CANNABIS AND ILLEGAL DRUGS IN UZBEKISTAN

DRUGS IN UZBEKISTAN

According to the CIA World Factbook: Uzbekistan is a transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets. There is limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption. Poppy cultivation was almost wiped out by government crop eradication program. Uzbekistan is a transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan. [Source: CIA World Factbook =]

With an estimated 2,000 to 3,000 hectares of domestic opium poppy grown annually in the 1990s, Uzbekistan's society long has been exposed to the availability of domestic narcotics as well as to the influx of drugs across the border from Afghanistan (often by way of Tajikistan). Since independence, border security with Afghanistan and among the former Soviet Central Asian republics has become more lax, intensifying the external source problem. Uzbekistan is centrally located in its region, and the transportation systems through Tashkent make that city an attractive hub for narcotics movement from the Central Asian fields to destinations in Western Europe and elsewhere in the CIS. [Source: Library of Congress, March 1996 *]

In 1992 and 1993, shipments of thirteen and fourteen tons of hashish were intercepted in Uzbekistan on their way to the Netherlands. Increasingly in the 1990s, drug sales have been linked to arms sales and the funding of armed groups in neighboring Afghanistan and Tajikistan. Drug-related crime has risen significantly in Uzbekistan during this period. Uzbekistani authorities have identified syndicates from Georgia, Azerbaijan, and other countries active in the Tashkent drug trade.*

In the 1990s, the Ministry of Health recognized that Uzbekistan had a serious narcotics addiction problem. Domestic drug use has risen sharply in the 1990s as well. In 1994 the Ministry of Health listed 12,000 registered addicts, estimating that the actual number of addicts was likely about 44,000. Opium poppy cultivation is concentrated in Samarkand and along the border with Tajikistan, mainly confined to small plots and raised for domestic consumption. Cannabis, which grows wild, is also increasingly in use. In 1995 government authorities recognized domestic narcotics processing as a problem for the first time when they seized several kilograms of locally made heroin. The seven substance abuse rehabilitation clinics in Uzbekistan at that time treated both alcoholism and narcotics abuse.

Cannabis in Uzbekistan

According to the United Nations: “Uzbekistan reports 0.4 hectares of wild growth and 1.44 hectares of illicit cultivation in 2006. In 2006, 621 people were convicted of planting narcotic plants. However, without details on whether these convictions were for a few plants or several acres, it is difficult to draw any conclusions on the scale of illicit cultivation in Uzbekistan. [Source: “Illicit Drug Trends in Central Asia”, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Regional Office for Central Asia, April 2008 |~|]

According to Sensi Seeds: Cannabis grows wild and is also cultivated in Uzbekistan, although the industry is tiny compared with that in Afghanistan or Kazakhstan, the region’s two biggest producers. As a wild crop, it is commonly found growing alongside roads or in fields throughout the country. The total area of cultivated and wild cannabis grown in Uzbekistan is not known, and it appears that there is some fluctuation year on year, perhaps as a result of opium-focused eradication efforts. [Source: Sensi Seeds sensiseeds.com *-*]

“In 2006, Uzbekistan reported 0.4 hectares of wild growth and 1.44 hectares of illicit cultivation; however, this figure is likely to be too low, given the less-than-effective state of counternarcotics operations in the country. Also in 2006, 621 individuals were reported to have been convicted of planting narcotic plants (although it is not clear what proportion was poppy or ephedra, and what cannabis). Overall, it appears that cannabis cultivation is increasing, although it appears that the harvest remains in Uzbekistan and is not produced in large enough quantities to export. Cultivation remains illegal, but there is apparently an exemption made for men aged over 60 and women aged over 55.*-*

“Much interest has been paid to the landrace genetics from Uzbekistan and surrounding countries, and it is possible to source seeds purporting to be of Uzbek origin from several online outlets. Due to its proximity to Afghanistan, some highly-prized genetics are well-known to originate in and around Uzbekistan, and some of the most famous ‘hash plant’ hail from the region.*-*

“Indica sp afghanica is the classic ‘indica’ type most known to breeders, with wide leaves, a short, squat appearance and copious resin production. It differs from the type found in northern India, Pakistan and Nepal—this type (C. indica sp indica) actually has narrow leaves, and is far more resistant to damp than its afghanica counterpart, which is used to cool but arid conditions. According to some sources, C. indica sp afghanica is the type of cannabis most likely to exhibit purpling, and most modern, commercial purple strains have afghanica ancestry.*-*

