From 1991 to 2000, the literacy rate for persons aged 10 to 64 years of age increased from 88.6 percent to 93.5 percent. Government-assisted schools provide free education for children between ages six and 18, but only primary education (ages six to 12) is compulsory. In 2003 Malaysia operated 7,498 primary schools and 1,916 secondary schools and also funded specialized schools for religious education and special education. Primary education starts at age six, secondary education at age 12, and students may attend vocational or technical schools in lieu of the final four years of secondary education. Private schools receive no government funds but are subject to government regulation. [Source: Library of Congress, 2006]

Bahasa Malaysia is the principal language of instruction. Chinese and Tamil are used only in primary education. English is taught as a second language. In 1994 English-language instruction was introduced to promote multiethnic socialization and to improve science and mathematics education. By 2003 legislation required that all mathematics and science courses be taught in English. Educational policies frequently have contentious overtones, often because of perceived ethnic discrimination.

The Malaysian government spent 8 percent of the $100 billion gross domestic product on education in 2002, more than neighbors Singapore or Thailand, according to the Asian Strategy and Leadership Institute, a Kuala Lumpur-based research group. Even so, Malaysia and Thailand lag behind Four Tigers (Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore and Hong Kong) in education. Even though Malaysia has roughly the same number of people as Taiwan, it has only eight universities compared to 56 in Taiwan. Moreover, some contend, the education system in Malaysia has not created enough skilled workers.

According to the Malaysian government: Malaysia has established a strong infrastructure to support the learning process at different stages of life. For more information about the education system in Malaysia, please visit the website of the Ministry of Education (for pre-tertiary levels) or the Ministry of Higher Education. Private education has also become a thriving industry in Malaysia and offers students and scholars viable alternatives to public schooling. is a useful source of information in this area. [Source: Malaysian Government]

Education expenditures: 5.1 percent of GDP (2010), country comparison to the world: 70. Literacy (age 15 and over can read and write): total population: 88.7 percent, male: 92 percent, female: 85.4 percent (2000 census). School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 13 years; male: 12 years, female: 13 years (2008). [Source: CIA World Factbook]

Ranking of education systems and worker productivity in Asia by Hong Kong-based Political and Economic Risk Consultancy: 1) South Korea; 2) Singapore; 3) Japan; 4) Taiwan; 5) India; 6) China; 7) Malaysia; 8) Hong Kong; 9) the Philippines; 10) Thailand; 11) Vietnam; 12) Indonesia

Education System of Malaysia

Education is the responsibility of the Government and it is committed to providing a sound education to all. The Malaysian education system encompasses education beginning from pre-school to university. Pre-tertiary education (pre-school to secondary education) is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education (MOE) while tertiary or higher education is the responsibility of the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE). The vision of the Government is to make Malaysia a centre of educational excellence. [Source: Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education]

The Government provides more than 95 percent of primary and secondary education as well as about 60 percent of the tertiary education, with the private sector providing the balance.

The private education providers in Malaysia can be broadly grouped into 2 categories, depending on the levels of education offered, ranging from pre-school to tertiary education. These two categories of private institutions are: 1) Private Educational Institutions (PEIs) which provide education at preschool, primary and secondary levels. They comprise private schools and foreign system schools. 2) Private Higher Educational Institutions (PHEIs) which provide tertiary education leading to the awarding of certificate, diploma and degree qualifications.

According to The Star: As Malaysia marches towards becoming a knowledge-based and innovation nation, it is necessary to have a workforce that is able to work towards achieving that goal. Intel Malaysia managing director Atul Bhargava said, “If there is one thing I could tell Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak, it is that the need to change the human capital (development in the country).” He said improvements were needed in the systems adopted by local universities and they should strive to become the world’s Top 100. They need to change the curriculum to be industry friendly and adopt newer methods of teaching. Only then can talent that can help the country in the innovation phase be created. “I have been advocating the need to do it either organically or hook up with institutes like MIT; make that quantum leap, emulate, so that people will know us,’’ he said. [Source: By B.K. Sidhu, The Star, June 14, 2010]

Book: “Educational Dualism in Malaysia: Implication for Theory and Practice” by Rosnani Hashim (Oxford University Press, 1996)

