YAMALO-NENETS AUTONOMOUS OKRUG
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug is n autonomous okrug of Tyumen Oblast. The sixth largest state-like entity in Russia, it covers 750,300 square kilometers (289,700 square miles), is home to about 523,000 people and has a population density of 0.7 people per square kilometer. About 85 percent of the population live in urban areas.Salekhard is the capital, with about 43,000 people. The largest city is Noyabrsk, with about 110,000 people. Don’t confuse Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug with Nenets Autonomous Okrug which lies further to the west. Website: Tourist Information Portal of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug: welcome2yamal.ru
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug— usually just referred to as Yamal — embraces large swaths arctic tundra and taiga and has three large peninsulas: the Yamal Peninsula, Taz Peninsula and the Gyda Peninsula, which itself contains the Yavay Peninsula and Mamonta Peninsula). The Ob River flows through Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug to the Kara Sea via the Gulf of Ob, which plunges deep into the Okrug and has two sub-bays, the Taz Estuary and Khalmyer Bay. There are a number of islands off the okrug's coast: from west to east, the main ones are Torasovey Island, Bolotnyy Island, Litke Island, Sharapovy Koshki Islands, Bely Island, Shokalsky Island, Petsovyye Islands, Proklyatyye Islands, Oleny Island, and Vilkitsky Island.
Yamal-Nenets Autonomous region is one of the world's largest natural-gas-producing regions. Crude oil development is relatively new for the region. In the near term, the region is facing transportation infrastructure constraints, although the construction of the Purpe-Samotlor pipeline lessened some of these constraints. Transneft also is constructing the Zapolyarye-Purpe pipeline, connecting the Zapolyarye gas and condensate field to the Purpe-Samotlor pipeline. [Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, July 2015 ~]
Yamal is home to the Zapolyarye gas and condensate field and the Vostochno Messoyakha and Zapadno Messoyakha, Suzun, Tagul, and Russkoye oil fields, all of which will benefit from the additional transportation capacity. On the Yamal Peninsula itself, gas fields such as Yuzhno Tambey, Severno Tambey, and Khararsavey dominate the landscape, as well as the Vostochno Bovanenkov and Neitin gas and condensate fields. ~
Yamal (Nenets) National Okrug was formed in 1930 based on Ural Oblast. A large part of its territory lies north of the Arctic Circle and in the permafrost zone, including its capital Salekhard. Yamal is therefore an Arctic land of northern lights in the winter and white nights in June. Skiing is possible on Chernya Mountain in the Polar Urals even in July. The biggest event of the year is Reindeer Herders Day in March, with attracts reindeer herders, and tourists, from all over Russia and abroad. In the winter temperature drop to as low as -59°C. In the summer it can warm up to 30°C.
Getting There: There are 16 airlines in the region, which operate flights from Yekaterinburg, Moscow, Novosibirsk, St. Petersburg, Tyumen, Ufa on a regular basis. You can fly from other regions only to Salekhard, Sabetta, Nadym, Novy Urengoy, Noyabrsk. The flight from from Moscow to Novy Urengoy costs as little as 7,000 rubles. The travel time is 3.5 hours. The flight Moscow-Noyabrsk and Moscow-Salehard costs a little more — 9,000 rubles. By Train: You can get from Moscow and Vorkuta to Labytnanga. And you can get from cities such as Moscow, Ufa, Kazan, Chelyabinsk, Novosibirsk and Tyumen to Novy Urengoy and Noyabrsk. The cost of a ticket in a reserved seat car on the Moscow-Novy Urengoy route is be about 3,500 rubles. The journey takes 64 hours. There are no trains to Salekhard.
By Boat: Omsk-Tobolsk-Salekhard and Berezovo-Salekhard-Muzhi boats operate at part of inter-regional shipping routes on the Yamal Peninsula from June 1 to October 25. In addition, inter-municipal shipping is developed, but only in the warm season. You can find out the schedule and routes at dtidh.yanao.ru. Transport within th Region: Interregional bus service is poorly developed. You can get to Yamal from neighboring Ugra. Buses run on the Surgut-Noyabrsk route. The cost is 1,000 rubles. The journey takes from 4 to 5 hours. In the region itself there are 10 inter-municipal routes. There is no developed car sharing system in the district.
