The Shimanami Route (between Onomichi on Honshu and Imabari on Shikoku) is 59-kilometer route employing 10 suspension bridges of varying size that connect the main island Honshu (Hiroshima Prefecture) and Shikoku (Ehime Prefecture) and nine small islands in between. Opened in May 1999, it cost $7 billion and the lives of seven men to build.

The Shimanami Route includes: 1) the Tatara Bridge, which connects Ikuchi-jima and Omishima islands and is the world's longest cable-styled bridge, and 2) the 4,045-meter Kurushima Kaiyo Bridge, the first bridge in the world with three suspended sections. Much of the route can be covered by bicycle or by foot on a pathway.

The Shimanami Route is the third route linking Honshu and Shikoku. The first was the Seto Ohashi Bridge between Kojima (Okayama Prefecture) on Honshu and Sakaide (Kagawa Prefecture) on Shikoku. The second, the Kobe Naruto route, opened in 1998.

The three routes were built at a cost of $25 billion by the Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority. Many people considered the project a colossal waste of money because the bridges are only lightly used. By 2002, the Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority was virtually bankrupt with liabilities of more than $30 billion and annual losses of $500 million. The tolls on the bridges are very high. Websites: Japan Guide japan-guide ;

Shimanami Kaido

The Shimanami Kaido is a series of seven bridges that start in Onomichi in Hiroshima Province and lead all the way across six islands to Imabari in Shikoku in Ehime Prefecture. It is possible to cycle along the whole route. The 'Shimanami Kaido', serves as an elevated cycling trail. While the route is not completely flat there is no heavy climbing either! Even the more leisurely bike riders can cover dozens of kilometers in a half day or so of riding. The scenery is stunning along pretty much the whole route. It is no surprise that CNN picked as the world’s seven cycling routes. To make it even easier to enjoy, there are bikefriendly hotels in both terminal cities and numerous points to pick-up and drop-off rental bikes. You can also expect help and support if you run into any problem.

It is possible to cover the entire 80 kilometers sea road by bicycle in one day. If you want to do only part of it, no problem. There are 14 convenient rental and drop-off points along the route where you can stop and chill out and take in the wonderful view of the sea from the bridge. A bus or car can pick you up and take you to your car or a bus or train station. If you want to take your time and enjoy the islands there are places along the route where you can stay for a night. Alternatively you can combine bike, bus and boat to enjoy parts of the cycling course. Another possibility to enjoy this area is by sea-kayak, which allows you to see the bridges from water level. It is also possible to combine kayak and cycling. Currents in this area, for example under the last bridge to Shikoku, are up to 6 knots strong, so it is advisable to start with a guided tour.

Websites: Shimanami Bicycle Route site; Kansai Cyclist ; Japan Cycling Navigator Japan Guide first hand report Francois’s Japan blog ;Japan Guide japan-guide ; Sunrise Itoyama is one of the main bike outfitters at Shikoku terminus of the Shimanami Bicycle Route. Location: 2-8-1 Sunaba-cho, Imabari-shi, Ehime Website:

Shimanami Kaido Bicycle Route

The Shimanami Bicycle Route is an 80-kilometer bicycle route that embraces the bridges of Shimanami Route and country roads that parallel the Shimanami Route highway. Visitors can rent bicycle on one side of the route — in either Onomichi or Imabari — and drop it off at a bicycle shop on the other side. Walks with 3,000 or so participants are sponsored along the same route. Sea kayaking is also possible in area or as part of the route.

Many tourists start from Onomichi. However, considering the wind direction and uphill slopes, it's actually easier to start from Imabari. Strong winds often blow from the southwest. And there are some slopes you have to climb up on the Kurushima Kaikyo Bridge and Oshima island, the island from Imabari.

To start the trip in Onomishi you take the ferry opposite from the station and cross the Onomichi channel to Mukaijima. There you can start cycling along the designated course. The route is an interesting mix of modern Japanese infrastructure technology and bucolic Inland Sea countryside. Riders and walkers can visit castles, shrines, temples, museums, cafes and restaurants. There are also inns and hotels along where people can stay the night. There are stunning views of the sea and the islands from the bridges. Locals like to tell stories about the Murakami pirates that controlled the waters and the treasures the buried.