Development of Malaysia’s Education System

Cheah Boon Kheng of the National University of Singapore wrote: “The liberal - minded Tunku Abdul Rahman’s policies of social engineering and nation - building allowed both an integrated and parallel two - tiered system of education to emerge. This dualism seemed to satisfy the various ethnic communities in the country up to the present. The integrated system comprises a national education system in Malay (the national language) while the parallel system allows government - aided Chinese vernacular primary and secondary Chinese schools and Tamil vernacular primary sch ools to exist, as well as non - aided but privately - funded Chinese secondary schools. Both systems, however, follow a national curriculum. These policies were arrived at after a compromise among the communal parties within the ruling Alliance and after much debate, and to overcome dissatisfaction among Chinese educational groups. It was clear to the governing parties that if a compromise was not reached, Chinese dissatisfaction over Chinese education and Chinese language could be exploited by the communist in surgency to stir up trouble for its own interests. [Source: Cheah Boon Kheng, National University of Singapore, New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies 11, 1 (June 2009): 132]

Communist subversion in Chinese schools had appeared intermittently in the 1950s when Chinese students demonstrated spectacular acts of violence, but the educational issue did not take on the dimensions o f a major political problem, as it did in Singapore, largely because the MCA and Chinese educational groups had dominated the national debate on Chinese education and involved themselves in negotiations with the moderate government leaders of the UMNO unde r Tunku Abdul Rahman’s leadershi p. However, in terms of social engineering and national integration, the introduction of a national educational system in which Malay, the national language, was widely used to teach a common curriculum did attempt to foster national unity and a national identity for all students in schools. Although the CPM in the 1960s had adopted a new policy to treat all races as equal and to demand the languages of all races be made official languages, 28 the continuing public acceptance o f Malaysia’s language policy and national educational policy increasingly sidelined the CPM’s new language and culture policy.

Academic Performance: Ranking in math among 8th grade students in 38 countries. 16. Ranking in science among 8th grade students in 38 countries. 22.[Source: International Study Center, Boston College, 2001]

In Malaysia there are 38 international schools (American, Australian and Britishstyled) and 12 expatriate schools which include French, German, Japanese and Taiwanese schools. These schools have facilities for students from pre-school to upper secondary levels. They provide parents with many options of pre-tertiary international education at affordable fees.

Schools and School Life in Malaysia

Number of Schools: 10,083: 7,743 primary schools; 2,340 secondary schools. Number of Students (Enrolment): Preschool; 96,174 male; 94,206 female. Primary; 1,411,079 male; 1,332,158 female. Secondary; 1,146,102 male; 1,153,567 female. Total; 2,653,355 male; 2,579,931 female. Number of Teachers: Primary; 72,787 male; 166,812 female. Secondary; 55,438 male; 122,150 female. Total; 128,225 male; 288,962 female. [Source: Malaysian Government]

The school year beings in January. Primary education (a period of 6 years) and secondary education (5 years which encompasses 3 years of lower secondary and 2 years of upper secondary) make up 11 years of free education. The admission age to the first year of primary education is seven. Primary schooling is mandatory for all children between the ages of 7 and 12. Students sit for common public examinations at the end of primary, lower secondary and upper secondary levels.

The education system in Malaysia is oriented around big tests to get into a good high school and university and is influenced by the British education system. School Exams in Malaysia: The SPM and STAM test are used to gain places in Malaysian universities. The STPM is the equivalent of A-levels. The SPM written test is in November. The STAM oral and written test are in October. STPM Syllabus: 900 Pengajian Am, 910 Bahasa Malaysia, 911 Bahasa Cina, 912 Bahasa Tamil, 913 Bahasa Arab, 920 Literature In English, 922 Kesusasteraan Melayu, 930 Syariah, 931 Usuluddin, 940 Sejarah, 942 Geografi, 944 Ekonomi, 946 Pengajian Perniagaan, 948 Perakaunan, 950 Mathematics S, 954 Mathematics T, 956 Further Mathematics T, 958 Computing, 960 Physics, 962 Chemistry, 964 Biology, 966 Sains Sukan, 970 Seni Visual,

In Malaysia, public school students have to wear their hair to conform to strict codes. Booklets sometimes are sent to parents informing them about what is acceptable and what isn't. Boys are not allowed to have hair that touches their collars. Girls with long hair must wear blue or black ribbons. According to the rules students are prohibited from dying their hair or "styling their hair in a fashionable way that reflects current trends."