History of Cannabis in Uzbekistan

According to Sensi Seeds: Uzbekistan borders Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. Like its neighbours, Uzbekistan has a long history of cannabis use, and is part of the region in which cannabis first evolved and developed into its various subspecies. Cannabis is still of socioeconomic importance to many Uzbeks. “It is thought that commercial purple strains of cannabis all descend from the indica landraces found in Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan[Source:Sensi Seeds sensiseeds.com *-*]

“Just as with other countries in the region, cannabis is indigenous to Uzbekistan and is likely to have been utilised by humans for thousands of years. Specifically, it is thought that C. indica sp afghanica is the type that is dominant in Uzbekistan; it is thought to have evolved in the region straddling southern Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and northern Afghanistan (particularly Balkh Province, which is well-known for its cannabis production and is the home of several well-known cultivars including Mazar-I-Sharif). However, the region is a centre of diversity; other types, such as ruderalis, may grow in more northerly parts of Uzbekistan.*-*

“Although no archaeological evidence of ancient cannabis use has been found in Uzbekistan itself, there have been finds in nearby parts of China as well as evidence from elsewhere in Central Asia indicating that cannabis has been in use since at least 2,700 BCE. The Bronze Age Oxus Civilisation inhabited the region in around 2300-1700 BCE; archaeological evidence indicates ritual use of cannabis, although this has been disputed. Later (around 800 BCE), Scythian equestrian tribes from the northern steppes began to settle the region, leaving their own archaeological evidence of cannabis use. It also seems plausible that a lively trade in cannabis existed within what is now Uzbekistan during the Silk Road era. throughout these times.*-*

Cannabis Use in Uzbekistan

“UNODC estimates from 2000 place annual cannabis use prevalence at 4.2 percent of the adult population. In comparison, UNODC estimates in 2006 suggest that 0.8 percent of the adult population use opiates. Results of the 2006 school survey “Lifetime use of alcohol, tobacco, and other substances” indicate that 0.7 percent of boys and 0.4 percent of girls have used cannabis in their lifetime. The percentage of young people who had used cannabis ten times or more in their lifetime was 0.1 percent for boys and 0 percent for girls. This indicates that cannabis use is minimal among youth in Uzbekistan, with lifetime use prevalence lower than inhalant use. |~|

Cannabis use among registered drug users in Uzbekistan in 2006: registered cannabis users: 3091; cumulative total percent of all RDUs: 15 percent; prevalence per 100,000 population: 11.5; total registered drug users (RDUs): 19964.

Estimated annual prevalence of cannabis use as a percentage of the adult population (annual prevalence, year of estimate): Uzbekistan: 4.2, 2003

Percentage of students age 16 who reported using cannabis by frequency: lifetime use: boys: 0.7; girls: 0.4; use in the past 12 months: boys: 0.4; girls: 0.1; use in the past 30 days: boys: 0.2; girls: 0.1.

Hashish seizures in Uzbekistan, 2004-2010 (in tons): A) 0.02 tons in 2004; B) 0.01tons in 2005; C) 0.01 tons in 2006; D) 0.1 tons in 2007; E) 0.1 tons in 2008; F) 0.05 tons in 2009; G) 0.6 tons in 2010.

According to Sensi Seeds: Uzbekistan has an active culture of cannabis use; it is regarded as traditional, and is widely socially accepted. The local Uzbek word for cannabis is ‘anasha’. Cannabis use is increasing in some urban centres, but for the most part it has remained consistent in recent years. It is the most widely-used illicit substance in Uzbekistan, and it is estimated that 4.2 percent of the adult population regularly indulges. [Source: Sensi Seeds sensiseeds.com *-*]

“In comparison, opiates such as opium and heroin are used regularly by around 1 percent of the population—although opiate users make up the vast majority of treatment-seeking problem users. Heroin use is increasing at worrying rates, and is of far greater concern to authorities and healthcare workers than cannabis use, or even the more traditional use of opium.*-*

“The rise of large-scale, organised drug trafficking in the early 1990s saw traditional drugs such as opium and cannabis to be supplanted in some areas by cheap, readily-available heroin, which is usually injected. Due to the rise in numbers of injecting heroin users—who often employ unsafe practices—rates of HIV/AIDS have also increased.*-*

