MOINBA ETHNIC GROUP

MOINBA MINORITY

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The Moinba are a very small minority that lives in southeastern Tibet. They speak a Tibetan-Burman language and intermarried with Tibetans, live among Tibetans and have adopted many Tibetan customs. Also known as the Monba, the Moinba live in an area with abundant rainfall and steep mountain slopes covered with dense forests. They grow rice, maize, millet, buckwheat, soybeans and sesame seeds and also hunt and herd animals and are considered skilled archers. Most marriages are monogamous although polygamy and polyandry were practiced in the past.

The Moinba live mainly in Motuo and Cuona counties in southeast Tibet and some are scattered over Linzhi and Chayu counties. "Moinba" mean people who live in Monyu"Menyu"—the area where the Moinba—live which is full of ridges and peaks, and is covered by dense forest. The rolling Yarlung Zangbo River (Brahmaputra River) turns southward in the region of Linzhi and Motuo, and a fertile river valley is formed there. The climate is warm, the rainfall is abundant rich, and the vegetation is dense and green. The high mountains and eep river valleys made communication and transportation to the region very difficult, and thus it was very isolated and few outsiders set foot there. Buddhists called the place "a concealed place", so people looked forward to seeing it.[Source: Liu Jun, Museum of Nationalities, Central University for Nationalities, Science of China, China virtual museums, Computer Network Information Center of Chinese Academy of Sciences, kepu.net.cn ~]

The Menyu is the birthplace of the Moinbas. "Menyu" is a Tibetan word that means “plain” and refers to at the lower reaches of the Brahmaputra River. It is also called "Baiyujimubang" which means a hidden beautiful virgin land. Situated in the Himalayan region, the Menyu plain is high (3600 meters above sea level) in the north part and low (only 1000 meters above sea level) in the south part. Menyu area enjoys abundant rainfall, swift rivers, beautiful landscape and fertile land. Virgin pine forests are inhabited by wild boars, bears, foxes and golden monkeys.In this environment, the Moinbas are mainly engaged in farming and animal husbandry, supplemented by hunting and gathering. They grow rice, maize, buckwheat, qingke barley, winter wheat, soybeans and sesame. According to historical Tibetan records, ancestors of the Moinbas lived in the Himalayas south of Tibet long ago. In the 13th century, the Menyu region to the south of Cuona was claimed by Tibet.

The Moinba's staple food includes rice, maize, millet and buckwheat. Maize and millet are ground and prepared to make porridge. Like the Tibetans, the Moinbas also eat zhamba (roasted qingke barley) and Tibetan-style butter tea but are also fond of hot pepper. The Moinba practice Tibetan Buddhism, but maintain some traditional shamanist practices. They follow the Tibetan calendar and practice water burial. Their version of sky burial involves burial in a tree. They observe the same festivals as the Tibetans. [Source: China.org china.org |]

The Moinba have traditionally had close connection with Tibetan in politics, economics, culture and religion. They use the Tibetan calendar and used to use Tibetan money. The Moinba language belongs to the Zang (Tibetan) language branch of Tibeto-Burmese group in Sino-Tibetan family of languages. Their language has many dialects. The Moinba don't have a written language of their own and commonly used the Tibetan written language. They generally practice Tibetan Buddhism. Tibetan New Year's Day is the most important holiday for the Moinbas. They also celebrate their own Wangguo festival ("Wang" refers to field while "guo" refers to circle), the Moinba harvest festival) held in July every year.

Moinba population in China: 0.0008 percent of the total population; 10,561 in 2010 according to the 2010 Chinese census; 8,928 in 2000 according to the 2000 Chinese census; 7,475 in 1990 according to the 1990 Chinese census. [Sources: People’s Republic of China censuses, Wikipedia]

Moinba and Tibetans

The Moinbas have lived at the edge of the Tibetan region for generations, and have traditionally had friendly relations with Tibetans. In the 7th century, the Tibetan Royal Court exercised control over the Menyu region. In the 14th to 15th century, the region was a hereditary territory for the Pazhu Gaju Denomination (a denomination of the Tibetan Buddhism). In the middle of the 15th century, the fifth Dalai Lama sent officials to Menyu to carry forward doctrines of the Gelu Denomination, and began to carry out rule with combination of religion and politics. The sixth Dalai Lama was a Moinba. The Moinbas believe in Tibetan Buddhism like Tibetans do, they celebrate Tibetan religious festivals, take Pulu as their main clothes material, eat roasted highland barley flour, drink buttered tea and highland barley wine and many even know Tibetan language and writing. [Source: Liu Jun, Museum of Nationalities, Central University for Nationalities, kepu.net.cn ~]