Schools and Ethnic Separation in Malaysia

Malay, Chinese and Indian students attend schools where the primary medium of instruction is the language of their ethnic group. This means that for the most part there are separate schools for Malays, Chinese and Indians.

As of the early 2000s, there were 5,407 Malay primary schools with 2.2 million students, 1,284 Chinese primary schools with 623,000 students, and 526 Tamil primary schools with 90,000 students. English and Malay are compulsory subjects in all primary schools but the primary language of instruction varies. Mother-tongue education is protected under the 1996 Education Act.

Each school is free to accept children of any ethnic group. About 95 percent of Chinese children attend Chinese schools (1,291 SRJKs and 60 independent schools). This means only 9 percent of Chinese students attend national schools. Most go to private schools oriented for the Chinese community. Around 60,000 non-Chinese attend Chinese schools

The Malaysian government announced plans to open “vision schools” to encourage racial mixing. Students will be educated separately in their own languages but share facilities such as canteens, assembly halls and sports fields. Many Chinese and Indians have objected to the plan because they fear it threaten their Chinese and Indian language schools. They believe the system will ultimately make the Malay language the primary medium of instruction.

While Chinese schools have a shortage of about 4,000 teacher there is an excess of 20,000 teachers for Malay schools. Textbooks don’t say much about the racial riots in 1969.

See Universities Below.

Islamic School and Islam in Malaysian Schools

In Malaysia schools are required to provide Islamic studies alongside secular education and teachers are closely regulated to prevent individual religious zealots from poisoning young minds, and to make sure that students grow up to be law-abiding, productive members of the society.

In April 2004, the government announced that students would study the Koran in Arabic in school as part of a campaign to promote modern, progressive Islam. The idea behind it was that if children learn about Islam in school they would be less likely to be swayed by extremist ideologies.

In 2002, the government cut funds to private religious schools, many of them Islamic schools run by the opposition Islamic PAS party. Students were encouraged to attend state schools.

There were about 520 private religious schools with 74,000 students in the early 2000s. They are regulated by the government, which keeps a pretty close eye on them. In some Malay areas in the northeast religious life revolves around residential boarding schools called “pondak” that are led learned men called “tok guri”.

Malaysia Ends Use of English in Science and Math Teaching

Liz Gooch wrote in the New York Times, “Malaysia will revert to using its national language, Bahasa Malaysia, to teach science and math starting in 2012, abandoning a six-year English policy that the government said had failed to improve student grades. The long-awaited decision, announced Wednesday, came after months of lobbying by Malay nationalists and was largely viewed as a political decision by local commentators. Malaysia has taught science and math in English since 2003, when former Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad implemented the English-language policy in an attempt to help graduates improve their English and employability. However, the government has found that academic grades in science and math have fallen since English was introduced. [Source: Liz Gooch, New York Times, July 8, 2009]

Students in rural districts, who are mainly Malay, suffered the most because their English proficiency was low, The Associated Press quoted Education Minister Muhyiddin Yassin as saying. He said the government would recruit more teachers and increase English classes in an effort to improve English levels in schools. Professor James Chin, head of the school of arts and social sciences at Monash University in Malaysia, said the decision had also become a political issue. “They decided to buckle under the pressure from the Malay nationalists who argue that by teaching students in English you are neglecting the position of the national language,” said Mr. Chin, a political commentator. “I think what it shows is that the Malay nationalists feel that U.M.N.O. is very weak so that they can force U.M.N.O. to do a lot of things,” he added, referring to the United Malays National Organization.

Many parents and employers had called for English to be retained as the language of instruction. Concerns have risen in recent years that students’ English skills have declined, with employers citing this as a major weakness among graduates. A 2005 government survey found that there were almost 60,000 unemployed university graduates. The government is also investigating whether students should have to pass English in order to obtain the Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia, the compulsory certificate of education for 16-year-olds.

A poll by the independent Merdeka Center showed that 58 percent of Malaysians wanted English to remain the language of instruction for science and math, the Malaysia Insider Web site reported this week. Some 69 percent of respondents believed students should have to pass English in order to receive their Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia certificate.

