Singapore Zoological Gardens (Mandai Road, northern Singapore, 20 minute cab ride from downtown Singapore) is one of the world's most highly regarded and Southeast Asia's largest zoo. Located in northern Singapore near the causeway to Malaysia, it houses 2,800 animals from 216 species including crocodiles, Komodo dragons and a pygmy hippopotamus. The Singapore Zoo and its attached Night Safari, focusing on nocturnal animals, each welcomes more than a million visitors a year.

The animals are kept mostly in open and humane enclosures surrounded by wet or dry moats. The only animals that are kept in anything close to cages are dangerous animals that are good climbers such as jaguars and leopards that are kept in glass-fronted enclosures. Show include the Splash Safari Show, with sea lions; Animal Friends Show, with dogs and domesticated animals; the Elephant Presentation, with the giant animals playing and doing tasks; and Rainforest Fights Back Show, with more than 10 animal species.

Special attractions include the Children's World petting zoo, the six island primate kingdom, the sea lion and penguin gallery, railway. Feeding shows are held throughout the day. Favorite stops include the enclosures with primates, reptiles, elephants and sea lions. Wildlife tours and opportunities by visitors to feed the animals are available.The orangutan compound is home to the largest zoo colony of orangutans in the world. In the café adjoining the enclosure visitors can have breakfast or afternoon tea or coffee with one of these orange-haired apes. The breakfast experience with orangutans takes place at the Ah Meng Restaurant everyday from 9:00am to 10:30am. During these hours, the animals make an appearance from 9.30am to 10:00am.Visitors used to able to be photographed with chimpanzees. The practice was ended after animal rights groups accused the zoo of being cruel to chimpanzees on the grounds that acting friendly to humans in way they were was against their nature and the only way they can be trained to cooperate was using fear and punishment.

Among the animals sought out by visitors are the African lion, African painted dog, Asian elephant, Asian small-clawed otter, Bornean orangutan, Brown lemur, Brown lemur, Celebes crested macaque, Cheetah, Chimpanzee, Cotton-top tamarin, Electric blue gecko, Estuarine crocodile, Fossa, Gaboon viper, Giraffe, Golden poison frog, Green basilisk, Hamadryas baboon, Indian gharial, Komodo dragon, Leopard, Malayan flying fox, Malayan tapir, Naked mole rat, Proboscis monkey, Pygmy hippo, Rabbit, Red-shanked douc langur, Regal horned lizard, Ring-tailed lemur, Roti island snake-necked turtle, Sun bear, Tree kangaroo,, White rhinoceros, White tiger, white-faced saki monkey and zebra.

From Australasia to Wild Africa, the zoo’s zones replicate diverse animal habitats around the world, in: 1) Australasia, explore the land of marsupials and get acquainted with kangaroos; 2) Elephants of Asia; 3) Fragile Forest, get up-close to the denizens of a tropical rainforest and delight in its rich biodiversity; 4) Frozen Tundra, chill out with raccoon dogs and wolverines; 4) Great Rift Valley of Ethiopia, an 8,000 square meter exhibit that offers an experiential peek into Ethiopian wildlife, geology and culture; 5) Primate Kingdom, with a large number of the zoo’s 39 species of primates; 6) Rainforest KidzWorld, a playground right in the heart of the Rainforest Zoo; 7) Reptile Garden, with real-life Komodo dragons; 8), RepTopia, another reptile area; 9) Tortoise Shell-ter, a safe home for endangered tortoises, 10) Treetops Trail, the first immersive wildlife experience at the zoo where you can see and hear gibbons; and 11) , Wild Africa, where tou can experience the African savannah in Singapore.

