

Monks can quit being monks anytime they want. Many boys become monks to pick up Buddhist brownie points, or merit, for themselves and their families. Among the benefits that monks enjoy is being able to travel for free on the buses and trains. Passengers traditionally have given up their seats to the monks in their bid to earn merit.

A hundred years ago, monks handled many of Thailand’s social responsibilities—health, education, moral training. Today, monks explain doctrines on television and radio as well as in temples, take computer classes and make website with records of Buddhist scriptures. Some monasteries have schools, libraries and hospitals. Missionaries have been sent to Malaysia, India, Laos and England.

In 2006, monks were given permission by Thailand’s Religious Affairs Department, to watch the World Cup after it was deemed that the soccer tournament enriched their religious education by exposing them to worldly affairs.

Many Thai fortuntellers and astrologers are Buddhist monks. Their methods include special wheels used in determining names, palm reading and numerology. Monks also sell amulets and make very detailed tattoos that are said to protect and bringing good luck to their wearer.

One of the biggest fortunetellers in Thailand is Hutta Lekajit, a 41-year-old former monk who is the marquee attraction of The Miracle Channel, a satellite station devoted to the supernatural. On a recent evening, Hutta, wearing a pink pinstripe shirt and white leather loafers, welcomed some guests to his office at a media complex on the outskirts of Bangkok. With its mismatched vinyl chairs and desks strewn with computer equipment , the office could have been the home of a tech startup. As half a dozen editors cut and spliced footage of the show in cramped cubicles, Hutta picked through stacks of fan mail and discussed his twice-weekly show, in which mostly poor Thais go on air to tell him about their problems. "People come on my show if bad things are happening to them, like divorces or debt. They get very emotional when they talk about these things. But I help them solve their problems," said Hutta, who smiles frequently and has a baby face that makes him look 10 years younger than he is.

Female Buddhist Monks in Thailand

novice nuns

Buddhist nuns in Thailand can perform all the same duties as monks and live on temple grounds but they are not bound by the vows that monks take. They are required to sit with lay people in temple prayer halls—not with the monks—and must conform to the taboo of not touching a monk or monk’s clothes.

Chatsumarn Kabilsingh, a former academic with the adopted Buddhist name of Dhammananda (“the joy of righteousness”) is something of celebrity in Thailand because she went against Buddhist custom and was ordained as a monk. Ordained monk in Sri Lanka, she took a vow of celibacy, divorced her husband, and moved away from her sons to fulfill her vows and live in accordance with the restriction made on women and male monks.

According to the Thai interpretation of Theravada Buddhist scripture, a woman can only be ordained as a monk if five male and five female monk are present. Since there are no female monks ordinations can not take place. In the 1920s, the Thai social critic Narin Kleung had his daughters ordained as monks. They were immediately arrested, derobed and temporarily jailed. In 1928, female ordination was made illegal.

Those that support the idea of women monks cite Article 38 of the Thai constitution, which states that all citizens should enjoy equal protection under the law regardless of origin, sex or religion.

Famous Monks in Thailand

Senior monks are highly revered. It is not uncommon to see their images adorning walls of businesses or homes or upon ornaments inside of taxi cabs. Famous monks include Somdej Phra Buddhacara Toh Phramarangsi (Somdej Toh), who was based at Wat Rakhang Kositaram in Bangkok. Born in 1776 and ordained as a novice at 13, he was ordained as a monk under the royal sponsorship at Wat Takrai, Phisanuloke province. He was a mentor and teacher of the Khmer language to King Mongkot when he was Crown Prince. A monk of profound wisdom, he was renowned for his sagacity and his witty eloquence. He strictly observed all tenets of itinerant monk hood. He passed away at the age of 85. [Source: mybuddha108.com

Somdej Phra Buddhacara Toh Phramarangsi (Somdej Toh)

Luang Pu Mun Bhuridatto served at Wat Pa Suthawas in Sakon Nakhon province Born in 1870 in Ubon Ratchathani and considered the true and prime leader of all monks dedicated to Anathema practice (Buddhist insight meditation) in Thailand, he was totally committed to the study of Dhamma Buddha's teachings and is still revered and loved by all Thai Buddhists because of his effort in mental development to attain true knowledge. He resided at Wat Baan Nong Pue from 1944 until he passed away at the age of 79. His disciples placed his remains in Wat Pa Suthawas, Sakon Nakhon province.