Reuters reported:” Instead of teaching maths and science in English, the government will double the time spent on English lessons for primary children and increase that for secondary school children by half. It said it would hire an additional 14,000 teachers to teach English as a language. "I would not say it (English language instruction) was a complete failure, but it did not achieve what it was supposed to achieve," Education Minister Muhyiddin Yassin told a news conference. [Source: Reuters, July 8, 2009 ]

“Critics said that the changes to use Bahasa Malaysia would not achieve the desired effect of enfranchising the rural poor or of boosting English language skills and said the move was largely political, aimed at appeasing the Malay majority. "What has not occurred to the authorities is that the education system requires very competent teachers," said Khoo Kay Kim, emeritus professor at the University of Malaya's history department, adding that politicians were driving the change due to their personal agenda.

“Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak was educated in an English-medium school in Kuala Lumpur and later in a private school in England, while opposition leader Anwar Ibrahim, was educated at the elite English-speaking Malay College. Khoo also warned that the move could increase divisions along racial lines in this country of 27 million people where 55 percent are ethnic Malays and there are sizeable ethnic Chinese and Indian minorities. "There is an emphasis on separation, not integration, today," Khoo said.

Malaysia, English Education and Jobs

The Malaysian Employers Federation had lobbied strongly for English to be retained as the medium of instruction. “This is a setback for the efforts to enhance the command of English for the students,” said Shamsuddin Bardan, the federation’s executive director. While Mr. Shamsuddin welcomed the government’s decision to improve students’ English proficiency by increasing the number of English teachers, he maintained that poor English skills remained a major weakness in the local workforce. Mr. Chin said that English was the language used in Malaysia’s private sector. “A lot of Malaysian parents are very worried about the standard of English,” he said. “A lot of parents realize that for their children, without English they can’t survive, not in the private sector.”

Reuters reported: ““Malaysia has said recently that it wants to attract more high-value investment in areas like banking and finance, industries that are global and typically demand good English. A recent report from Morgan Stanley showed that Malaysia's tertiary enrolment and completion ratios were six and seven percentage points behind the average countries with a similar level of income per capita. That leaves it at a disadvantage as it seeks to tap into foreign investment which is increasingly using countries like China and Vietnam which have larger domestic markets and bigger reservoirs of cheap labour. Neighbouring Singapore split from becoming part of Malaysia and retained English as the primary language of education. The city state has emerged as one of the richest nations on earth with a per capita income of $51,649 in 2008 while Malaysia's is $14,225, based on 2008 data. [Source: Reuters, July 8, 2009]

Students Who Travel from Singapore to Malaysia to Attend School

In September 2012, Jane Ng wrote in The Strait Times, “At Malaysia'a new education hub, Iskandar Educity, more than 100 children from Singapore travel to Johor daily to go to school. According to the Straits Times, these students include Singaporeans as well as children of expatriates based in Singapore. To ease the children's journey to and from school everyday, some parents have even moved to Johor and they instead commute to Singapore for work. [Source: Jane Ng, The Strait Times, September 16, 2012 =/=]

“The education centre is situated in the Nusajaya township, just across the Second Link in Tuas. It comprises of a cluster of schools of various levels, from pre-school to university. Three Singapore operators - the Management Development Institute of Singapore, Raffles University Iskandar and Raffles American School, are located there. Others schools include the University of Southampton, Newcastle Univerity Medicine Malaysia and the Netherlands Maritime Institute of Technology. Opened two weeks ago, Malborough College Malaysia is a branch of Britain's well-known Malborough College. Among its prestigious alumni is the Duchess of Cambridge, Kate Middleton. =/=

“Half of its 350 students aged between four and 15 commutes daily from Singapore, said Principal Robert Prick. Declining to give the breakdown, he however mentioned that expatriates outnumbered Singaporeans. At 7am on school mornings, the children are picked up from their homes by a fleet of buses that will commute to Malaysia via the Second Link. The journey takes about 40-50 minutes on an average day and over an hour on the days traffic is heavy. Using a Malaysian Automated Clearance System, the children are fast-tracked across the border without having to get off the buses. =/=

“Ms Joanna Ackerly, a British expatriate, is an event manager at the college and her three children aged six, eight and 10 attend school there, reported The Straits Times. She drives from their home in central Singapore to Johor and back every day. Marlborough's small class size of 18 pupils, academic reputation and holistic philosophy as welll as its sprawling campus were some of the qualities that made Ms Ackerly send her children there.” =/=