NENETS factsanddetails.com WESTERN RUSSIAN ARCTIC factsanddetails.com; RUSSIAN ARCTIC AND FAR NORTH factsanddetails.com
Ob River (flowing northeast of Novosibirsk and Tomsk) is the forth longest river in the world if you include its major tributary the Irtysh River and the seventh longest without it. The westernmost of three great rivers of Asiatic Russia, the Ob is 3,650 kilometers (2,270 miles) long and is an important commercial waterway that transports goods back and forth between the Trans-Siberian Railway and the resource rich regions of northern Siberia. Since it is frozen over half the year activity on the river is concentrated mostly in the summer months. The Ob-Irtysh is over 5570 kilometers (3461 miles) long
The Ob and the Irtysh River begin in the Altay Mountains, a range located near where Russia, China, Kazakhstan and Mongolia all come together, and flow northward. Although the Ob and the Irtysh begin at points within a couple of hundred miles of one another the two rivers don't join until the Irytysh has traveled over 1,600 kilometers (1000 miles). Once the two rivers have dropped down out of the highlands the meander lazily through open steppes, then rich farmland, and meet in flat, swampy plains, where the width of river ranges between a half a kilometer and a kilometer and a half. The Ob then passes through fir and spruce forests of West Siberia, then through Arctic tundra before finally emptying into the Kara Sea, an arm of the Arctic Ocean.
The Ob is one of the great Asiatic Russian rivers (the Yenisei and the Lena are the other two). According to the Guinness Book of World Records, it has the longest estuary (550 miles long and up to 50 miles wide) and is widest river that freezes solid. The mouth of the river on the Arctic Ocean is ice free only a couple of months a year. Huge flood sometimes form in the spring when high waters fed by melting snow and ice meet still frozen section of the river.
The main city on the Ob is Novosibirsk. Parts of the Ob are very polluted and nearly void of life. At the mouth of the river so much land has been degraded by gas exploration that huge chunks of permafrost land have literally melted into the sea. [Source: Robert Paul Jordan, National Geographic, February 1978, ♬]
Traveling on the Ob and Irtysh Rivers
There is a regualr ferry the Ob and Irtysh Rivers that travels between Omsk – Tobolsk – Khanty-Mansiysk – Berezovo and Salekhard (Yamal Nenets Autonomous Region). Omsk and Tobolsk both have train stations on the Trans-Siberian Railway. Khanti-Mansiysk is accessible by bus from Tyumen, which has a train station. After Khanti-Mansiysk you are beyond the road network. As well as the major stops listed on the route above, the boat also stops at plenty of isolated indigenous villages in between them. Salekhard is the only city in the world located exactly on the Arctic Circle.
The name of the ferry is the Rodina. It travels three times a month in June and September and four times a month in July and August. Going from Salekhard to Omsk: Day 1): departs Salekhard at 5:00pm; Dat 2) stops at Berezovo for 30 minutes ay 7:30pm; Day 3) stops at Oktobraskaya Market for one hour. Day 4) stops at Khanty-Mansiysk for two hours at 8:00am; Day 6) one hour stop in Tobolsk at 7:30. Day 9) arrive in Omsk at 3:00pm. Traveling the other direction, with the current, takes one third less time.
On the Salekhard - Tobolsk - Omsk trip on person posted on Lonely Planet’s Thorn Tree forum in 2013: “I'll start by saying that this boat is amazingly good value for money. Here some example prices. The first is for beds in the common area, similar to platzkart on the train, the second is for a bed in a private 4-, 6-, or 8 bed cabin and the third is for a bed in a private 2 bed cabin. 1) Salekhard - Omsk (8 days): 1162 / 1437 / 3926 roubles; 2) Salekhard - Tobolsk (5 days): 774 / 969 / 2632 roubles; 3) Tobolsk - Khanty-Mansiysk (2 days): 429 / 526 / 1394 roubles. Children go half price!
“Tickets can be bought in advance at the airport in Salekhard or on the boat itself an hour before departure (it's apparently never full). Most people get off at one of the stops in the first 24 hours when going south from Salekhard, leaving only one or two people in most of the cabins for most of the route. The beds are comfortable , both longer and wider than on trains. Everything is cleaned several times a day, there's a shower, laundry, restaurant with simple but tasty meals and alcohol. Breakfast about 70 roubles, lunch and dinner 150 - 300, beer 50 - 80, wine, vodka and so on also available. Theres also a small room where films are shown starting in the afternoon and a shop selling all sorts of useful stuff such as toiletries, mugs, books.