Hours and Days Open: Daily 8.30am - 6.00pm; Last admission 5.30pm; Opening hours for retail shops and restaurants; Admission Fee: Adult: $35; Child: $23 Get more out from Singapore Zoo with Ticket Packages and Park Hopper Specials; Address: 80 Mandai Lake Road, Tel: (65) 6269 3411 Website: www.wrs.com.sg/en/singapore-zoo.html

Getting to the Singapore Zoo: There are no MRT stations in the vicinity of the Singapore Zoo and you’d either need a car, taxi or bus to get the Singapore Zoo. Taking a taxi is easiest way and not too outrageously expensive. In 2017, the Singapore Zoo introduced the Mandai Express Khatib service, travels between Khatib MRT station and Singapore Zoo in 15 minutes. Khabit MRT station is on the North-South (Red) MRT line with station ID, NS14. The price for the Mandai Express Khatib is $1 per commuter each way. The Mandai Express Khatib service is available daily between 8.30 am to 7.00 pm at 30 minute intervals. The frequency of the service increases during peak periods.

Night Safaris Singapore Zoological Gardens

Night Safaris (Singapore Zoological Gardens) are offered on foot on 2.8 kilometers of walking paths or by tram in eight geographic zones, including 100 acres of tropical rain forest adjacent to the zoo and sections in the zoo mimicking an Africa savannah, South American pampas and other environments. Visitors have a chance to see 1,200 animals from 100 species—such as lemurs, hyenas, tigers, Asian elephants a one-horned rhinoceros, and bats—that are often more active at night than during the day. Fishing Cat Trail is one of the highlights of the safari.

The Night Safari Wallaby Trail —covering an area of 4,800 square meters— offers visitors a chance to discover wildlife from Australasia. Home to 13 animal species, visitors can get up close and personal with marsupials such as the Brush Tail Possum, and Australia’s native bird, the Tawny Frogmouth. Another highlight is the re-construction of the Naracoorte Cave in Australia, complete with stalactites and stalagmites, which will offer visitors a glimpse into the lives of cave dwellers such as free-flying bats, the Giant River Toad and the Beauty Snake.

With new indoor and outdoor animal exhibits as well as an educational interpretive centre, visitors can get up close and personal with 13 animal species that include marsupials such as the Brush Tail Possum and the Parma and Bennett's wallabies. Other animals include Australia’s native bird, the Tawny Frogmouth, and the White Lipped Python from Papua New Guinea.

Another highlight is the re-construction of the Naracoorte Cave in Australia, which will offer visitors a glimpse into the lives of cave dwellers such as free-flying bats, the Giant River Toad and the Beauty Snake. This cave chamber features stalactites, stalagmites and dim lighting designed to simulate the real thing.

Hours and Days Open: Open Daily 7:00pm-midnight; Last admission 11.00pm; Admission Fee: Adult: $35; Child: $23 Address: 80 Mandai Lake Road. Tel: (65) 6269 3411. Website: www.wrs.com.sg/en/night-safari.html ; Getting There: Same as above but the Mandai Express Khatib service. Best take a taxi.

Helping Endangered Animals at the Singapore Zoo

Philip Lim of AFP wrote: “From jaguars and chimpanzees to Komodo dragons and manatees, heavily urbanised Singapore is gaining a reputation as a successful nursery for some of the world's rarest animals. With a breeding programme for 315 species, around one in six of which are threatened, the Singapore Zoo is seeing a steady stream of locally born additions to its collection, currently numbering more than 2,500 animals.” [Source: Philip Lim, AFP, January 29, 2010]

In 2009, “142 animals were born in the zoo, 32 of which were threatened species, officials said. Experts from Wildlife Reserves Singapore (WRS), the operator of the city-state's zoo, night safari and bird park, do not rely on Mother Nature for results. "We are very pragmatic, in the sense that if we need to make things happen, we will go all out to make things happen," said the group's assistant director of zoology Biswajit Guha.

“The latest star of the programme is a baby Komodo dragon hatched in December — the first born in an Asian zoo outside the giant lizard's native Indonesia. The hatchling was the culmination of three years of effort by zookeepers watching over every step of its parents' courtship and mating to make sure everything went as planned, said Tay. "It's always supervised contact, we never leave them alone together," he said. "We don't take a wait-and-see approach. We will give it a certain amount of time for the animals to decide for themselves if they do want to mate, but if things don't go right, then we usually come in," Guha said.