Nonetheless the Moinba are distinct from Tibetans have their own culture and ethnic consciousness. Moinba women in the north of Menyu used to wear a complete calf fur outside their robe, with the hair inside and the skin outside. The neck of the fur is is at the top, the tail is down and skin of the limbs stretch out to the two sides of the body. The Moinba have traditionally regarded this as a beautiful adornment, wearing it at festivals or hen visiting relatives and friends. When Moinba men go out, they carry a chopper or short knife with sheath on their waist. Carrying a chopper goes hand in hand with living in mountain forests.

The Moinba diet is different from the Tibetans in that there is less meat and more vegetables, and vegetables are mostly cooked in stone pots and mixed with salt, milk residue and chili. Moinba men and women like to eat chili very much. Moinbas in Motuo make wine by themselves with millet, which has the same shape as chicken's talons. When entertaining guests, the Moinba male host drinks with the guests while the hostess pours wine and propose toasts. Once the guest drinks a mouthful of wine, the host should refill his cup, and keep doing so until the guests are drunk. The host is expected to feel shame if the guest doesn't get drunk. If the guest stays the night, the host is expected to stay up chatting with the guest until he goes to bed. When guests are in the house, family members shouldn't casually walk in front of the guests; instead they should make a short bow and and detour behind the guests. If guests bring presents, the host should not only express thankfulness, but also send a gift in return.

Chinese View of Moinba History

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Moinba tribesman
According to Chinese government: “Various actions had been taken by Tibetan authorities over the centuries to consolidate their rule over Menyu area. The area became the hereditary manor of Tibetans' Zhuba Geju (faction) during the mid 14th and early 15th centuries. In the mid-17th century, the Fifth Dalai Lama united the whole of Tibet and established the yellow sect of Buddhism as the dominant religion. He sent two of his disciples to Menyu to set up an office there. They enlarged the Dawang Monastery and began the integrated rule of religion and politics over the area. [Source: China.org china.org |]

“In the mid-19th century, the Resident Minister of the Qing court in Tibet and the Tibet local government also posted two officials in Menyu to administer their rule and to give the monastery special administrative powers. Each year, the Tibet local government would send officials to the area to levy taxes, purchase rice and administer trading of salt and rice. Local officials appointed by the government were responsible for passing on orders, settling local disputes, and running village and township affairs. |

“The Moinbas became poverty-stricken under a system of feudal serfdom following the establishment of the rule of the Zhuba Geju (faction) over them in the 14th century. Traces of this primitive system remained until the liberation of Tibet. They used the simple slash-and-burn method of agriculture. Fields were left to nature's mercy, and productivity was very low. Hunting was an important part of survival. Game was distributed among villagers, with the hunters getting double portions. Some game was bartered for grain and other necessities. |

“The three types of manorial lords -- the Tibet local government, the nobility and the monastery -- each possessed large areas of land, forests, pastures and other means of production, while the Moinbas were made serfs and slaves. There were two categories of serfs -- the tralpa and the dudchhung. The tralpa rented small plots of land from the manorial lords, and paid rent in cash and kind, such as butter tea, timber, dyes and charcoal, in addition to doing unpaid labor. The dudchhung were mostly immigrants from central Tibet and border areas, and were at the bottom of the social ladder. They were the poorest and most cruelly oppressed of all. They had to pay heavy taxes and do heavy unpaid labor. Some had to rent land from the tralpa. |

“The Moinbas lived like beasts of burden under the cruel oppression and exploitation of the three manorial lords. They were forced to do unpaid labor for as many as 110 days a year. Many died as a result, and some hid deep in forests to escape. On many occasions they revolted against this criminal rule. They sabotaged communication links and refused to do unpaid labor or pay taxes. Today, vestiges of this old society can still be found in certain clans and villages, where part of the land, pastures, hills and forests are communally owned. Villagers can reclaim wasteland and chop wood and bamboo free of charge at the consent of their headman. Outsiders who want to do the same must also have the headman's permission. |