The Shimanami Route is the only expressway of the three Honshu-Shikoku bridges that have bicycling-walking lanes on the entire route. Concrete and steel dividers protect cyclist and pedestrians from automobile traffic on the bridges, which range in length for 300 meters to six kilometers, and long, winding approaches to and from the bridges. With the exception of a few hills on Oshima islands, the ramps provide the most clanging ascents and descents. Highlights of the journey include Kosanji temple in Setoda.

Each island has a unique atmosphere and the cycle course follows smaller roads or a route separated from the cars, so for the most part you can cycle in peace without having to worry about motored vehicles. The views along the way are breathtaking. Spring is by far the best to go as you can see lots of ripe mikans (oranges) and lemons and many types of flowers along the route.

The total distance from Onomichi to Imabari is roughly 80 kilometers and can be done in eight or so hours of you are okay but not great shape and don’t bicycle so much. You should be able to do it faster if you do a fair amount of cycling and don’t stop and take a lot of breaks and pictures. There are variations of the route and time and distance can also be affected which route you chose.

Distances A: 1) Onomichi to Mukaishima: frequent ferry crossings
2) Mukaishima to Innoshima: 8.1 kilometers
3) Innoshima to Ikuchijima (Setoda): 12.9 kilometers (total 21 kilometers)
4) Ikuchijima(Setoda) to Omishima: 19.2 kilometers (total 40.2 kilometers)
5) Omishima to Hakata: 9.6 kilometers (total 49.8 kilometers)
6) Hakata to Oshima: 5.9 kilometers (total 55.7 kilometers)
7) Oshima to Imabari: 11.5 kilometers (67.2 kilometers)
8) Imabari to Matsuyama: 40 kilometers

Distances B: 1) Onomichi city and Onomichi Mukaishima Ferry across Mukojima Island, to Innoshima Bridge between Mukojima Island and Innoshima island: nine kilometers
2)Innoshima Bridge, across Innoshima island past Hassakuya rest house to Ikuchi Bridge: between Innoshima island and Ikuchi Island: 12 kilometers (21 kilometers from the start)
3) Ikuchi Bridge past Ikuchijima Island, Dolce rest house to Setoda: 17 kilometers (38 kilometers from the start)
4) Setoda past Tatara Bridge, Omishima Island,Tatara Shimanami Park to Omishima and Bridge: eight kilometers (46 kilometers from the start)
5) Omishima Bridge past Hakatajima Island,Marin Oasis Hakata restaurant to Oshima Bridge; five kilometers (51 kilometers from the start)
6) Oshima Bridge, past Oshima island, Ishino café, past Yoshiumi-Ikiikikan gift shop to Kurushima Bridge(on Oshima Island side): 18 kilometers (69 kilometers from the start)
7) Kurushima Bridge (on Oshima Island side) to Imabari Station: 11 kilometers (80 kilometers from the start)

Bicycle Rentals and Getting to the Shimanami Kaido

If you start Onomichi, there are several places that rent bicyles for reasonable prices and allow to return the bicycles at any one of the 'stations' on the islands, between Onomichi or Imabari. Prices are ¥1,100yen per day for adults; ¥300 for children. Electrically assisted bikes are 1,600en per day. Each bicycle requires a 1,100yen deposit that will be lost if you return the bicycle at a different station and a passport or drivers licence for ID. There are places to rent bicycles at the Municipal Parking Garage behind the Green Hill Hotel in Onomichi, five minute walk from the station along the coast. There are also bicycle rentals at the foot of Tatara-Ohashi Bridge (to Setoda) and next to Oyamazumi-jinja Shrine. In Setoda there are bike rentals At the tourist information office at the Belcante Hall and at Sunset Beach.

For information on kayaking try Setouchi Seakayak Adventures (near Fukuyama) is run by Murakami Suigun-Shokai. It is open all year and offers camping tours to experience the nature of the Seto Inland Sea as well as day trip. Tours and courses designed to your specifications, beginners courses offered as required, equipment rental available.. Tours are available in the Onomichi, Tomonoura and Shimanami Kaido areas. Location: Utsumicho, Fukuyama, Hiroshima 722-2641, Phone: 090-8718-4141, Website:

Accommodation: There are quite a few places to stay in Onomichi in Hiroshima Prefecture on Honshu and Imabari in Ehime Prefecture on Shikoku — the two terminus points of the Shimanami Bicycle Route. The best choice is to stay in one of the middle islands, either Setoda (Ikuchijima) or Omishima.