“Although cannabis use is generally accepted, there are notable exceptions. In 2012, the Uzbek Olympic silver-medallist judo practitioner Abdullo Tangriev was disqualified from the 30th Olympic Games in London and suspended from competing for two years after traces of cannabis were found in his blood during routine drug testing—to widespread public disapproval.*-*

Cannabis Trafficking in Uzbekistan

According to Sensi Seeds: Although there is limited domestic production of narcotics in Uzbekistan, the country is of great strategic importance to trafficking gangs operating throughout the region. Opium, heroin and hashish originating in Afghanistan follow one of several routes into Uzbekistan, either crossing the short, 137 km Uzbek-Afghan border itself, or arriving via the eastern borders shared with Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. From Uzbekistan they travel north and west through Kazakhstan and across the Caspian Sea to Europe, or north to Russia. The Uzbek trafficking ‘mafia’ is regularly accused of exploiting leaky borders into Kazakhstan, and at one point even ran a bus service specifically for transporting contraband across the border. [Source: Sensi Seeds sensiseeds.com *-*]

“The border with Afghanistan has been subject to fluctuating levels of security over the years. Previously all but unguarded, the border was closed in 1998 in response to conflict in Afghanistan (largely concerning the rise of the Taliban), and construction of the world’s most heavily-guarded border barrier began. Cross-border access resumed in 2005 with the opening of the Friendship Bridge, but the border is frequently closed on the Uzbek side due to perceived security threats from Afghanistan.*-*

“Prior to the border closures, the majority of contraband arriving in Uzbekistan from Afghanistan came through directly; as a result, the southern Uzbek province of Surkhandarya was a major hub of illicit activity supporting the trade. Now that some cross-border activity is permitted, it is likely that traffic of contraband has resumed, but it is unlikely that it would reach previous levels. Now, the majority of contraband entering Uzbekistan is thought to arrive from Tajikistan—although there are few border crossing there too, they are less heavily guarded and there is generally less suspicion of trafficking occurring.*-*

“As with other countries in the region, Uzbekistan’s trade in opium and heroin has historically been seen as of far greater importance than that in cannabis; the bulk of counternarcotics operations focus on it, and cannabis eradications and seizures often seem to happen incidentally in the course of such opium-focused efforts.*-*

Cannabis Law and Policy in Uzbekistan

According to Sensi Seeds: Uzbekistan has among the most restrictive drug laws in Central Asia. For possession and use, individuals may be punished with correctional labour or imprisonment of up to three years, or five years in the case of prior convictions. Drug users are institutionally criminalised, and compulsory registration, treatment programs and routine testing are imposed. [Source: Sensi Seeds sensiseeds.com *-*]

“Cultivation is punishable by a fine of 25-50 minimum monthly wages, or correctional labour or imprisonment for up to three years (for small-scale cultivators with no previous convictions); 50-100 monthly wages or 3-5 years’ imprisonment for medium-scale cultivation or that conducted by previously convicted cultivators; or 5-10 years’ imprisonment for cases of large-scale cultivation, or that conducted by ‘dangerous recidivists’ or organised groups.*-*

“For production, sale, purchase or storage of small amounts of narcotics, 3-5 years’ imprisonment is the typical sentence. For medium-sized quantities, 5-7 years is the standard sentence, and for larger quantities 7-10 years. For particularly large quantities or for sale conducted by organised or recidivist groups, the sentence may be as high as 20 years. For trafficking of smaller quantities (limits are not defined), individuals are subject to a custodial sentence of 5-10 years; for larger quantities, the prescribed sentence is 10-20 years.*-*

Purchasing and Using Cannabis in Uzbekistan

According to Sensi Seeds: As drug use is heavily criminalised in Uzbekistan, it is advisable for visitors to exercise extreme caution if attempting to secure cannabis or hashish. Knowledge of a good, local contact goes a long way, as with most countries; however, in the absence of such assistance, frequenting the bars and nightclubs in urban areas of Tashkent and other major cities will usually yield results with time. [Source: Sensi Seeds sensiseeds.com *-*]