Bullying in Schools in Malaysia

According to the Global Youth Online Behaviour Survey : A) 84 percent of Malaysian children have been bullied; B) 45 percent admit to bullying someone else. [Source: Global Youth Online Behaviour Survey by Microsoft Corp. The survey covered 7,600 children from age eight to 17. It was conducted from Jan 11-Feb 19, 2012, in 25 countries including Malaysia,, August 10, 2012]

M. Kumar wrote in The Star, “Bullying in schools has been a major issue with several high-profile cases. One of it involved a 13-year-old student, identified as Wong, who was bullied and humiliated by her classmates, which evoked outrage and public sympathy. Her ordeal was discovered when a three-minute videoclip went viral on the Internet. It showed Wong being slapped, splashed with water, strangled with a necktie, hit on the head with books and having her hair clipped by bullies in a Klang Valley school. Wong cried and pleaded to them to stop while her other classmates ignored her pleas. Her plight came to light in May last year when the clip was posted on Facebook and YouTube. The three bullies were suspended for 14 days by the school and made to apologise to Wong. [Source: M. Kumar, The Star, June 27, 2012]

In another incident on May 24, 2011, eight secondary school students were sent for a two-year community service programme with the state Welfare Department, with a RM1,500 bond for good behaviour after they were found guilty of trespassing into a school and beating up a student. Three Form Three, four Form Five pupils and a fourth former had trespassed into the school on the morning of April 7 to commit the offence. Barely a few days after the boys were sentenced, another Form Two student had his left ear partially torn after he was beaten up by a schoolmate who caused him to fall onto a window pane in his classroom.

In April 2013, three secondary school students in Seberang Jaya questioned over bullying video that went viral on YouTube, featuring a uniform-clad student being thrashed by his schoolmates. Derrick Vinesh wrote in The Star, “Central Seberang Prai district OCPD Asst Comm Azman Abd Lah said the three students, all aged 15 years, were believed to be classmates of the victim from a school in Seberang Jaya. "Although the victim did not lodge a report, we filed our own report based on the incident which was featured on the Internet. "We view such cases seriously and will take necessary action to ensure such incidences do not recur," he said. A 92-second video clip featuring several boys bullying their schoolmate was posted on the Facebook pages of the Malaysian Crime Awareness Campaign and the Polis Diraja Malaysia page. [Source: Derrick Vinesh, the Star, April 11, 2013]

“The clip shows the victim, who is carrying a school bag, standing in a corner inside a classroom as several other guys repeatedly throw punches and kicks at him before another student steps in to stop it. ACP Azman said police have recorded the statement of the victim and would investigate the case under Section 147 of the Penal Code for rioting. "Initial investigations show that the victim had earlier informed the school disciplinary teacher after noticing the students smoking in school. "We understand that the three bullies were expelled from school soon after the incident, which happened on March 4," he said.

In May 2011, reported: “Another video apparently showing female Malaysian students tormenting a girl has surfaced online. STOMPer Toilet93 wants to create awareness so that "no one would ever have to go through such torment again". In the latest video, at least four female students, who appear to be in school uniform, confront a girl in a toilet. There are other students watching from the toilet stalls.They seem to be demanding money from the girl and taking turns to slap her when she could not pay. One of them even 'high-fived' another after slapping the girl, so that the next bully can take her turn. [Source:, May 11, 2011]

STOMPer Toilet93 wrote: "I would really like to make this video known so that no one would ever have to go through such torment again. I hope the video will make these people reflect on themselves, for what they have done is truly inhumane. Their victims have to live forever with the painful memories of being bullied shadowing them. Just the thought of it is unbearable. Imagine what the victims of bullying go through. I would like to urge all those who are still silently suffering as victims to stand up. Tell an adult, whether it's your teachers or parents.”

Nanyang Siang Pau wrote in The Star,“Another video clip featuring school violence has surfaced on a social networking site. The clip shows three students fighting in a school compound two in uniform and another clad in a T-shirt. It is learnt the students are from Chan Wa High School in Seremban, Negri Sembilan. The 60-second clip shows a group of male students, all in uniform, standing in a group. Then, a boy commands: “Ready? Good, let's start the one-on-one fight!” Two students then start fighting but later another boy joins in to help his friend. The fight stops when the losing student shouts: “Enough, enough!” [Source: Nanyang Siang Pau, The Star, May 17, 2011]

Some widely viewed videos from Malaysia in 2007 depicted secondary school violence included a chair-throwing incident from Kota Tinggi, Johor and female students slapping another girl from Miri, Sarawak.