Phra Bodhiyan Thera (Luang Pu Cha Subhaddha) was based at Wat Nong Pah Pong in Ubon Ratchathani province. Born in 1918 in Ubon Ratchathani, he was a mentor of many foreigners and the founder of Wat Pah Nanachat (International Forest Monastery). His principle Buddhist creed is "One must attain a proper belief and moral conduct first before preaching others." He passed away in 1992 at the age of 74.

Phra Kru Bhavanarangsi (Pleung Rerngvichien) made Wat Yai Chaimongkol in Ayutthaya province into great center of religious life. Born in 1902 in Ayutthaya province and ordained as a monk at the age of 21, he was the prime mover in renovating Wat Yai Chaimongkol. Which was deserted, until official permission was given for it to become an official temple where the monks can reside. The abbot’s personal creed is "when one is alone, be mindful of one's own thoughts; when one is among friends, be mindful of one's words." Phra Subrahmayanthera (Kru Ba Brahmachak) of Wat Phra Buddhabat Tak Pha, Lamphun province was responsible for reviving Wat Phra Buddhabat Takpah which had been deserted for over one thousand years. He was ascetic monk who firmly believed in minimal human comforts. He passed away in 1987. Kru Ba Sri Vichai Sirvichaiyo of Wat Ban Pang, Lamphun province was born in 1878 and was the spiritual leader of over 5,000 true believers and disciples, who were inspired by him to build an 11 kilometer road up to Wat Phrathat Doi Suthep. The road, now known as Kru Ba Srivichai road, he was completed in 5 months and 25 days. He passed away on 20 February 1938.

Phra Kru Vimolkunakorn (Luang Poo Suk) of Wat Pak Klong Makham Thao in Chai Nat province was born in the reign of His Majesty King Rama IV. Ordained at the age of 20, he was was revered as having great spiritual power and was the royal teacher of H.R.H.Krom Luang Chumporn Khet Udomsak. He passed away with the old age in 1917. Phra Rajsangwornbhimon (Luang Pu Toh) of Wat Pradoochimplee in Bangkok practiced Dhutanga (an ascetic practice to remove defilements) and traveled extensively within and outside Thailand. He passed away at the age of 94 and was granted royal funeral rites and ceremonies.

Phra Kru Vimolkunakorn (Luang Poo Suk)

Luang Phor Kasem Khemako of Susarn Trailaksana (Trailaksana Cemetery) at Wat Luang Por Kasem Lampang province was a monk exceptionally dedicated to Vipassana Kammatthana (Buddhist insight meditation). Through the principle of contentment and mental control over the body, he attained the final stage of meditation while seated in front of the funeral pyre. He has liberated himself from defilements and he is full of loving kindness.

Kru Ba Chaiyawongsabattana (Kru Ba Wong) of Wat Phrabat Huai Tom in Lamphun province is revered by the Karen ethnic group in Lamphun province. He is regarded as a pioneer development monk who has led the Karen to do good, behave properly and improve their way of living. Tai Sue Yen Boon (Yen Boon The Chinese Monk) is a Mahayana monk was born in 1920 in Kwang Tong province, China. Ordained first as a novice in Thailand and later as a monk in China, he returned to reside in Thailand in 1947. He passed way in 1983 at the age of 63. Luang Pu Thuad of Wat Chang Hai in Pattani Province was ordained as a novice at the age 15 and as a monk at the required age of 20 at Nakorn Si Thammarat province. He made a pilgrimage to Ayutthaya where he resided at Wat Ratchanuvas. In his old age he returned to the south to resided at Wat Patdhasingh Banpot Pakoh.

Phra Nirodharangsi Kambnira Pannacara (Luang Pu Desaka) of Wat Hin Mak Peng in Nong Khai province was ordained as a novice at 16 and a monk at the age of 22. A disciple of Luang Pu Mun Bhuridatto, he has resided in all major regions of the country. At present, he resides at Wat Hin Mak Peng, Nong Khai province.