“Be cautious at all times in Uzbekistan—police patrols are common, and are not averse to throwing people in jail for personal drug consumption. However, they are known to be somewhat reticent when it comes to tourists, particularly Europeans and Americans, and bribes may also be effective in some circumstances (and once bribed, officers are often happy to ‘look out’ for tourists in return).*-*

“Once a source has been secured, one can expect to receive one’s cannabis or hashish tightly packed into a matchbox, a style also common in Kazkahstan and Afghanistan (and probably throughout the region). The price for a matchbox full of cannabis or hashish ranges from 24,000 – 60,000 Som ($10 – $25), depending on quality, seasonal availability and location.*-*

Synthetic Drugs and Inhalants in Uzbekistan

According to the United Nations: “In 2006, the Uzbek State Customs Committee bodies registered 116 cases of trafficking of psychotropic substances and precursors, up from 96 cases in 2005. This included 134,671 tablets, 203 ampoules, and 61.2 g of psychotropic substances. Of the registered drug users in Uzbekistan, 178 are reported as solvent and tranquilizer addicts, 81 are reported as sedative addicts, 9 are reported hallucinogen addicts, and 272 are reported as poly-drug users or “other”, possibly including synthetic drug addicts. General drug use, synthetic drug use and inhalant use is nearly non-existent among young people in Uzbekistan (0.7 percent, 0.2 percent, and 0.8 percent respectively). As in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, the lifetime use of inhalants was greater than the use of cannabis, although both figures were insignificant in Uzbekistan. Uzbekistan has the lowest rate of inhalant use of the four Central Asian countries surveyed. Within the past 12 months, 0.4 percent of boys and 0.3 of girls used inhalants. |[Source: “Illicit Drug Trends in Central Asia”, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Regional Office for Central Asia, April 2008 |~|]

Percentage of students in Uzbekistan who reported synthetic drug use within the past 12 months and 30 days: Used once or more in the past 12 months: inhalants: boys: 0.4; girls: 0.3; ecstasy: boys: 0; girls: 0; steroids: boys: 0; girls: 0; Used once or more in the past month: inhalants: boys: 0.3; girls: 0.2.

Synthetic drug use among registered drug users, 2006: Ephedra: 0; Hallucinogens: 9; Sedatives: 81; Solvents & Tranquilizers: 178; Polydrugs: 243; Other: 29.The generic categories “other” and “poly-drug” may or may not include synthetic drug use. |~|

Percentage of students age 16 who reported never using drugs in their lifetime: Uzbekistan: any drug use: 99.3; amphetamine: 99.9; LSD: 99.9; crack: 99.9; ecstasy: 99.9; GHB: 99.9; inhalants: 99.2 steroids: 99.9. |~|

Heroin and Opium Abuse in Uzbekistan

According to the United Nations: “In Uzbekistan, 19,574 drug users (74 per 100,000 people), were registered with the national authorities in 2005. Of these, 95 percent were male and two thirds were between 20 to 40 years old. The majority of drug users registered are opiate users – primarily heroin users (64 percent) and who administer the drug by injecting (>85 percent). In contrast to the cumulative number of registered drug users, UNODC estimates that as many as 130,000 people or 0.8 percent of the total adult population (15 – 64 years) are dependent on opiates. Notably, injecting as the method of administering opiates in Uzbekistan is lower (61 percent) than in Kyrgyzstan (96 percent) and Tajikistan (75 percent). [Source: “Illicit Drug Trends in Central Asia”, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Regional Office for Central Asia, April 2008 |~|]

“The drug abuse problem in Uzbekistan tends to be concentrated in the capital, the southern oblast of Surkhandarya (bordering Afghanistan and Tajikistan), and to some extent in the southeastern oblasts of Kashkadarya, Samarkand and Jizzak (bordering Tajikistan). By December 2005, the largest single urban population of registered drug users, and highest estimated prevalence of regular opiate users (adult population aged 15 – 64 years), was in the capital, Tashkent. This is consistent with a wider regional trend encompassing Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan where high prevalence of drug use is estimated in the capital cities. In Tashkent city, there were 166 registered drug users per 100,000 people in 2005, of which up to two thirds were registered as heroin users and the majority (81 percent) reported injecting. Similarly, UNODC estimates that in Tashkent city 1.2 percent of the adult population or 16,000 people were dependent on opiates. |~|