“ Tibet was peacefully liberated in 1951, and democratic reforms were introduced in 1959 after a counter-revolutionary armed rebellion was put down. During the action, the Moinbas joined the Tibetan people in support of the People's Liberation Army. Since then, they have shaken off their yoke and begun a new life. The days of having to survive on wild fruits and nuts, wearing animal skins and banana leaves and living in caves and forests have gone forever. Agricultural output has risen considerably through the development of hillsides, introduction of irrigation systems and superior crop strains, and ending of the traditional slash-and-burn farming method. |

“Now the Moinbas have moved into bright, new electric-lit houses. Narrow footpaths and single log bridges have been replaced by roads and suspension bridges. The Moinba people now have many schools for both children and adults, and have trained their first generation of teachers, accountants and other professionals. Some young people are studying at the Tibet Ethnic Minorities' Institute in Lhasa and the Central Ethnic Minorities' Institute in Beijing. Men and women of Moinba origin are working as administrators at various levels of government.” |

Moinba Marriage and Wedding Customs

Moinba youths are generally free to choose their love and marriage partners although parents often try get involved in the marriage process. A Jialu love song goes like this: "mountains in the northeast are high, but they can't block the sun in the sky; Parents have many powers, but they cannot stop their children from choosing mates." Typically, when a couple decides to get married, parents of one of them invites matchmaker to bring the two parties together. Both sets of parents need to bring betrothal gifts. In the old days, cross-cousin marriages were very popular. [Source: Liu Jun, Museum of Nationalities, Central University for Nationalities, kepu.net.cn ~]

During the engagement and wedding process, the brother of the bride's mother is the most honorable guest and no one dares to provoke him. When the bride’s uncle appears, the bridegroom's side should present a Hada (a Tibetan ceremonial silk scarf) respectfully to him and hastily invite him to the seat of honor. Then all kinds of foods are presented, especially head, tail, ears, heart, liver, lung and the four limbs of bull, pig and sheep—all regarded as delicacies— with not a single one missing. The uncle acts very grumpy and is very picky in every possible way, about what is forgotten, about what has not been presented yet. Why is the thickness of the meat not even? Is it because my daughter has defects? Is it because as the uncle I did something wrong that you neglect me? ~

Both the bride’s and groom's families go through great lengths to takes good care of the bride’s uncle. But even them he still makes trouble. Why is the tea cold? Why is the wine hot? This shows that he is a powerful person and the authority of the bride's side. His role is express his family’s "anger" over the loss of his niece to a man of another family. The bridegroom and his side present Hadas, money and nice wine, and flatter him with fine-sounding words. When the uncle has "stirred up" so much trouble no one can take it any more, he withdraws. In real life, no uncle is going to stop his niece from marrying. The old custom has been passed on, and is done as a kind of humorous show. ~

Moinba Naming Customs

According to Chinatravel.com: Names are important to Moinba people. According to the Tibetan Buddhist tradition, people choose names with an auspicious meaning for children. In Tibet there are two main ways of giving children names. One way is that parents give a name to the child. The other is to invite the great lama to name the child. The second way is quite common in Tibet nowadays. Many people nowadays request His Holiness of the 14th Dalai Lama to give names to their children. Some people even request a name for the child before he is born. When people go to the Dalai Lama, they will be given a name written on a thread of blessed cloth. Sometimes they will also be given some blessed pills of Tibetan medicine. Tibetan people believe that these blessed things are a combination of religious power and mercies from the lama. What's more, they believe that these things can bless the child with an auspicious beginning in life and protect him from physical and mental harms. [Source: Chinatravel.com chinatravel.com \=/]

“Three days after the baby is born, the parents will ask the lama to name it. The lama sometimes name the child according to the day on which it is born. People believe that the custom can place the child under the protection of that day's deity. e.g. Nyima is a name for a child born on Sunday (By taking the name, he gains the protective power of Sun, the ruler of Sunday). Every time his name is spoken, that protective power is re-affirmed. The names for children born on the following days are: Da-wa---Monday, the Moon; Mingmar--Tuesday, planet Mars (Tibetan pronunciation can be "Mikmar"); Lhak-pa--Wednesday, planet Mercury; Phu-/ Phur-ba--Thursday, planet Jupiter; Pa-sang--Friday, planet Venus; Pem-ba--Saturday, planet Saturn. Another way is to name the child according to the date of birth. For example, a child born on the first day of the month may be named as Tshe je.\=/