Ajaan Mun, Founder of Thai Forest Monk Tradition

Ajahn Mun Bhuridatta Thera (1870–1949) was a Thai Buddhist monk of Lao descent who is credited, along with his mentor, Phra Ajahn Sao Kantasilo Mahathera, with establishing the Thai Forest Tradition (the Kammatthana tradition) that subsequently spread throughout Thailand and to several countries abroad. From 1932-1938, Ajahn Mun practiced meditation in a variety of locations throughout the forests and mountains, in solitude with little contact with people. These years of solitary retreat into the rugged, inaccessible wilderness are very significant in the biography of Ajahn Mun. According to his disciples, he is said to have attained enlightenment or "become an Arahant" during his time in retreat here among the hill tribes, in mountains that hold a unique position in the shamanistic traditions of Thailand. [Source: Wikipedia]

Ajaan Mun

Ajahn Mun was born on Thursday, January 20, 1870, in Baan Kham Bong, a farming village on the Mekong River in Ubon Ratchathani Province of northeastern Thailand (Isan). The eldest of nine children, he was born into the Lao-speaking family. Mun was first ordained as a novice monk at age 16, in the local village monastery of Khambong. As a youth, he studied Buddhist teachings, history and folk legends in Khom, Khmer and Tham scripts from fragile palm leaf texts stored in the monastery library. He remained a novice for two years, until 1888, when it was necessary for him to leave the monastery, at his father's request. Ajahn Mun was fully ordained as a monk at age 22, on June 12, 1893, at Wat Liap monastery in the provincial city of Ubon Ratchatani. Venerable Phra Ariyakavi was his preceptor. His announcing teacher was Venerable Phra Kru Prajak Ubolguna. Mun was given the Buddhist name "Bhuridatta" (meaning "blessed with wisdom") at his ordination.

After ordination, Mun went to practice meditation with Ajahn Sao of Wat Liap in Ubon, where he learned to practice the monastic traditions of Laos. Ajahn Sao taught Mun a meditation method to calm the mind, the mental repetition of the word, "Buddho." Ajahn Sao often took Ajahn Mun wandering and camping in the dense forests along the Mekong River, where they would practice meditation together. This is known as "thudong" in Thai, a name derived from the term "dhutanga", which describes a number of specialized ascetic practices. One of the first long distance thudong was a pilgrimage to Wat Aranyawaksi in Thabor district, Nong Khai Province. At the time, Wat Aranyawaksi was a ruin, an abandoned, overgrown temple in the jungle. Ajahn Mun spent a year in "illumination" in the teak forest around the temple at this early part of his monastic life.

Wanderings and Teaching of Ajaan Man

In 1899, Ajahn Mun was re-ordained in the Thammayut Nikaya, a reformed Thai sect which emphasized monastic disciple and scripture study. Having practiced under the guidance of his teacher for several years, and with his teachers blessings, Ajahn Mun went out on his own to search for advanced meditation teachers. During the next several years, he wandered extensively throughout Laos, Thailand and Burma, practicing meditation in secluded forests. Ajahn Mun and Ajahn Sao went on pilgrimage together in 1905 and venerated the Phra That Phanom shrine, a center of Theravada Buddhism for centuries, most sacred to the Lao people. [Source: Wikipedia]

Ajahn Mun then wandered alone, onward to the north, to Sakhon Nakhon Province on the highlands of the northeastern Plateau, inland from the Mekong River, into the Phu Phan Mountain Range. Today, a museum to Ajahn Mun is located here in the temple residence of Wat Pa Sutthavat, in the city of Nong Han Luang. He then wandered on toward Udon Thani, into a region that was a wild forest filled with prehistoric caves. He continued his wandering pilgrimage deeper into the wildernesses of Loei, a land dreaded and feared by the Thai people, who describe it as "beyond" and "to the furthest extreme" of the world. This rugged wilderness along the Mekong consists of mountains, and extremes of weather, both cold and hot.

In 1911, Ajahn Mun decided to walk to Burma in search of a highly attained meditation teacher who could help him in his struggle for enlightenment. He walked by stages from northeast Thailand down to Bangkok, through the wilderness mountain ranges. According to Thanissaro Bhikkhu, a student in Ajahn Mun's lineage, "his search took nearly two decades and involved countless hardships as he trekked through the jungles of Laos, central Thailand, and Burma, but he never found the teacher he sought. Gradually he realized that he would have to follow the Buddha's example and take the wilderness itself as his teacher." While in Burma he visited the Shwedagon Pagoda among other sites, and spent the Rain Retreat of 1911 at Moulmein in lower Burma, in the Mon states. He was deeply affected by the morality and generosity, and strong monastic discipline of the Mon and Shan people he met in Burma.