“You can walk around on deck as much as you want or sit and read a book on the benches up there. The scenery is more or less the same all the way - endless taiga forest with absolutely no sign of civilisation. There are a few villages such as Pitlyar for which the boat is their only access to the outside world and a couple of towns where you can get off the boat and walk around - Beryozovo 24 hours after Salekhard and Khanty-Manskiysk 3 days from Salekhard. From Khanty Mansiysk there are regular buses to Tyumen on the Trans Siberian which take 8 hours. At Tobolsk the boat stops next to the stunning kremlin, the only one in Siberia.
“Anyone can freely sail the whole route between Omsk and Pitlyar, a small village of 500 and the last stop before Salekhard. Salekhard and areas north are closed to outsiders, Russian or otherwise, unless they get a temporary permit. See the Yamal Peninsula link in my signature line for how to get this permit. Permit in hand, you can continue the journey north from Salekhard a further two days to Antipayuta, well beyond the Arctic Circle, with a similar level of comfort and price.
“It sails the whole route from June to September and once in October from Khanty-Mansiysk to Omsk. Check www.irsc.ru for timetables and fares. Only about half the boats from Salekhard go as far as Omsk, the rest stopping in Tobolsk. Eg in July and August, the most frequent sailing months, 6 boats go from Salekhard - Tobolsk each month but only 3 continue to Omsk. Check the timetable carefully when planning if you want to sail all the way to Omsk!”
Salekhard is the capital of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, with about 43,000 people. The largest city is Noyabrsk, with about 110,000 people. Salekhard is the only city in the world intersected by the Arctic Circle. The main parts of the town are about one kilometer south of the line but the suburbs stretch to the north of the circle. Salekhard was known as Obdorsk until 1935. The Arctic determines the city’s climate. The sun shines 1500 hours a year, the snow cover lies on the ground for 210 days and heating is required 292 days.
Salekhard is an important transportation hub. The city is connected by a ferry across the Ob (in the summer) and the ice road (in the winter) with the railway station Labytnangi. In 1949-1953 Salekhard was one of the base points for the construction of the Transpolar Highway — it is mainly an inactive railway branch to Novy Urengoy, also passing through Nadym. In the city there is a river port, which provides passenger communication with the Khanty-Mansiysk, Omsk and settlements on the banks of the Ob Bay, and the airport. Authorities plan to build a large polar resort called "Center of the Arctic” Tourism about 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) from the airport, near the Arctic circle. It was slated to open in 2015.
Accommodation: Salekhard has about 20 hotels and lodges. They are conveniently booked at the “Booking”. Accommodation is not cheap. The most popular place to stay with tourists is the Yuribey Hotel. Prices here start at 6,000 rubles per room, but you can choose a room with a shared room. In this case, you will have to pay about three thousand rubles for a bed. For economy tourists, hostels and inns are suitable. The price for one bed starts from 1,000 rubles. Local restaurants have a wide selection of Eastern and European dishes, which also offer traditional northern dishes from venison and local fish. The cost of such a dish starts from 500 rubles.
History of Salekhard
The history of Salekhard, known as Obdorsk until 1935, goes hand in hand with the history of the development of the north of Western Siberia, the creation of statehood among the indigenous population, and industrial development of the Arctic. For centuries it was an outpost of the Russian state on its northern path to the Pacific Ocean. After the annexation of Siberia by Russia, a settlement was set up near the confluence of the Poluy and Ob Rivers by Cossacks and Obdorsk Ostrog was founded in 1595.
Obdorsk helped tsarist Russia maintain its claim on the Arctic and northern Siberia. It could be reached from the south by traveling northward on the Ob River. The headquarters of Ostyak and Samoyed foremen and representatives of tsar administration were based there. In 1799, the fortress was abolished and it served as a trade center. In 1897, there were 150 trade outlets and there were 500 permanent residents engaged mainly in hunting, fishing and trade. The annual Obdorsk Fair, held in December and January, had a turnover exceeded 100,000 rubles, a lot in the late 19th and early 20th century.. Thousands of sellers and buyers came to fair. Merchants brought flour and bread, articles of metal and jewelry, cloth, wine and tobacco, and took away fur, walrus tusks, fish and bird's feathers.