“Tashkent oblast (a separate administrative unit from Tashkent city) has significantly fewer registered drug users (43 people per 100,000 people) than Tashkent city. UNODC estimates also indicate a significantly lower prevalence of 0.4 percent or a total of 6,000 opiate users in the oblast, two thirds of whom inject. |~|

“Samarkand oblast has a population of around 3 million - the largest in Uzbekistan. It borders Tajikistan’s Sogd oblast and is connected to Tajikistan’s capital Dushanbe, to Afghanistan, Turkmenistan and the rest of Uzbekistan by a variety of major road and rail routes. In December 2005, there were 197 drug users registered per 100,000 people in Samarkand oblast. Out of these, 59 percent were registered as heroin users. However, UNODC estimates that around 25,000 or 1.5 percent of the adult population are regular opiate users. Both the opiate prevalence estimates and the number of drug users registered for Samarkand are the highest in Uzbekistan, while the proportion of injectors (38 percent) is the lowest for any oblast in Uzbekistan. |~|

“Surkhandarya is the southernmost oblast bordering Afghanistan, Tajikistan’s Khatlon oblast and Turkmenistan. The biggest urban centre in Surkhandarya is Termez, which is less than 100 kilometres from Mazar-I-Sharif in Balkh, Afghanistan. By the end of 2005, there were 103 drug users per 100,000 people registered in Sukhandarya, of which 93 percent were heroin users. UNODC estimates the prevalence of opiate users as 0.8 percent or around 9,000 opiate users in Surkhandarya oblast with 69 percent injecting. |~|

“It is generally thought that localities with high rates of heroin use typically correlate with drug trafficking routes, for instance Surkhandarya with an estimated prevalence of 0.8 percent. There are, however, exceptions in the region. Andijon, Bukhara and Tashkent oblasts (excluding the city of Tashkent) and Namangan are located on the major opiate trafficking thoroughfares, and yet have relatively low prevalence rates of opiate uses. This also holds true for neighbouring Osh and Jalal-Abad oblasts in Kyrgyzstan where estimated opiate prevalence is 0.2 and 0.5 percent respectively. As stated above, locations with high rates of opiate use tend to be urban and are used as centralization points for storage and redistribution of opiates. |~|

Drug Related Crime in Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan has drug and narco-terrorism issues, given its geographic proximity to Afghanistan and its location within a major corridor of routes of movement of Afghan heroin and opium. Several times a year, authorities announce the seizure of large drug shipments at border crossings, and this likely represents a fraction of what is transiting the country. The drug addiction problem is likely much worse than is acknowledged by the host government. The UN Office on Drugs and Crime estimates that there are ten times as many drug addicts in Uzbekistan as officially acknowledged. As with many criminal activities, the expatriate community is not generally impacted by this issue. [Source: “Uzbekistan 2015 Crime and Safety Report,” Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC), Bureau of Diplomatic Security, U.S. Department of State]

According to the United Nations: “In Uzbekistan, the drug related crime trend illustrates a substantially flatter version of the inverted-U pattern observed in other Central Asian countries. Drug related crime for 2006 totalled 8,834 incidence. Of the 5,490 people convicted, the majority were convicted for selling (2,305) and only a small portion were convicted for trafficking (122). Drug related crime prevalence for Uzbekistan was 31 per 100,000, below the regional average of 41 per 100,000. [Source: “Illicit Drug Trends in Central Asia”, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Regional Office for Central Asia, April 2008 |~|]

Drug Related Crimes in Uzbekistan:7,942 in 1997; 8,424 in 1998; 8,900 in 1999; 10, 317 in 2000; 9,226 in 2001; 8,716 in 2002; 8,893 in 2003; 8,538 in 2004; 8,367 in 2005; 8,834 in 2006.

Drug Related Crime Offenders in Uzbekistan: 4,237 in 1997; 4,863 in 1998; 5,448 in 1999; 6,205 in 2000; 8,122 in 2001; 6,871 in 2002; 6,858 in 2003; 6,289 in 2004; 5,121 in 2005; 5,490 in 2006.

“The majority of drug related crime occurred in Tashkent city with nearly three times the national drug related crime prevalence (86 per 100,000). Samarkand and Khorezm both reported above average drug related crime figures. These three cities also have the highest prevalence of registered drug users. |~|

Main Drug Related Crimes Registered in Uzbekistan: A) Smuggling: 141 in 2005; 122 in 2006; B) Storage: 2003 in 2005; 2021 in 2006; C) Distribution: 2,247 in 2005; 2,305 in 2006; D) Cultivation: 472 in 2005; 621 in 2006.