“Aside from making enclosures look and feel like native habitats, cutting-edge technology and scientific methods are deployed to make sure animals mate with the best possible partners at the most opportune time. They include matching viable females with genetically superior males using semen analysis and monitoring the females' fertility cycles through regular ultrasound tests — something that not all zoos can afford to do. "Diagnostic facilities are not cheap," noted senior veterinarian Abraham Mathew. "You need the manpower and you need the expertise to do this. All zoos actually want to do this type of work, but whether they can do it or not would depend on their management," he said. A mobile ultrasound machine used by the zoo costs around 20,000 Singapore dollars (14,200 US) and includes an expensive probe that allows veterinarians to accurately check female animals' fertility out in the field. Such resources have helped make the city state a breeding hub for threatened animals, said Guha.”


Jurong (southwestern Singapore) is one of the largest industrial sites in Southeast Asia. Jurong is not a separate city, but is known as an "industrial town." Over 3,000 companies are situated in 20 industrial estates, employing almost 70 percent of the country's work force. Industries include shipbuilding yards, a steel pipe factory, and an oil refinery. The National Iron and Steel Mill is in the city's industrial center. Jurong has a short history, dating only to the early 1960s. Singapore's secession from the Malaysia federation in 1965 slowed the suburb's growth.

Jurong Bird Park, with the world's largest walk-in aviary, and the Chinese and Japanese Gardens—the Japanese being one of the largest such gardens outside of Japan—are among tourist spots. The Science Centre Singapore, located here, covers physical and life sciences, specifically for younger visitors. Jurong Town has a university, and all social amenities.

Singapore Science Centre (Jurong East MRT Station) was established in 1970 and is rated as one of the best institutions of its kind in the world. Its five exhibition galleries contain over 500 exhibits, many of them hands on and participatory. The center is designed mainly for kids but also has research facilities and hosts public lectures and scientific conferences. Its Omni-Theater, opened in 1987, houses a 274-seat omniplanetarium where images and films are projected onto a curved viewing area, extending over the audience's heads and beyond their peripheral vision, giving the illusion that one is immersed in what ever is being shown. The Omni-Theatre, which is equipped with state-of-the-art IMAX technology, is aid to be Singapore’s only domed cinema.

Singapore Discovery Center brings to life The Singapore story with five galleries of interactive and multi-sensory exhibits. Highlights include the Visionarium, the world’s first and largest interactive design studio with a 360-degree wrap-around screen, and the iWERKS Theatre, a flat-screen theatre that projects conventional and 3D giant screen movies. [Source: Time Out Singapore] Nearest MRT Station: 10 minute walk from Joo Koon MRT Station.

Jurong Birdpark

Jurong Birdpark (730 East Coast Parkway) is the largest bird park in Southeast Asia, featuring more than 8,000 birds from 600 species kept humanely in a green 20 hectare park. Birds found here include the world's largest collection of Southeast Asian hornbills and South American toucans, one of the world's largest collections of penguins, ostriches, bald eagles, birds of paradise and cock-of-the-rocks. The owner of the facility Wildlife Reserves Singapore reported in June 2016 that in 2020, Jurong Bird Park will be relocated to 80 Mandai Lake Road, 729826, with a new name for the Bird Park. For now, operation continues as per normal.

The underwater penguin gallery is a must. Electric tram cars take visitors around the park, and to the world's tallest man-made waterfall as well. There is a new display with Philippine Eagles, one of the largest eagles in the world. At the High Flyers Show ay 11:00am and 3:00pm you can see the friendly duel of parrots as they try to outdo each other with speed, agility and showmanship. Observe the habits of endangered hyacinth macaw gaia, and great pied hornbill pals Sunny and Vicky as they fly freely in the wild. Marvel at the mimicking ability of Amigo, our yellow-naped Amazon, the only bird in the world that can sing in three languages. And why not join in the action? Just raise your hand and you might be chosen to hold a knotted rope with goodies for the sun conures, our adorable pint-sized parrots. For a mesmerising and unforgettable grand finale, witness one of the world’s biggest flock of birds swoop onto centre stage.