Getting to Omonichi By Train Onomichi is located about 80 kilometers east of Hiroshima and 250 kilometers from Osaka and is accessible by rail. The best way is to take the Sanyo Shinkansen to Fukuyama station, this can be from either the Hiroshima or Osaka direction. At Fukuyama, transfer to a local JR train bound for Onomichi. The full route takes about 1 hours from Hiroshima or about 2 hours from Osaka.

By Boat: There are frequent high-speed boats from Onomichi to Setoda or Innoshima and from Mihara to Setoda and less frequent from Mihara to Omishima. Onomichi Port is opposite the station on the ground floor of the Green Hill Hotel. Mihara Port is a five minute walk south of Mihara Station: Cross the traffic-light, follow the board-walk sideway and then the underground passage. High-speed boat Mihara-Setoda (boats almost every 30 minutes, 30 min. ride) ; Mihara-Omishima (Iguchi Port) (6 boats per day, 40 min.), Onomichi-Setoda (9 boats per day, 40 min.).. As there are fewer boats to Omishima, you will be more flexible if you start from there and cycle to Setoda.

Onomichi: Start of the Shimanami Kaido

Onomichi (75 kilometers east of Hiroshima) is a picturesque port town nestled between the Seto Inland Sea and a steep mountainside. Known as the “town of slopes,” it features houses packed together on a maze of steep roads and alleys. There are 25 temples in the town as well as stone monuments inscribed with words from famous writers. Worth a look is the pair of two meter-long straw sandals that hang from Niomon Gate at Saikokuji temple. The town has been featured in films, literature and art.

Onomichi sits on a slope overlooking the Seto Inland Sea. It has a lot of character and personality that a lot of other towns on the coastal Inland Sea belt lack. It is famous for its winding alleys and stairways, spectacular views of the Seto Inland Sea. The most spectacular of it's temples is Senko-ji, on top of the hill just behind the station. There is a quaint little park on the top of the hill with an art museum partly designed by Tadao Ando. The park has plenty spots to enjoy coffee and ice-cream of any flavour and admire the view. It is particularly pretty in spring when the park blloms with cherry blossoms.

Tourist Information pick up a basic pamphlet with a map including English place names at the station. For more details, tourist information offices are located in the large modern shell-shaped hall to the right of the station and in the shopping arcade. Map . Transportation in Onomichi: The Retro Bus departing from in front of the station every 30 min. is convenient for sightseeing and reaching places like ) or Jodo-ji Tenple. To reach the foot of Senko-ji Ropeway get off at Nagaeguchi busstop, Getting to Omonichi By Train Onomichi is located about 80 kilometers east of Hiroshima and 250 kilometers from Osaka and is accessible by rail. The best way is to take the Sanyo Shinkansen to Fukuyama station, this can be from either the Hiroshima or Osaka direction. At Fukuyama, transfer to a local JR train bound for Onomichi. The full route takes about 1 hours from Hiroshima or about 2 hours from Osaka. By local JR Sanyo line from Fukuyama is 20 minutes. Take the train in the direction of Mihara, Hiroshima. From Mihara it is 10 minites in the direction of Okayama. Shin-Onomichi station, were the Kodama-Shinkansen stops, is very inconvenient. Changing from Shinkansen to a local train at Fukuyama or Mihara and getting off at Onomichi station is easier and cheaper. Websites:Onomichi City tourist sites ; Lonely Planet

Sights, Accommodation and Food in Onomichi

If you have little time to spare, concentrate on Senko-ji and its surroundings. From the station, turn left, cross the railway and choose any of the paths leading up between the houses along the steep slope. The map and signs along the way will help you not to get too lost-but then again, getting lost is the best part of visiting Onomichi, as you will discover small gardens, galleries, cafes and mini-museums along your way. You can also take a bus and then the ropeway to reach the top of Senko-ji Park.