“And Tshe ne is a name for children born on the second day of the month, Tshe song for the third of the month, and Jiu'a for the fifteenth of the month, Langang for the thirtieth of the month. Moinba people also have names related to male or female Buddhas or enlightened beings. Some names such as "Tenzin" or "Dawa" can be both male or female although females are often named after a female Buddha or deity such as "Dolma" (Tara in Sanskrit), which means the "one who liberates others from suffering. There are also female names such as " Dicky Dolma" which means "one who is healthy, happy and liberates other by leading them to Nirvana." Some Moinba names have important religious symbols. For example, "dorje" symbolizes indestructibility, compassion, and skillful means. People are also named after simple Buddhist terms such as " sherap", a word meaning wisdom, or " sopa", meaning patience. Some Moinba names have special meanings. For example, "Dawa" means both "moon" and "Monday." \=/

“Being a name for a child born on Monday, "Dawa" conveys the symbolic meaning of one who "gives light and removes darkness" as moonlight does. Other Moinba names with special meanings are as follows: Byang-chub = jang-chu (purified, one who has reached spiritual perfection), Sang-gye(Gautama), Gom-bu( Meditation), Gya-tsho (Ocean), Gyel-tsen /Gyeljen, Geljen(royal courage, conqueror), Gyel-bu (royal), Gyel(King), Byang-ba(wise, learned, skillful, clever), Ka-rma(work, effort, discipline), Lha-mo (Goddess ), Lob-sang / Lop-sang(disciple), Nam-kha(spacious sky, essential space, energy of space), Nor-bu/Nur-bu(precious jewel, wealth), Phu-dorje (knowledge) (a power of Jupiter, the day ruler) plus clarity (a quality of diamond), Rin-che /Rin-ji/ Rinchen(precious, great), She-rap / She-rab(wisdom ), Ta-shi (good luck), sTen (good ,happiness), Thugs-rten ("the holder of the heart or mind" as manifest in a holy person), Tshe-ten(good life), and Tshe-wang(powerful life). \=/

“If a children dies young in a family, the parents would rather give some embarrassing names with bad meanings for the new babies in the wishes of surviving them and making their life easier and happier (according to the Chinese tradition, these embarrassing names, often connected with animals, can help bring up the children and prevent the them from harms). Some examples are Gyigyai(dog's dung), Paygyag(pig's dung) and Shileg(one who has returned to life after death). After the naming ritual, the grandmother will bring the baby out of the house. With a lit firewood, a gourd of water, a piece of farming tool and a handful of earth, they will follow the lama and circle the house three times. After that, they throw away four things, which symbolize the flesh borrowed from the earth, blood from water, breath from fire, bone from iron and stone, and heart from the sky. The families will express their gratitude to gods for giving them so good a child, and say they will bring him up to be an outstanding hunter or a clever girl. After discarding the four things, a man holding a peacock made of corn flour will go out of the house, walk after the baby and nod his head frequently to him. Moinba people believe that the auspicious peacock has the miraculous power of reducing poison and help digesting, thus can help keep the baby safe in his life.” \=/

Moinba Houses and Possessions

Moinba homes are two- or three-story, herringbone-shaped houses of wood with bamboo or straw roofs. The second and third floors are used for living quarters and the first for livestock. The middle storey is spacious, with the fireplace (other than the hearth) in the middle of the room, with a supported iron tripod which is used to cook rice and boil water. The room is furnished with a Tibetan-style clothes closet and a wooden case, which are used to store rice or clothing. [Source: Chinatravel.com chinatravel.com \=/]

According to Chinatravel.com: Pans, bowls and butter are put in a cupboard, bamboo furniture and production tools are put in the corners indoors, or hung from overhead beams. There are no beds in the room, and people sleep on the floor on Bainiu mats, covered with Tibetan carpet or quilt; they sleep with their clothes on. Among the Moinba people in the east, there is a wooden stand at the right of the hearth and by the window when entering into the principal room. This is laid with cooking utensils or foodstuffs, such as a stone pan, an aluminum pan, bowls, bamboo scoop, packaged salt and fat, etc. This is the patriarch's seat, as he is responsible for cooking and distributing food. Brewing instruments are kept at the left of the hearth, where the housewife engages in her activities.\=/

The upper corner of the wall is fully hung with horns and wolf's teeth that have been captured by hunters, and so on. The curved "Guodong" knives used by women for labor are put in a bamboo basket above the calabash and the "Guoda" hoes used by others for labor are put at the wall corner of the guest room or at the first small "Guopei" room upstairs. This small room is used for storing sundries and is where unmarried men or women live. It's also the where lovers meet lover. The waist knives and bows and arrows of hunters are hung on the wall at the left behind the principal room, or hung on the wood column of the principal room. \=/