Some of the 800 or so species at the park include: Trogons and Qetzals (Order Trogoniformes): Bare-cheeked trogon (Apaloderma aequatoriale), Javan trogon (Apalharpactes reinwardtii), Sumatran trogon (Apalharpactes mackloti), Malabar trogon (Harpactes fasciatus), Diard's trogon (Harpactes diardii), Orange-breasted trogon (Harpactes oreskios), Ward's trogon (Harpactes wardi), Whitehead's trogon (Harpactes whiteheadi), Black-headed trogon (Trogon melanocephalus), Masked trogon (Trogon personatus), Blue-crowned trogon (Trogon curucui), Resplendent quetzal (Pharomachrus mocinno)

Hornbills (Family Bucerotidae): Western red-billed hornbill (Tockus kempi), Northern red-billed hornbill (Tockus erythrorhynchus), Tanzanian red-billed hornbill (Tockus ruahae), Southern red-billed hornbill (Tockus rufirostris), Damara red-billed hornbill (Tockus damarensis), Von der Decken's hornbill ([[Tockus deckeni), Jackson's hornbill (Tockus jacksoni), Southern yellow-billed hornbill (Tockus leucomelas), Eastern yellow-billed hornbill (Tockus flavirostris), African pied hornbill (Lophoceros fasciatus), African grey hornbill (Lophoceros nasutus), Crowned hornbill (Lophoceros alboterminatus), Tickell's brown hornbill (Anorrhinus tickelli), Austen's brown hornbill (Anorrhinus austeni), Bushy-crested hornbill (Anorrhinus galeritus), Sri Lanka grey hornbill (Ocyceros gingalensis), Malabar grey hornbill (Ocyceros griseus), Indian grey hornbill (Ocyceros biostris), White-crested hornbill (Horizocerus albocristatus), Black dwarf hornbill (Horizocerus hartlaubi), White-crowned hornbill (Berenicornis comatus), Piping hornbill (Bycanistes fistulator), Trumpeter hornbill (Bycanistes bucinator), Black-and-white-casqued hornbill (Bycanistes subcylindricus), Silvery-cheeked hornbill (Bycanistes brevis), Black-casqued wattled hornbill (Ceratogymna atrata), Rhinoceros hornbill (Buceros rhinoceros), Great hornbill (Buceros bicornis), Rufous hornbill (Buceros hydrocorax), Helmeted hornbill (Rhinoplax vigil), Palawan hornbill (Antracoceros marchei), Oriental pied hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris), Malabar pied hornbill (Anthracoceros coronatus), Black hornbill (Anthracoceros malayanus), Rufous-necked hornbill (Aceros nipalensis), Wrinkled hornbill (Rhabdotorrhinus corrugatus), Writhed hornbill (Rhabdotorrhinus leucocephalus), Sulawesi hornbill (Rhabdotorrhinus exarhatus), Luzon hornbill (Penelopides manillae), Mindoro hornbill (Penelopides mindorensis), Mindanao hornbill (Penelopides affinis), Visayan hornbill (Penelopides panini), Knobbed hornbill (Rhyticeros cassidix), Papuan hornbill (Rhyticeros plicatus), Narcondam hornbill (Rhyticeros narcondami), Plain-pouched hornbill (Rhyticeros subruficollis), Wreathed hornbill (Rhyticeros undulatus)

Birds-of-paradise (Family Paradisaeidae): Greater bird-of-paradise (Paradisaea apoda), Lesser bird-of-paradise (Paradisaea minor), Raggiana bird-of-paradise (Paradisaea raggiana), Blue bird-of-paradise (Paradisaea rudolphi), King bird-of-paradise (Cicinnurus regius), Ribbon-tailed astrapia (Astrapia mayeri), Western parotia (Parotia sefilata), Twelve-wired bird-of-paradise (Seleucidis melanoleucus)