Efforts to curb the bullying problem have included a fun “psychological board-like game”, which was developed by Universiti Sains Malaysia researchers from the School of Education aimed at increasing awareness of and understanding the scourge.

Seven-Year-Old Student Beaten and Strangled to Death at a Malaysian Islamic School

In March 2012, Associated Press reported: “A Malaysian court sentenced an Islamic school warden to 18 years' imprisonment for causing the death of a 7-year-old boy, a government lawyer said, in what is believed to be one of the worst student abuse cases in the country. Hanif Mohamad Ali tied up, beat and strangled the boy at a private Islamic school in northern Perlis state where his job was to discipline children. The schoolboy suffered a seizure before falling into a coma and died in hospital three days later. [Source: AP, March 7, 2012]

“Deputy public prosecutor Noorin Badaruddin said Hanif, 26, escaped the death penalty after the court on Monday reduced a murder charge to culpable homicide not amounting to murder. This came at the end of the prosecution case on the grounds that they had failed to prove a prima-facie case against Hanif, she said. The warden subsequently pleaded guilty to the lesser charge. Noorin said Hanif wanted to punish the boy on suspicion that he stole money from a classmate, but it got out of hand. She said the cause of death in March 2011 was due to a lack of oxygen following the strangulation.

Judge Mohamad Zaki Abdul Wahab said he hoped the sentence would be a lesson to educators to be more careful in meting out punishment. "What should be done must be under the concept of education and not inhumane. It must not be reckless and excessive," Zaki was quoted as saying by national Bernama news agency. Bernama said Hanif, wearing a skullcap, was seen crying and embracing his friends after the judgment. Prosecutors had said Hanif was know to be strict during his two years' at the school's boarding hostel, but had no record of student abuse. His role was to discipline children and prevent any untoward behavior.

Primary School Education in Malaysia

The admission age to the first year of primary education is seven. Primary schooling is mandatory for all children between the ages of 7 and 12. Students sit for common public examinations at the end of primary school.

According to the Malaysian Government: “While most parents will choose to start their children on the journey of formalised learning at the pre-school level, compulsory education in Malaysia begins at the Primary schooling level. Primary education starts at the age of seven and lasts for a duration of six years. Parents are required to register their children at a local school before they reach this age to ensure that a place is reserved for them at the appropriate time. Parents may also request to transfer their children to other schools for various valid reasons. [Source: Malaysian Government]

Primary schooling develops a solid foundation for life-long learning in children. A standardised curriculum has been established which ensures that important and fundamental subjects are well covered. To measure a child’s progress at this level, public examinations known as the UPSR (Ujian Pencapaian Sekolah Rendah, or Primary Schooling Achievement Tests) is conducted at all public schools.

Secondary School Education

Secondary education lasts five years and is comprised of three years of lower secondary and two years of upper secondary. Students sit for common public examinations at the end of lower secondary and upper secondary levels.

According to the Malaysian Government: “Secondary schooling represents the second tier of formal education, a stage of academic development where the foundation developed at the primary level is built upon and strengthened in preparation for tertiary or vocational training. [Source: Malaysian Government]

This level of schooling in Malaysia is regulated by the Ministry of Education. A standardised curriculum ensures consistency in learning and standards. Progress is measured at different levels by a series of public examinations. Secondary schooling typically starts at the age of thirteen and lasts for a duration of six years. Students in transition from primary to secondary schooling may require registration, depending on their primary education.

Upon completion of secondary education, students can opt to pursue 1 to 2 years of post-secondary education. This is the university entrance preparatory course. In total, the 12 years of school education serves as the basic entry requirement into Year One of a bachelor’s degree programme in higher educational institutions. Image Sources:

Text Sources: New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Times of London, Lonely Planet Guides, Library of Congress, Malaysia Tourism Promotion Board, Compton’s Encyclopedia, The Guardian, National Geographic, Smithsonian magazine, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, AFP, Wall Street Journal, The Atlantic Monthly, The Economist, Foreign Policy, Wikipedia, BBC, CNN, and various books, websites and other publications.

Last updated June 2015

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