Thai forest monk

In 1912, Ajahn Mun spent the Rains Retreat at Wat Sa Pathum (now known as Wat Pathum Wanaram) in Bangkok, where he received instructions and advice from His Eminence Phra Upali of Wat Boromnivasin. After Rains Retreat, he journeyed up to the town of Lopburi and stayed in various caves such as Phaikwang Cave, Mount Khao Phra Ngarm, and Singho Cave, where he practiced intensive meditation. In 1913, Ajahn Mun stayed in Sarika Cave at Great Mountain (Khao Yai) in Nakhon Nayok. It was during this time, at age 43, when he attained anagami, according to the biography written by his disciple Luang Ta Maha Bua. Ajahn Mun spent the next two or three years living at this location in the Khao Yai Mountains. He struggle with a mortal life-threatening illness during these years. A chapel shrine to Ajahn Mun is located at this cave today and is a major pilgrimage site.

After Rains Retreat in 1928, Ajahn Mun left northeast Thailand and didn't return again until the final years of his life. He went first to Bangkok, and then traveled north to Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai provinces, where he remained in meditation retreat for the next 12 years of his life. He was acting abbot of Wat Chedi Luang in Chiang Mai during 1929, appointed under the direction of Bangkok authorities. When his superior, Phra Upali died this year, Ajahn Mun fled his temple without notifying either his dependent monks or the monastic authorities in Bangkok The following years, Ajahn Mun established a meditation retreat on the eastern slope of Chiang Dao Mountain, and frequently spent time meditating in the sacred, remote Chiang Dao caves. Initially, he wandered through the Mae Rim district of Chiang Dao mountain range, staying in the forested mountains there through both the dry and the monsoon seasons that year.

Ajahn Mun was again in Wat Chedi Luang in Chiang Mai in 1933. From here he went wandering into Burma throughout the Karen and Shan states. He spent Rains Retreat of 1935 in Makkhao Field Village in Mae Pong District. In 1936 he spent the retreat near Puphaya Village among the hill tribes. Then the following year, he was in Mae Suai District, Chiang Rai, among the Laui tribes.

In 1940, at age 70, Ajahn Mun began the return journey to his homeland of Isan in northeast Thailand, in response to the persistent urging of his senior disciples. He first traveled down to Bangkok, then northward to Korat. He lingered in vast mountain jungles of Nakhon Ratchasima, staying at Wat Pa Salawan. When he arrived in Udon Thani late in the year of 1940, he stayed at the temple Wat Boghisamphon where his disciple Chao Khun Dhammachedi was presiding abbot. From there he went to Wat Non Niwet for Rains Retreat.

After the rains retreat of 1940 he went wandering in the countryside in the vicinity of Ban Nong Nam Khem village, revisiting the familiar landscapes of his youth. Even at the age of 70, he was still able to take care of himself and get around in the wild environments. In 1941 he spent the Rains Retreat at Wat Nan Niwet monastery in Udon Thani. After rains he traveled to Sakhon Nakhon and first resided at Wat Suddhawat Monastery. He then moved to a small forest monastery named Pheu Pond Hermitage near the village of Ban Na Mon. Pheu Pond Hermitage was in a very remote forest, far into the wilderness, three or four hours walk from the nearest village. (It is today named Wat Pa Bhuridatta in honor of Ajahn Mun.)

Ajahn Sao Kantasilo Mahathera, Mun's first teacher as a new monk, died in 1942. After that Ajahn Mun moved to reside even deeper into the forest. At age 75, Ajahn Mun decided to settle permanently at his Pheu Pond Hermitage in the deep forest, at the head of the Phu Phan Mountains, near Sakhon Nakhon. Due to his failing strength, he was unable to wander into the forests. Ajahn Mun died in 1949 at Wat Suddhavasa in Sakhon Nakhon Province.

Ajaan Man’s Forest Meditation

Wax image of Aajaan Mun in Si Phum, Mueang, Chiang Mai, Thailand

Ajaan Mun's mode of practice was solitary and strict. He followed the Vinaya (monastic discipline) faithfully, and also observed many of what are known as the 13 classic dhutanga (ascetic) practices, such as living off alms, wearing robes made of cast-off rags, dwelling in the forest and eating only one meal a day. Searching out secluded places in the wilds of Thailand and Laos, he avoided the responsibilities of settled monastic life and spent long hours of the day and night in meditation. In spite of his reclusive nature, he attracted a large following of students willing to endure the hardships of forest life in order to study with him. [Source: Wikipedia]