Penguins (Family Spheniscidae): Aptenodytes – great penguins: King penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus, Emperor penguin, Aptenodytes forsteri, Pygoscelis – brush-tailed penguins: Adélie penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae, Chinstrap penguin, Pygoscelis antarctica, Gentoo penguin, Pygoscelis papua, Eudyptula – little penguins: Little blue penguin, Eudyptula minor, Australian little penguin, Eudyptula novaehollandiae, White-flippered penguin, Eudyptula albosignata (provisional), Spheniscus – banded penguins: Magellanic penguin, Spheniscus magellanicus, Humboldt penguin, Spheniscus humboldti, Galapagos penguin, Spheniscus mendiculus, African penguin, Spheniscus demersus, Megadyptes: Yellow-eyed penguin, Megadyptes antipodes, †Waitaha penguin, Megadyptes waitaha (extinct), Eudyptes – crested penguins: Fiordland penguin, Eudyptes pachyrynchus, Snares penguin, Eudyptes robustus, Erect-crested penguin, Eudyptes sclateri, Southern rockhopper penguin, Eudyptes chrysocome, Eastern rockhopper penguin, Eudyptes filholi, Northern rockhopper penguin, Eudyptes moseleyi, Royal penguin, Eudyptes schlegeli (disputed), Macaroni penguin, Eudyptes chrysolophus,

Hours and Days Open: Daily 8.30am - 6.00pm; Last admission 5.30pm; Opening hours for retail shops and restaurants; Admission Fee: Adult: $20; Child: $13. Address: 2 Jurong Hill Singapore 628925, Tel: (65) 6265 0022; Website: www.wrs.com.sg/en/jurong-bird-park.html ; Nearest MRT Station: Take the MRT to Paya Lebat or Euno and then take a taxi.

Marine Life Park

Marine Life Park (at Resorts World Sentosa) is the world's largest oceanarium. Opened in 2012 and houses two attractions, the S.E.A Aquarium and the Adventure Cove Waterpark, previously known as the Equarius Water Park. S.E.A Aquarium is one of Singapore’s most visited attractions. Visitors are transported through a 80-meter-long plexiglass tube on a slow-moving airport-style conveyor, Visitors can step off the conveyor belt onto a stationary sidewalk for a close up view of the sharks, manta rays, moray eels, weedy sea dragons, sea turtles, giant shellfish, coral and all types of reef fish. Certified divers can pay $50 to dive for 30 minutes in the shark tank.

of S.E.A. Aquarium is home to more than 100,000 marine animals of over 1,000 species, across 50 different habitats. Some of the more interesting creatures are nurse sharks. Hammerhead sharks, giant moray eels, clownfish, reef manta rays, sea nettles, giant pacific octopus, indo-pacific bottlenose dolphins, goliath groupers and seahorses.

Large crowds arrive at feeding time at 11:30am and 4:30pm. There is also a petting zoo where young watch young children touch fish and hold harmless sharks and pacify them by flipping them on their backs. In one set of tanks are some of the world largest crustaceans, giant Japanese spider crabs which measure up to three meters across. In the early 2000s, the aquarium acquired a rare dugong and a pair of extremely rare pink dolphins.

Among the rides and other fun stuff at Adventure Cove Waterpark are Dueling Racer water slides, Pipeline Plunge, Riptide Rocket, Spiral Washout, Splashworks, Tidal Twister, Wet Maze, Whirlpool Washout, Adventure River,, Big Bucket Treehouse, Bluwater Bay, Seahorse Hideaway, Ray Bay and Rainbow Reef

Hours and Days Open: Mon – Sun: 10:00am – 6:00pm; Adult: $29; Senior/Child: $20; Website: www.rwsentosa.com

Dolphin Island

Dolphin Island (at Resorts World Sentosa) is a place where you get to hang out and touch Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins in a swimming-pool-like environment. There are several different of programs that will give you the opportunity to meet them up-close and learn about the fascinating mammals. The programs aim to inspire visitors to a deeper understanding of marine life, and to discover more about dolphins through “engagement learning”.

Our marine mammal trainers and hosts will share knowledge about dolphins, their habitats, diets, anatomies and migration patterns. We will also share what we’re doing in the areas of research and veterinary care to give you an idea of what’s being done to protect the dolphins. We can look forward to building a more sustainable marine environment together.