On top of Senko-ji Park, don't miss climbing to the viewing platform! Then head down along the Path of Literature (Bungaku no komichi Bungaku no komichi).. It features 24 stones, carved with memorable quotes from Japanese authors somehow linked to Onomichi; alas, they're all in Japanese, but it's a pleasant stroll just the same. You will soon reach Senko-ji Temple, the largest temple on the hill, spectacularly located between large rocks. Continue to the bottom of the hill, where the path merges with the well-signposted Historical Temple Walk

The Historical Temple Walk (Kodera-meguri Kodera-meguri), which connects 25 of Onomichi's better-known temples in a 2-kilometer east-west walk. Senko-ji is #7, heading west will take you back to the train station while at the eastern end (#23) is Jodo-ji (Jodo-ji).. Alternatively you can walk back to the station through the 'hondori' or covered shopping district which is still very much alive and has some interesting retro style shops, for example a former public bath turned café. If you have a whole day course: take the Retro Bus to Jodo-ji and walk your way back along Historical Temple Walk, up to Senko-ji Park and back to the station, enjoying the view of the sea and the leisurely atmosphere of the old town.

Food in Onomichi is very good. There are some restaurants and coffee shops at the foot of the ropeway. The main shopping and eating area is away from temple loop walk at the shopping arcade or along the road parallel to the sea. Onomichi Ramen is well known in Japan. The soup is made from a soysauce and slightly fishy base with pork, spring onions and bamboo shoots. The popular ramen shop Shukaen, south of the ropeway station on the wide street leading towards the sea, unfortunately closed in 2019. It always had a long line. You can enjoy Italian food in a pizzeria just opposite Tsutafuji.

Accommodation: The Green Hill Hotel occupies the best location, opposite the station on the sea front. The first floor of the Hotel serves as Port Terminal, from a cafe terrace on the second floor you can watch the ships come and go. Onomichi U2 is a new hotel designed to meet the various needs of the avid modern cyclist. The hotel has rooms equipped with bike racks; the restaurant, bar and café menus were planned with athletes in mind; and there is, of course, a shop with bike rental service. The complex is in a renovated warehouse built in 1943, with a minimal and warm interior designed by architect Makoto Tanijiri Address: Nishigosho-cho, Onomichi-shi, Hiroshima 722-0037, Tel: +81-848-21-0550 Hiroshima | Onomichi Complex 78 There are many other places t stay.


Yuge Island

Yuge Island (to the side of Shimanami Kaido off Innoshima Island) is a small island with beaches, pine trees and onsen. There are two ports: Yuge Port and Kamiyuge. The Kamiyuge Port area has some old-style streets. There is a sea-water onsen, Shionoyu, which is based on the Thalassic therapy with the sea water in this area. Many of the baths soothe the body by using different types of salt. Salt used to be produced on this island. Yuge is still very much untouched and there's a definite feel of the 'old Japan' here. Bicycle rental is possible at the tourist information in the Log House at the harbour. Yuge has one of the best beaches in the area, Matsubara kaisuiyokujoMatsubara kaisuiyokujo, lined with pine trees under which it is possible to camp.

Accommodation: Public Lodge Yuge is right above the beach, also has an onsen and offers fresh seafood. Toyoshima Community Center Toyoshima Community Center is a cheap, unique public lodging facility located on a small, almost uninhabited island south of Yuge. Getting There: You can only get to Yuge by boat, there are no bridges to the island. The main ferry port to the island is from Innoshima. High-speed boats run from Onomichi 6 times per day. Websites: The Yuge island’s webpage: town.kamijima; Yuge Island Map:

Setoda and Ikuchijima Island: Mid-Point of the Shimanami Kaido

Ikuchijima Island (part of the Shimanam Bicycle Route) in the Seti Island Sea is famous for lemons. The temperature there rarely drops below freezing which make it ideal for growing lemons and other citrus fruit. The wild boars found on the islands produce meat that has a lemony flavor. Ikuchijma is also the home of nihonga master Ikuo Hirayama. Seventeen art works are scattered on the island and neighboring Koneshima Island. Other sights include Miraishin no Oka, a 5000-square-meter garden made completely of marble; and the thee-story pagoda at Kojijo temple.