“Women's treasures, such as silver girdle, necklace, headwear Bazhu, coarse silk cloth, Gawu, and gold and silver hand adornments and so on, are put in a three-layer case (the outside layer is a finely woven vine case, the next a bamboo-woven case, and inside is the small bamboo case for putting articles); the case is put beside the treasure jar. There is no large-sized furniture such as wooden cabinet in the principal room among Moinba people, which looks simple and spacious. There are no beds, and people sleep on floor. Fireplace is by the wall, and people sleep around it. Parents usually sleep at the left of the fireplace, children sleep in the middle, and married women sleep at the right of the fireplace and under the window. Guests usually stay in a guest room. \=/

In the winter, "Suideng" weaved with bamboos is laid on the floor. It has five or six layers and is warm. In the summer, "Bada" weaved with banana peel is laid on the floor. It also has five or six layers but is cool. Some people also lay bearskins and wild ox skins as winter mattress. When a Benzong (county head), Caoben (district head) or Lama is received, two "Suideng" or "Bada" shall be laid as cushion. Other household items include pillows made of fine cut vine threads bundled into rectangles, with cloth put on them. Old clothes are sewn into a long bag, used to carry things chicken claw and hunting tools. Some people fold multilayer banana peel into rectangles as pillow or use palm tree fibers as pillow. Some people use square pieces of wood as pillows. In the summer, people sleep in their clothes. In the winter, they cover themselves with a double layer quilt made of two layers of handloomed cloth, Moinba in high and cold villages are cover themselves with Tibetan quilts or more than one Tibetan garmens. In the hot summer, people burn argyi leaf in their rooms to keep mosquitoes away. \=/

Moinba Clothes and "Pulu"

In the Menyu area, men and women prefer to wear robes with aprons and black yak hair hats or caps. They wear soft-soled leather boots, which are decorated with red or black striped designs. Women usually wear white aprons, earrings, rings and bracelets. People in the subtropical Medog County dress differently. Women as well as men wear short or long jackets, and the women wear long striped skirts and various kinds of jewelry. [Source: China.org china.org |] Moinba men often have long hair and adorn themselves with earrings, a "Gawu" on their chest, a long knife known as a "Qiawo" hanging on waist, silver or copper bangles and rings on hands and fingers and long boots. Sometimes they carry bows and arrows in their hands. Moinba women's dresses and adornments are flowery and colorful. They like to comb their hair into two long braids, which are coiled on the head, or they wear a Moinba cap, and are cloaked in calf skin. They like girdles, including silver girdle, copper girdle and copper-silver alloy girdle. [Source: Chinatravel.com chinatravel.com \=/]

Moinba clothes are mainly made of Pulu, a kind of woolen fabric, which is used by Tibetans to make clothes and cushions. It comes in different types with bright and beautiful colors and is a necessary thing for the Moinbas' daily life. Orange pigment comes from the roots of a kind of local grass. These colors are very bright and are very striking to the eye from far away. [Source: Liu Jun, Museum of Nationalities, Central University for Nationalities, kepu.net.cn ~]

Men in Menyu region like to wear a kind of hat called "Balaga". The top of the hat is blue or dark Pulu, the lower part is red Pulu, and the brim of the hat is edged with orange cotton flannel with a breach on it, which is directed at the top of the right eye when wearing. Men in Menyu generally wear reddish brown cloth or Pulu robe, which is a bit shorter than Tibetans' robes. Because slopes are big and paths are steep, people like to wear high boots with soft sole, which is arranged and sewed with red and black Pulu. Men in Motuo seldom wear hats, but when they do they often wear bamboo hats weaved by their own hands to protect themselves from sunshine and rainfall. They usually wear a white robe, weaved with cotton or flax, with bare feet. They also hang chopper or leaf-shaped knife from their waist. ~

Women in Menyu also wear a robe, covered with a white Pulu robe. Women in Lebu, Bangjin like to wear sheep fur or calf skin on their back to protect clothes from being worn out when carrying basket. It can also be used as a raincoat. Adornments made of turquoise; red coral and agate are hung around a women's neck. The underwear of women is called "Bubure". It comes in different colors and has no open front, no collar and no buttons. There is only a round opening for putting for the head. The outer clothing is called "Donggu", and there are two kinds: short and long, made of red and black Pulu. Some people wear a “Gewu”—a metal protective Buddhist box over their breast with an image of Buddha and Buddhist sutras in it. Both men and women wear a red Pulu belt, which is 2 meters long and 0.6 meters wide. The climate in the Motuo region is warm, so women like to wear a thin white small coat or long vest and colorful skirt, with necklaces and earrings. ~