In the Dolphin Discovery program visitors wade into the waist-deep waters of the dolphin lagoon for an up-close interaction with dolphins. Available Time Slots: 10.30am, 11.30am, 2.30pm, 3.30pm, 4.30pm, 5:00pm Price: S$90 for adults, children and seniors.

Guests entering Dolphin Island should adhere to the below guideline for a safe and enjoyable experience: 1) Children under 12 years old must be accompanied by a paying adult for all Dolphin Interaction Programmes. 2) Photography or video recording is not allowed. An official photographer will be present to take photos of your experience.

Bukit Timah Nature Reserve: a Sliver of Rain Forest in Singapore

Bukit Timah Nature Reserve(Upper Bukit Road, 10 kilometers from the city center) is one of only two city primary rain forest parks in the world (the other is in Rio de Janeiro). It covers 3,043 hectares and features a network of well-organized hiking trails. In the middle of the park is Singapore's highest point (162.5-meter Bukit Timah Hill). On the walking trails, visitors can see exotic birds, butterflies, long-tailed macaques, flying squirrels, mouse deer, reticulated pythons, venomous green Malayan coral snakes and other wildlife. There are photo displays and exhibits about the rain forest in the visitors center. The names of some the trees and plants on the hiking routes are presented on little signs by the trees.

Bukit Timah Nature Reserve has been left mostly undisturbed; despite the progress and development that has transformed much of Singapore. It is home to more than 500 species of animals and over 840 flowering plants. It embraces Hindhede Nature Park, a former quarrying site abandoned in the mid-1900s. Rock-climbing activities, biking trails outside the reserve and guided tours are also available. To protect the forest’s native biodiversity, certain activities are prohibited within the nature reserve – such as hiking in groups of more than 30 without a permit or the feeding of animals. So if you’re planning a trip here, it’s best to come in smaller groups to enjoy the park in a more personalized proximity.[Source: yoursingapore.com, Singapore Tourism Board]

Mark Jacobson wrote in National Geographic: “On my last day, I climbed the hill in the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, at 537 feet the highest point on the island and the closest thing in Singapore to the jungle it once was. When I got to the top of the hill, I thought I might be rewarded with a view of the entire city-state. But there was no view at all—only a rusting communication tower and a cyclone fence affixed with a sign saying "Protected Place" and showing a stick figure drawing of a soldier aiming a rifle at a man with his hands raised.” [Source: Mark Jacobson, National Geographic, January 2010] Hours and Days Open: Daily 6:00am - 7:00pm; For visitor information, contact: National Parks Board Headquarters 1 Cluny Road Singapore 259569. Tel: (65)-6471-7808 www.nparks.gov.sg Website: http://www.nparks.gov.sg; Admission Fee: Free admission; Nearest MRT Station: MRT: Beauty World MRT Station, take Exit A.

Animals and Plants in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve

Jamie James wrote in Natural History magazine: “In 1967, in their book The Theory of Island Biogeography, the ecologist Robert H. MacArthur and the biologist Edward O. Wilson of Harvard University proposed that the degree of biodiversity surviving in an island ecology is a function of the area of the island and its distance from the source of immigrating species. Those principles have been tested and confirmed for artificially created islands of primary habitat, as well as for landmasses actually surrounded by water. The rule of thumb is that an island reduced to one-tenth its original size will lose half its species. By that standard, Bukit Timah is beating the odds. Although more than 99 percent of the original rainforest on the island of Singapore has been cleared, the reserve still retains nearly half the original native bird species and many small mammals. [Source: Jamie James, Natural History magazine, April 2004]

“But the large vertebrates have not been so fortunate. The island's last tiger was reportedly shot in the Choa Chu Kang district in 1930 (not, as local folklore would have it, in 1902 in the billiards room of the Raffles Hotel in downtown Singapore). The last one at Bukit Timah was killed in 1924 (the reticulated python has replaced the tiger at the top of the reserve's food chain). Other large mammals that have vanished are the leopard, the largest species of deer (the sambar and the barking deer), the pig-tailed macaque, and the wild pig. Some ecologists think that once the big vertebrates are gone, it is just a matter of time before the entire fabric of biodiversity unravels.