Seizures and Eradications of Cannabis in Uzbekistan

“Uzbekistan has the second lowest volume of cannabis seizures in Central Asia after Turkmenistan. Cannabis seizures have been declining since 2003 with 428.7 kilograms seized in 2006. This is significantly less than the 1996 figure of 5,544.0 kilograms. Much like other states in the region, cannabis seizures in Uzbekistan do not display a discernable pattern. |~|

“Sub-nationally, the primary locations for cannabis seizures were Tashkent oblast (81.35 kilograms), Tashkent city (79.2 kilograms), and Samarkand (67.3 kilograms). While these three locations also recorded the highest seizure volumes in 2005, they have all witnessed declining volumes in 2006 of 42 percent, 41 percent, and 126 percent respectively. |~|

According to Sensi Seeds: Over the last two decades, aggressive poppy eradication campaigns have all but wiped out domestic opium production, and may have impacted cannabis cultivation too, although it is difficult to state with certainty due to the paucity of reliable information from Uzbekistan. In 2006, it was reported that 1.84 hectares of cannabis was eradicated in Uzbekistan; given that this equals 100 percent of the total wild and cultivated growth figures released for that year (0.4 and 1.44 Ha, respectively), it is possible that there is a significantly greater area under cultivation that is simply not reported. [Source: Sensi Seeds sensiseeds.com *-*]

“Seizures of cannabis and hashish are generally low; in 1996 5.5 metric tons (MT) was seized, in 1998 1 MT, and in all subsequent years for which data is available, seizures have hovered around the 500 kg mark, and have gradually declined. This represents the second-lowest rate of cannabis and hashish seizures in Central Asia after Turkmenistan—although, as it is thought that a significant quantity of contraband is trafficked through Uzbekistan, this could also be down to ineffective counternarcotics controls.*-*

“Cannabis is produced for local consumption, and there is no available evidence of Uzbek cannabis being exported outside the country. Given its proximity to Afghanistan, some Uzbek-made hashish may be labelled as Afghan and transported on, but if so, this is likely to happen only in negligible quantities. Cannabis seizures are most frequent in Tashkent and Samarkand; overall, cannabis and hashish seizures typically make up around 25 percent of total seized contraband.*-*

U.S.- Produced Cannabis-Killing Fungus in Uzbekistan

According to Sensi Seeds: In 1999, it was reported that scientists from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) were working in tandem with Uzbek scientists at an ex-Soviet biological weapons facility in Tashkent, the Uzbek capital, to produce a fungus with selective herbicidal properties known as Fusarium oxysporum. The project was also reported to be conducted using British funding, operating under the mandate of the U.N. Drug Control Program. [Source: Sensi Seeds sensiseeds.com *-*]

“There are many different strains of the fungus, and while many are benign or possible even beneficial to plants, several are pathogenic—and it is these strains that are the focus of the research. F. oxysporum f. sp. cannabis is a strain that is specific to cannabis; F. oxysporum f. sp. erythroxyli targets the coca family Erythroxylaceae. A separate pathogen, Pleospora papaveracea, specifically targets opium poppy. However, the ecological impact (as well as that on human health) of these organisms has not been fully tested, and environmentalists have expressed grave concerns that non-target species can be affected, and that the pathogens can remain in the soil for decades.*-*

“While sporadic references to the pathogens have popped up in the years since then, particularly with regard to U.S. counternarcotics operations in Colombia, it does not appear that they have been tested ‘in the field’, and Colombia itself has rejected proposals to conduct tests. In 2011, members of the U.S. advisory board the National Research Council stated that understanding of the pathogens’ efficacy and safety was too limited to allow for their implementation.*-*

Image Sources:

Text Sources: New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Times of London, Lonely Planet Guides, Library of Congress, U.S. government, Compton’s Encyclopedia, The Guardian, National Geographic, Smithsonian magazine, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, AFP, Wall Street Journal, The Atlantic Monthly, The Economist, Foreign Policy, Wikipedia, BBC, CNN, and various books, websites and other publications.

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© 2008 Jeffrey Hays

Last updated April 2016


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