After the formation of the Yamal-Nenets National Okrug Obdorsk became its capital and in 1933 received a new name — Salekhard (from the Nenets “Sale-Harn” — “a village on the foreland”). In 1938, the district center gained the status of a city. Now it is a modern administrative, cultural and business center of the region. Recently, Salekhard has experienced a construction boom of sorts, with the priority of construction of residential buildings and social facilities.
Since the 16th century, northern whitefish has a been a major trade item from the Yamal region. Fish processing factories were built in Obdorsk in the late 1930s. The first products of the Obdorsk canning plant were supplied to consumers in 1931. In 1933 the Novoportovskaya floating canning factory was opened and soon hundreds of thousands of cans were being shipped. In 1939, the canned fish factory participated in the World Exhibition of fish products in New York. Today, the fish cannery produces up to 3 million units per year. The range of products includes famous Northern fish — dried, salted and cold smoked, as well as frozen fish dishes. More than 70 types of products are produced.
In 2005, a new fish processing plant was opened, conveniently located right by the river, and allowing transport ships and fishing vessels to approach the piers when there is no ice. The construction of the building took about a year. In summer 2016, after temperatures rose as high as 35°C (95°F) thawed anthrax infected corpses frozen since 1941 anthrax spores infected reindeer herds and herders near Salekhard.
Sights and Around Salekhard
The main attraction in Salekhard is the Shemanovsky museum and exhibition complex. It has 80,000 historical, scientific, social and artistic exhibits. Its main draw is Lyuba, a well-preserved baby mammoth found in 2007. Lyuba is named after the wife of reindeer herder Yuri Hoody, who found the mummified ancient animal.
Ust-Polui Ancient Sanctuary (on Angalsky cape in Salekhard) is an archaeological dated to the 5th century B.C. - A.D. 3rd century. Located at the crossroads of different natural areas and peoples of Western Siberia, it is believed to have been a meeting place and sacred ceremonial center in which technology, culture and legends and epic tales were created and shared among different of the Priobje regions. The collection of artifacts from the site items made from bronze, stone, clay, wood, bone made using various techniques and technologies such as casting, carving, sculpting and engraving.
Natural and Ethnographic Complex Gornoknyazevsk (on the Ob river, 15 kilometers from Salekhard) was opened in 2001. Here a traditional village of northern Siberian and Arctic reindeer peoples has been built, complete with chums (nomadic tents) covered with reindeer skins and birch bark and traditional wooden buildings. Visitors will see more than 400 exhibits — household items of reindeer herders, hunters and fishermen of the North. You can try on traditional costumes, spend the night in a real chum and see the residence of Father Frost of Yamal — Yamal Iri.
Gornoknyazevsk is an old Polar Ural village on the right bank of the Ob River, it was founded in the 17th century. Khanty called it Kanos-Puhor — “Knyazhiy town.” Here was the residence of Khanty Knyaz Ivan Tayshin — the first representative of the Russian Tsar in Yamal. To hnor him, a sculpture of Knyaz Tayshin carved from the trunk of a huge pine was installed in Gornoknyazevsk in 2003.
Panaevskaya Tundra (30 kilometers west of Yar-Sale, 150 kilometers east of Salekhard) was called Ngmytarmah-Salle, which means “the land of ancestors”, in ancient times. It is home to large herds of reindeer and abundant amounts cloudberries, cowberries and other berries as well as many varieties of mushrooms. Its lakes and rivers teem with valuable northern species of fish — Siberian white salmon, whitefish, and broad whitefish. There are also plenty of waterfowl game birds. Reindeer breeding remains the locals main occupation of the locals, who roam the tundra pastures with their herds. The municipal reindeer breeding facility “Panayevskoye” is one of the biggest in the world. Reindeer-pulled sleds and sledges is the most popular means of transport in this area.
Polyarno-Uralsky Natural Park
Polyarno-Uralsky Natural Park (near Labytnangi, 10 kilometers north of Salekhard) was created in 2014. It covers an area of more than 3,000 square kilometers and is divided into four sectors: Gorno-Khadatinsky, Sob-Rayisky, Hanmei-Paipudynsky, and Polyarno-Uralsky. Each of these parts has its own features: for instance, Sob-Rayisky is 80 percent mountains. They are called Ray-Iz and there is the Potyarny peak at 1,290 meters high. The Gorno-Khadatinsky part has many rivers and lakes.