“The loss of many native bird and mammal species from Bukit Timah can be traced to hunting and trapping, rather than to isolation and habitat degradation. That may sound Hke a dismal conclusion, but it speaks well, at least, for the potential of a small reserve to maintain the diversity of its fauna. The flora seem even more resilient. Singapore's National Parks Board, which manages both the Bukit Timah and Central Catchment nature reserves, undertakes only moderate reforestation, allowing parts of both reserves to regenerate naturally. As Chew Ping Ting, a research officer, explains, the park service concentrates on rare tree species that produce adequate numbers of seedlings for transplantation, such as Aquilaria malacccusis. Whenever possible, the reserve managers try to replant where there are gaps in the forest canopy, to give the saplings an edge.”

Mammals: Common tree shrew, longtailed macaque, mouse deer, pangolin, plantain squirrel, slender squirrel, and flying lemur (not a lemur at all, this last species, which glides like a flying squirrel, is one of just two extant species in the order Dermoptera).

Birds: Asian fairy bluebird, greater racket-tailed drongo, olive-winged bulbul, orange-bellied flowerpecker, and striped tit-babbler.

Reptiles and amphibians: Blackbearded flying lizard, elegant bronzeback snake, green-crested lizard, paradise tree snake, reticulated python, spiny turtle, and Wagler's pit viper.

Insects: Atlas moth, forest grasshopper, giant forest ant, giant honeybee, green-bodied cicada, jungle cockroach, Nepliila inaculata spider, rhinoceros beetle, sky blue butterfly, and wood scorpion.

Trees: Aquilaria malacceiisis, jelutong, keruing, nemusu, and seraya. Shrubs and herbs: Ant plant, black hly, Haiigtiaiia malayana [see photograph on this page], pendant ixora. Ferns: Bird's nest fern, resam, staghorn fern, and various grass terns and tree ferns.”

TreeTop Walk

TreeTop Walk (in MacRitchie Reservoir Park) is anaerial free standing suspension bridge spanning Bukit Peirce and Bukit Kalang, which are the two highest points in MacRitchie Reservoir Park. The first of its kind in Singapore and in the region, The TreeTop Walk (TTW) offers a bird's eye view of the community of plants and animals that live in the forest canopy. The total length of the walkway is about 250 meters and its height from the forest floor varies, with the highest point at 25 meters.

Besides providing another avenue for nature recreation for Singaporeans, the TTW also plays an important role in forest canopy research, an area many researchers were not able to get into because of lack of access. This bridge will help to facilitate surveys and plant identification work and further our understanding of how forest ecosystems work.

The distance to the entrance of the TreeTop Walk is approximately 4.5 km (1.5 - 2 hr walk) from MacRitchie Reservoir Park and 2.5 km (45 mins - 1 hr walk) from the car park at Venus Drive. A round trip including the TreeTop Walk is about 7 km to 10 km (3-5 hrs depending on your walking pace).

Opening Hours: Tuesday - Friday: 9:00am – 5:00pm, Saturday, Sunday & Public Holidays: 8.30 am – 5:00pm, Closed on Mondays, except on Public Holidays. Guidelines: The TreeTop Walk gate closes at 5:00pm sharp. Visitors are advised to start hiking towards the bridge by 4.45pm from Ranger Station to avoid disappointment. Please note that the walkway only allows for one-direction traffic. The entrance to the bridge is from the Ranger Station via Peirce track. Nearest MRT Station: MRT Caldecott MRT (CC17)

Image Sources: Wikimedia Commons

Text Sources: Singapore tourism websites, Singapore government websites, UNESCO, Wikipedia, Lonely Planet guides, New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, National Geographic, The New Yorker, Bloomberg, Reuters, Associated Press, AFP, Japan News, Yomiuri Shimbun, Compton's Encyclopedia and various books and other publications.

Updated in August 2020

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