In the early 1920s Ajahn Mun was increasingly recognized as a highly gifted teacher. During these years he attracted growing numbers of disciples among both monks and laypeople. In 1926 he was accompanied by a group of 70 monks in a "thudong" south to Daeng Kokchang Village, Tha Uthen District, heading toward Ubon. A controversy engulfed Ajahn Mun and his disciples at this time. The monastic authorities in Bangkok were in the process of imposing reforms intended to standardize and centralize the sangha, and were pressuring the wandering forest monks to settle down in temples and become "productive" members of society. Monastic administrators were suspicious of these apparently "vagrant" monks who lived in wild forests and jungles, beyond the realm of civilization. Ajahn Jan, the monastic administrator of the province, ordered the people to withhold support from the wandering monks. Several of Ajahn Mun's disciples were taken into custody by civil authorities under suspicion of vagrancy.

Ajahn Mun became increasingly concerned by the encroachments of modern ways that threatened the traditional monastic customs he had been trained in. He began to think of leaving his homeland in order to seek more remote regions beyond the reach of modernizing influences of Bangkok authorities. In 1927, Mun was in Ubon teaching monks and laypeople in Wat Suthat, Wat Liap, and Wat Burapha. He made arrangements for his aging mother, and then took leave of his family to go wandering into the direction of the Central Plains region of Thailand, not certain of his destination. He wandered by stages across the barren lands and sparsely populated lands of central Isan, sleeping under the occasional shade tree, receiving alms food from the poor rice farmers along the way. When he reached the rugged, wild mountains and jungles of Dong Phaya Yen Forest between Sara Buri and Nakhon Ratchasima provinces, he rejoiced at the flora and fauna of nature.

Thailand’s Hip Hop and Rock’ n’ Roll Monks

Thailand's Buddhists are a bit annoyed with today's young monks. As mobile phones and other devices grow more popular, it's becoming harder for religious leaders to control the images of Buddhism in the media and marketplace.James Hookway wrote in the Wall Street Journal: “Each year as monsoon rains sweep their way over Thailand, tens of thousands of teenage boys shave their heads and are ordained as Buddhist monks in a traditional rite of passage. Some find their life's vocation during the few weeks they spend in the monastery, and they become full-time monks. Others post videos of themselves on YouTube, as they play air guitar to hard-rock tracks like Yngwie Malmsteen's "Iron Clad," or recite religious chants to thumping hip-hop beats. [Source: James Hookway, Wall Street Journal, August 14, 2012]

Besides rocking out to Mr. Malmsteen, who was born in Sweden and lives in Florida, some monks film themselves playing pranks on other novices or shouting out lyrics to the likes of Thailand's heavy-metal band Bodyslam. They often use deodorant sticks or whatever else is at hand as stand-ins for microphones. Brooms often double as guitars. The clips are quickly becoming a genre of their own on YouTube and other sites, with some users taking one clip and remixing it with fresh backing music. The result: mash-ups of monks with shaved heads cavorting about in wigs to Dead or Alive's 1980s hit "You Spin Me Round (Like A Record)."

Monks old enough to know better are getting caught up in the excitement, too. Phra Klairung Rujidhammo was recently catapulted to national fame when he was filmed performing suggestive dance moves, known here as coyote dancing after the film "Coyote Ugly" set in a New York dance-bar. Phra Klairung, a chunky temple secretary in his mid-forties, quickly apologized after the clip went viral, explaining that he was trying to cheer people up after flooding hit the area around his temple in northern Bangkok. His superiors gave him a two-week suspension, and Phra (Phra is a religious title) Klairung is back collecting food offerings and other alms from the local community each morning.

Image Sources: Wikimedia Commons

Text Sources: New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Times of London, Lonely Planet Guides, Library of Congress, Tourist Authority of Thailand, Thailand Foreign Office, The Government Public Relations Department, CIA World Factbook, Compton’s Encyclopedia, The Guardian, National Geographic, Smithsonian magazine, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, AFP, Wall Street Journal, The Atlantic Monthly, The Economist, Global Viewpoint (Christian Science Monitor), Foreign Policy, Wikipedia, BBC, CNN, NBC News, Fox News and various books and other publications.

Last updated March 2019

This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been authorized by the copyright owner. Such material is made available in an effort to advance understanding of country or topic discussed in the article. This constitutes 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. If you are the copyright owner and would like this content removed from factsanddetails.com, please contact me.