Polyarno-Uralsky has rare species of animals including the broad-billed sandpiper, Siberian salamander, gray toad, wolverine, river otter, red-breasted goose, lesser white-fronted goose, Siberian crane, pallid harrier, and great snipe. The site also contains protected geological landmarks: the natural monument Nyrdwoamen-Shor which has outcrops of nephrite, jadeite, jasper and other minerals, as well as non-freezing lakes Ebey-Tou, Big Pike Lake and Big Khadatinskoye Lake.
The park also contains the 501st railroad construction site — one of the biggest GULAG projects — and the road to the Kharbey molybdenum mine as well as Cold War nuclear silos, traditional nomad camps and holy places of the indigenous people of the North. Polyarno-Uralsky natural park allows deer breeding, fishing and hunting for the indigenous people, but not tourists.
Jade Valley (in the Sob-Rayiz area of the Polyano-Uralsky Natural Park) is known for it nephrite (jade) boulders found in around Nyrdvomen-Shor River and its branches in 1973-1981. Today, greenish- colored serpentinite rocks can be found in the valley and tourist often take them as souvenirs. Near Jade Valley is 876-meter-high Pour-Keu mountai and 1154-meter-high high Nerd-Vomen-Is, along which the Nyrdvomen-Shor.
Zhivun Natural and Ethnographic Park-Museum
Zhivun Natural and Ethnographic Park-Museum (in the village of Khanty-Men 160 kilometers southwest of Saleshard) contains seven wooden buildings built according to the traditions of the Northern Khanty people. They are all log cabins. The winter residential house of the Togachyovy family was built in the early 20th century, the barn with a lean-to belonging to T. Orlova were built in 1979. The utility shop of Z. Kurtyamova dates to the middle of the 20th century and a similar building belonging to the Togachyovy family was built in the early 20th century.
In addition, Zhivun includes three holy sheds. The two belonging to V. Togachyov and G. Longortov were built in the 20th century. The one belonging to V. Pystyrev was raised in 1923. A holy shed — a low, windowless hut and a symbolic home for idol-protectors of the area — was a part of every Khanty settlement. Tents are set up depending on the season — for instance, birch bark ones in the summer and fur tents in the winter.
Holidays such as Vorna-Hutl and Raven's day are celebrated in the park-museum. Lun-kutop-hutl — the day of the middle of the summer — surprisingly celebrated in early August. The village of Khanty-Men is a part of the settlement Muzhevskoe, Shuryshkarsky District.
Novyi Port and Merzlotnik, the World’s Largest Natural Fridge
Novyi Port (250 kilometers east-northeast of Salekhard) is a town with about 1,800 people at the mouth of the Ob River. It and Dikson are the main port on the Kara Sea. Its main economic activity is fishing. There is a fish processing factory in the town. In the 1930s, Novy Port was coal bunkering port, providing coal to vessels traversing the Northern Sea Route. The Soviets tried to power each leg of the voyage with locally mined coal but coal bunkered at Novy Port came from other Soviet Arctic ports. Novy Port has a severe subarctic climate. Even in the warmest month, July, the weather is notoriously bad. Winter lasts eight months, and precipitation is low throughout a year.
The “Merzlotnik” facility is the largest natural refrigerator in the world. Located on Cape Kamenny in Novy Port, it was built in the 1950s to store large stocks of fish. The “merzlotnik” in Novyi Port is the world's largest natural refrigerator. Caves cut in the permafrost extend over a kilometer. It took “special settlers” ten years to cut the permafrost caves. The ice “coat” does not thaw even in the summer, all year round the temperature inside is a stable minus 15-17 degrees Centigrade.
The “merzlotnik” consists of 200 artificial permafrost caves, with a total volume of 3,200 cubic meters. It has never been rennovated or reconstructed, so it remains in its original form. Since 2007, the “merzlotnik” has been under state protection as a monument but it still serves its original purpose as a place for storing valuable fish species caught in the Gulf of Ob: sturgeon, muksun, nelma, and vendace. You can get to the “Merzlotnik” from Salekhard. Individual tours have to be arranged in advance with the local fish factory.
Nadym and No. 76 Gulag Camp of the 501st Construction
Nadym (290 kilometers east-southeast of Salekhard) is the administrative center of Nadym region of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District. It is located on the left bank of the Nadym River. The main industry is the production and transportation of natural gas and oil. The district contains infrastructure used to transport major gas flows of the Urals and central Russia to Eastern and Western Europe. The Nadym region is home to more than 40 oil and gas fields.