Setoda (38 kilometers from Onomichi) is the main town in the middle of the Shimanam Bicycle Route. Colorful Kosanji Temple was built in 1946 with the private funds of Kozo Kanemoto, a local steel magnate. It features an ornately decorated gate modeled on the Yomeimon Gate at Nikko, a temple modeled after the Hall of Dreams at Horyuji Temple in Nara and a Main Hall inspired by Shitennoji Temple in Osaka. Inside the temple is a collection of Buddhist images and ancient art objects designated as Important Cultural Treasures. The temples greatest attraction, however, is its kitschy 1000 Buddha Cave, which features an tableaux vision of hell with bodies of the damned beginning chopped, burned and mutilated. Inside Kosan-ji’s spacious temple grounds, you can climb up to the hill covered in white Italian marble or dive into the depth of the Buddhist hell cave. Website: kousanji.or.

There is also an art museum with pictures of Hirayama Ikuo, a Japanese-style painter born on the island. A 15 minute walk along Shiomachi shopping street will take you to Setoda Port. Accommodation: Setoda (Ikuchijima) and Omishima are the best places to stay choice is to stay in the middle of the Shimanam Bicycle Route. In Setoda there are youth hostels ( ) and a few ryokan; There is a campsite at Sunset Beach and a KOA log-house camping on the southern coast ( Setoda Map:

Omishima Island

Omishima (51 kilometers from Onomichi and 13 kilometers from Setoda) lies 200 meters across a channel from the town of Sezaki. It is a hilly 10-square-mile island known for its beautiful scenery and armor collection. Buffeted by raging waves, the northern coast of the island contains towering 300-foot-high cliffs, rock tunnels, caves, stone columns and reefs. The "Bridge of Waves" is a huge rock with a cave and a great arch. Omishima Map:

The main attraction of Omishima island is Oyamazumi-jinja, a very big and impressive shrine. Oyamatsumi Shrine was once patronized by pirates and now contains Japan's greatest collection of armor. Some 80 percent of the of the armor, helmets, samurai swords and artifacts have been designated National Treasures in Japan. In an adjacent building is the boat used by Emperor Hirohito while doing marine science research. Mt. Karei on the Oshima Island has an observatory that offers excellent vantage points to observe the archipelago seascapes with Hakatajima Island and Omishima Island, as well as Noshima Island where the old Murakami Navy was headquartered.

Accommodation in Omishima: There are a handful of places to stay. There are two big and modern campsites with showers, tent-hire, restaurants and barbeque rentals. The first is just below the Tatara bridge to Setoda, called the Toitakaigan Campsite, and the other is the Mori Campsite not quite as big but still very well equipped. Furusato Ikoi no Ie offers the unique experience of staying in an old wooden school building right on the coast, 20 minutes by bus or 30 minutes by bike from Oyamazumi-jinja Shrine. Address: Omishima Furusato Ikoi no Ie 5208-1 Munakata, Omishima-cho, Imabari, Tel: 0897-83-1111

Bike Ride Between Omishima and Setoda: Some people only ride bicycle on the eight kilometer section between Omishima and Setoda, From Omishima Iguchi Port you can take a local bus (to Miyaura-ko Port Miyaura-ko, 8 buses per day, 6 minutes) or taxi to Oyamazumi-jinja. Leaving the shrine, to the left, you will find restaurants and souvenir shops; to the right, there is the cycle station where you can rent your bike for the day. On road between Omishima and Setoda there is hill through mandarin groves almost all the way back to Iguchi Port. There is another cycle station at the foot of Tatara-ohashi bridge. On the way, you will see Tatara-onsen Tatara-onsen on the right side, a pleasant little hot spring were you can relax for ¥ 300.

After a fairly steep climb to the bridge, you will have a spectacular view of the sea and surrounding islands. Throw the fee for the bridge (¥100) in the box at the entrance. From the bridge it is a pleasant ride below palm-trees along the sea-side that will take you first to Sunset-Beach (beach, restaurant, campsite, sports facilities) and Setoda Youth Hostel into Setoda. On the way, you can enjoy some artwork, like a structure with white wings standing in the sea. In Setoda, hand back the cycles at the tourist information.