Moinba Love Songs and Wine Songs

The sixth Dalai Lama was Moinba. He left a poetry anthology called the "Collection of Love songs by Cangyangjiacuo". There are still many mystical legends about Cangyangjiacuo spread over the Moinba region. Despite being the highest "Living Buddha" in the Gelu Denomination, Cangyangjiacuo was a romantic who poured out his feelings, loneliness, depression, love and desire in his love songs. His love songs emerged from Moinba folk songs and the rules, forms and styles of Moinba love songs are kept in them. In the Moinba region, young men and women pursue love freely, and love songs called “Jialu” play a part in this process. [Source: Liu Jun, Museum of Nationalities, Central University for Nationalities, kepu.net.cn ~]

The Moinbas also like to sing wine songs. One kind of wine song called "Sama" is popular in Menyu. It is said the words are vivid and interesting, and the tune is inspiring and lively. The Sama wine song is composed of lines with 7 or 9 words, and the rhythm is not fixed. Metaphors and exaggeration are used to express the strong pursuit of lofty ideals and beautiful dreams. The Sama wine song, it is said, was created by a singer named Labure. He sang songs during his whole life, left happiness to the human world, and passed away in a sitting pasture and became a Buddha. He is worshipped as the Song God by the Moinbas. A Sama wine song praises the homeland of the Moinba goes: "Valleys in the hometown are tranquil and comfortable, and the sunlight gathers happily. We wish to get together and never depart; if we depart, we'd like to get together again. Villages in the hometown are tranquil and comfortable". At festivals or on joyous occasions, the mountain area of the Moinba are filled with Jialu love songs and Sama wine songs. ~

Moinba Crafts, Wooden Bowls and Tools

For environmental and historical reasons, the tools and crafts produced by the Moinbas is not as developed as those of some other ethnic groups. Farming tools include simple ones made of iron and wood, including wooden ploughs, wooden spades, wooden rakes, sharp wooden sticks, wooden forks and wooden mallets. The area where the Moinbas live has very rich bamboo and wood resources. They are very good at weaving thin bamboo strips and rattan into bamboo square boxes, bamboo hats, rattan baskets and bamboo baskets. [Source: Liu Jun, Museum of Nationalities, Central University for Nationalities, kepu.net.cn ~]

The Moinba are especially known for traditional handcrafted wooden bowls. There is an interesting legend about the origin of wooden bowl: long ago, people in the Tibetan region used clay bowl. One day, a Moinba carpenter went to the forest to cut trees, and he broke his clay bowl. The clever carpenter made a big wooden spoon temporarily for eating. Later people thought that the wooden spoon was light and durable, so they improved it to a wooden bowl. ~

Hard trunk, knots or stumps of tung tree, mulberry and birch are raw materials and they are cut and scraped into a wooden bowl. Fine wooden bowl are made by following five or six steps. The lines of the bowl are clear, the thickness is even, and bright red pigment is painted on the wooden bowl. These are often used for drinking buttered tea and are light and handy and is easy to carry. The Mama village in the north of Menyu is the "hometown of wooden bowl". Wooden bowl made by an old handicraftsman Ga'erbaibaima is famous near and far. In markets, this wood bowl is often taken by out comers to their home and collected as handicraft. ~

Image Sources:

Text Sources: 1) Encyclopedia of World Cultures: Russia and Eurasia/ China , edited by Paul Friedrich and Norma Diamond (C.K. Hall & Company; 2) Liu Jun, Museum of Nationalities, Central University for Nationalities, Science of China, China virtual museums, Computer Network Information Center of Chinese Academy of Sciences, kepu.net.cn ~; 3) Ethnic China ethnic-china.com *\; 4) Chinatravel.com \=/; 5) China.org, the Chinese government news site china.org | New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Times of London, Lonely Planet Guides, Library of Congress, Chinese government, Compton’s Encyclopedia, The Guardian, National Geographic, Smithsonian magazine, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, AFP, Wall Street Journal, The Atlantic Monthly, The Economist, Foreign Policy, Wikipedia, BBC, CNN, and various books, websites and other publications.

Last updated July 2015


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