76th Gulag camp of the 501st Construction at the railway siding "Glukhariny" (134 kilometers from of Nadym, km 217 on Salekhard-Nadym railway line ) is located between railway stations of Orliny and Glukhariny. The forced-labor camp was organized in spring of 1950. It held 352 male prisoners serving 15-25-year sentences. The living space of each prisoner was a little more than one square meter. The prisoners were involved in the construction of the "Transpolar Mainline" railway.
Polar Urals is the northern most part of the Ural Mountain range. They extend for about 385 kilometers (239 miles) from Mount Konstantinov Kamen in the north to the Khulga River in the south. They have an area of about 25,000 square kilometers (9,700 square miles) and a strongly dissected relief. The maximum height is 1,499 meters (4,918 feet) at Payer Mountain and the average height is 1,000 to 1,100 meters (3,300 to 3,600 feet).
The mountains of the Polar Ural have exposed rock with sharp ridges, though flattened or rounded tops are also found. The Polar Urals is divided by the valley of the Sob river into northern and southern parts. Settlements are located along the railway. The Polar Urals are in the western part of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Komi Republic is not that far to the west.
The Sub-Polar Ural and the Northern Ural get the most snow and rain water of any part of the Urals. The upper areas of the western slopes in particularly receive large amounts of rain and snow: 1500 millimeters or more annually. The Northern Ural get about 1000 millimeters annually. The plain and the piedmont area get only 500 - 800 millimeters. The most precipitation occurs in the warm period from April to October. About to 40 percent of the precipitation is in the form of the snow.
Glacier of the Romantics (in Polar-Ural Natural Park) is one the most accessible places in Polar-Ural Natural Park. To see the glacier and even climb it doesn’t require great skill or special physical training. Glacier Romantikov is located on the southern slope of the Rai-Iz massif. It is recommended to climb in the warm season. It is said the area is most picturesque in the summer when the sun turns ice into a lake that has a piercing blue color. Climbing the glacier are part of a weekend tour can be arranged in Salekhard.
Noyabrsk (600 kilometers southeast of Salekhard) is the largest city in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, with about 110,000 people. It is located in the middle of the West Siberian oil fields on the Tyumen–Novy Urengoy railway about 300 kilometers north of Surgut. The city history dates back to 1975 when a landing party arriving by helicopter disembarked on the ice of the Itu-Yakha River to start developing Kholmogorskoye oil field. In November 1976, the first party of railway builders arrived at the site of the future city and camped out by Lake Khanto. In October 1977, the settlement of Noyabrsk, which grew around the railway station of Noyabrskaya, was officially registered.
The economy of Noyabrsk is based on mainly on oil and natural gas production. The Noyabrsk is the base of operations for: 1) Gazpromneft–Noyabrskneftegaz, a major oil producing subsidiary of Gazprom Neft and the largest oil company in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug and accounts for 6 percent of of Russia's total oil production; and 2)Gazprom dobycha Noyabrsk, one of the three leading Gazprom subsidiaries, with annual production of 85 billion cubic meters, 9.3 percent of Gazprom's total yearly gas production.
Gazprom dobycha Noyabrsk It operates several gas fields around the city: 1) Vyngapurovskoye (launched in 1978) and Vyngayakhinskoye (launched in 2006) fields to the northeast; 2) Komsomolskoye (launched in 1993) and Zapadno-Tarkosalinskoye (launched in 1996) fields to the northwest. The cost of production is relatively low. In addition, there are over 1,000 companies providing services for the oil and gas industry and support for the social infrastructure of the city.
Noyabrsk Airport is located approximately six kilometers to the west of the city. It is a modern airport capable of landing large aircraft. There are flights most days to Moscow (Domodedovo or Vnukovo Airports), several times a week to Salekhard, and to a variety of other locations. The town is divided into a smaller southern part, Noyabrsk-I, and a larger northern part, Noyabrsk-II, each having its own train station. which sometimes confuses travelers. The railway line separates the residential part of the town from the industrial sites that service the oil fields.
Image Sources: Wikimedia Commons
Text Sources: Federal Agency for Tourism of the Russian Federation (official Russia tourism website russiatourism.ru ), Russian government websites, UNESCO, Wikipedia, Lonely Planet guides, New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, National Geographic, The New Yorker, Bloomberg, Reuters, Associated Press, AFP, Yomiuri Shimbun and various books and other publications.
Updated in September 2020