Imabari (70 kilometers from Onomichi and 32 kilometers from Setoda) is the terminus of the Shimanami Kaido in Shikoku. The main part of town and Imabari JR train station are a couple kilometers from the bike trail terminus, which in Namikata town, Imabari city, the entrance of the Shimanami Kaido at the Kurushima Bridge, over Kurushima Strait to Oshima Island, There are bicycle rentals and places to stay in Namikata and Imabari City. Imabari city is the hometown of the great Japanese architect Kenzo Tange. Pritzker-prize winning architect designed the the Toyo Ito Museum of Architecture: Steel Hut for exhibitions and Silver Hut for workshops. Both overlook the Seto Inland Sea. Museum Address: 2418 Urado, Omishima-cho, Imabari-shi, Ehime 794-1308, Tel: +81-897-74-7220,

There are two cycling terminals at Imabari Station. There is another large bike terminal at Sunrise Itoyama, which also has places to stay, but is difficult to get to without a bike. There are infrequent buses from Imabari Station to the Sunrise Itoyama terminal. A taxi ride costs about ¥2000. There is a cycling terminal near Habu Port, which is served by a high speed ferry. Bicycles cannot be taken on board of some of the ferries.

Many tourists start from Onomichi. However, considering the wind direction and uphill slopes, it's actually easier to start from Imabari. Strong winds often blow from the southwest. And there are some slopes you have to climb up on the Kurushima Kaikyo Bridge and Oshima island, the island from Imabari.

Accommodation in Imabari 1) GH Cyclonoie is a one minute walk from Imabari JR Station. The staff are also cycling guides for the Shimanami Kaido. You can get lots of cycling information and there is a bicycle garage storage room. There is a small cafe, community room. Dormitory rooms (mixed /female) and private rooms start at 2,900 yen. 2) Namito Minato is located in Namikata town, Imabari city, the entrance of the Shimanami Kaido. All dormitory rooms have an ocean view. 3) GH Namito Minato is 10 minutes from the Kurushima-Kaikyo bridge, the Shimanami Kaido by bike. The building is a former Namikata ferry station was remodeled into a guesthouse. Dormitory (mixed/female) bedss start at 2,600 yen. 4) Imabari Kokusai Hotel has an extensive selection of recreational facilities, including restaurants and bars, banquet venues, outdoor baths, a pool and a gym. Rooms start at 8,000 yen per person.

Getting to and from Imabari 1) There are buses to Oshima, Hakatajima and Omishima islands running from JR Imabari Station and Imabari Port, so you can access them without using bicycles. 2) JR Imabari Station is reached by JR trains on Shikoku. Trains to Shikoku from Osaka, Hiroshima, Okayama and Kobe pass over the Seto Ohashi Bridge near Okayama. If you come by train from Tokyo or Osaka Transfer from the Shinkansen to "Express Shiokaze" at Okayama Station. Get off at Imabari Station on the Yosan Line. 4) There are highway buses from Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe, Hiroshima and Fukuoka to Imabari. 5) You can take the Sanyo Shinkansen to Fukuyama station and take a bus or train to Onomichi. There are probably buses between Fukuyama and Imabari. 6) Drive to Onomichi, take a bus to Imabari and bike back to Onomichi.

By Boat: Imabari is served by Imabari Port, Tomoura Port, Kinoura Port and Habu Port: There is a cycling terminal near Habu Port. The line is served by a high speed ferry. Bicycles cannot be taken on board of some of the ferries. There are fast boats from Habu port to Innoshima, run by Geiyo Kanko Ferry (nine a day, 70 minutes, 1,700 yen, stops at Tomoura, Kinoura and so on). There are also ferries and fast boats to: 1) Shitadami port on Oshima; 2) Miyaura port on Omishima; 3) Okamura port on Okamurajima. See Japan Travel for details.

Image Sources: 1) 5) 6) 7) 8) 10) Wikipedia 2) Okayama City 3) 4) Hiroshima Prefecture 9) Ehime Prefecture

Text Sources: JNTO (Japan National Tourist Organization),, Japan News, Japan Times, Yomiuri Shimbun, Japan Ministry of the Environment, UNESCO, Japan Guide website, Lonely Planet guides, New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, National Geographic, The New Yorker, Bloomberg, Reuters, Associated Press, AFP, Compton's Encyclopedia and various books and other publications.

Updated in July 2020

This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been authorized by the copyright owner. Such material is made available in an effort to advance understanding of country or topic discussed in the article. This constitutes 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. If you are the copyright owner and would like this content removed from, please contact me.