Government type: parliamentary. Independence: 11 July 1921 (from China); Constitution: several previous; latest adopted 13 January 1992, effective 12 February 1992; amended 1999, 2001 (2011). Capital: name: Ulaanbaatar. [Source: CIA World Factbook =]

Mongolia is a multiparty parliamentary democracy similar to the French model with both a president and a prime minister. The parliamentary is elected. The prime minister is the leader of the party with the most seats in Parliament. The President is elected in a separate election.

In the Soviet era, the government was presided over by a single party: the Communist Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party (MPRP), which had around 70,000 members and formally governed through a Council of Ministers and National Assembly. The country was ruled by the Soviet Union, which gave orders the Politburo that technically followed directives of the Central Committee.

Local divisions: 18 aimags, or aymacs (provinces) and 3 autonomous cities (Ulaanbaatar, Darhan and Erdenet). The aymac are divided into somons, or soms, each with an administrative center that used to keep tabs over co-ops and herders.

Names, Flag and National Symbols of Mongolia

Formal Name: Mongolian People's Republic; Short Form: Mongolia. Local Short Form: Mongol Uls; Former Name: Outer Mongolia Term for Citizen(s): Mongolian(s). Mongolia is known as the “Land of the Blue Sky.” The term Mongols is often used to describe the historical Mongols of the Genghis Khan era but it is also used to describe the modern Mongol ethnic group and sometimes the citizens of Mongolia, the vast majority of which are ethnic Mongols. Mongolian is also used to describe the Mongol ethnic group.

Flag: The Mongolian flag was adopted in 1944. It features three broad vertical bands—two red ones on the outsides and a blue one in the middle — of equal size. The Soyombo — Mongolia’s national symbol — is superimposed on the red strip closest to the flag staff. Centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow, the "soyombo" is a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol). Blue represents the sky, and red symbolizes progress and prosperity There used to be a star at the top of the Soyombo but it was removed after the Soviet era ended.

The Soyombo has been the national symbol at least since the 14th century and is used on the cover of passports as well as on the national flag. Signifying freedom and independence, it is comprised of 10 symbols (from top to bottom with what they are thought toosymbolize): 1) a flame (prosperity); 2) and 3) a sun and moon (father and mother of the nation); 4) a triangle (an arrowhead, representing victory); 5) a bar (honesty and integrity); 6) a yin-yang symbol; 7) another bar; 8) another triangle; and 9) and 10) two wide bars on the side (friendship).

National anthem: name: "Mongol ulsyn toriin duulal" (National Anthem of Mongolia) lyrics/music: Music by Tsendiin Damdinsuren; lyrics by Bilegiin Damdinsuren and Luvsanjamts Murjorj. The music was adopted in 1950. The lyrics were adopted in 2006. The lyrics have been altered on numerous occasions. The national song used to be called “Huluun Elgan Nutag,” which means “My Lovely Country.” National symbol(s): soyombo emblem; national colors: red, blue, yellow

Article Twelve of the Mongolian constitution read: 1) The symbols of the independence and sovereignty of Mongolia are the State Emblem, Banner, Flag, Seal and Anthem. 2) The State Emblem, Banner, Flag and Anthem shall express the historical tradition, aspiration, unity, justice and the spirit of the people of Mongolia. 3) The State Emblem shall be of circular shape with the white lotus serving as its base and the "Never-ending Tumen Nasan" pattern forming its outer frame. The main background is of blue colour signifying the eternal blue sky, the Mongols’ traditional sanctity. In the centre of the Emblem a combination of the Precious Steed and the Golden Soyombo sign is depicted as an expression of the independence, sovereignty and spirit of Mongolia. In the upper part of the Emblem the Chandmani (Wish-granting Jewel) sign symbolizes the past, the present and the future. In the lower part of the Emblem the sign of the Wheel entwined with the silk scarf Khadag in an expression of reverence and respect, symbolizing continued prosperity. It is placed against the background of a "hill" pattern conveying the notion of "Mother Earth". 4) The traditional Great White Banner of the unified Mongolian State is a state ceremonial attribute. 5) The State Flag shall be a rectangle divided vertically into three equal parts colored red, blue and red. The blue color of the center of the flag, symbolizes "the eternal blue sky" and the red color on both sides symbolizes progress and prosperity. The Golden Soyombo sign shall be depicted on the red stripe nearest to the flag pole. The ratio of the width and length of the Flag shall be 1:2. 6) The State Seal having a lion-shaped handle, shall be of a square form with the state Emblem in the center and the words "Mongol Uls" (Mongolia) inscribed on both sides. The President shall be the holder of the State Seal. 7) The procedure for the ceremonial use of the State symbols and the text and melody of the State Anthem shall be fixed by law.

The official seal of Mongolia also has been revised and reflects aspirations of becoming an industrialized society. The 1960 Constitution said that the state arms of Mongolia "shall reflect the essence of the state and the idea of friendship of peoples and shall show the national and economic peculiarities of the country." Accordingly, the official seal of that time consisted of a circle framed by sheaves of wheat, fastened together by a machine cog-wheel, replacing animal heads that denoted a pastoral country. In the center is a figure of a "working man on horseback galloping upward toward the sun-- communism," in place of a herdsman holding a lariat and galloping toward the rising sun. [Source: Library of Congress, June 1989 *]

Constitution of Mongolia

Constitution: several previous; latest adopted January 13, 1992; effective February 12, 1992; amended 1999, 2001 (2011). [Source: CIA World Factbook =]

After the ex-communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) renounced power it won in the elections in July 1990. The constitution was revised to give Mongolians greater political and individual freedom, including the rights of free speech, religion and assembly. In January 1992, the Mongolian parliament ratified a constitution that included sseparation of power among the executive, judicial and legislative branches.

The Constitution of Mongolia of begins: We, the people of Mongolia: - Strengthening the independence and sovereignty of the state, - Cherishing human rights and freedoms, justice and national unity, - Inheriting the traditions of national statehood, history and culture,

Respecting the accomplishments of human civilization, - And aspiring toward the supreme objective of building a human, civil and democratic society in our homeland Hereby proclaim the Constitution of Mongolia.

Chapter One : Sovereignty of the Mongolian State : Article one: 1) Mongolia is an independent, sovereign republic. 2) The fundamental principles of the activities of the State shall be securing democracy, justice, freedom, equality, national unity and rule of law.

Article Two: 1) By its state organization, Mongolia shall be a unitary State. 2) The territory of Mongolia shall be divided into administrative units only. Article Three: 1) In Mongolia state power shall be vested in the people of Mongolia. The Mongolian people shall exercise it through their direct participation in state affairs as well as through the representative bodies of the State authority elected by them. 2) Illegal seizure of State power or any attempt to do so shall be prohibited.

Article Five l) Mongolia shall have an economy based on different forms of property consistent to universal trends of world economic development and own country's specifics. 2) The State recognizes all forms of public and private property and shall protect the rights of the owner by law. 3) The owner's rights shall be limited exclusively by grounds specified in the law.

4) The State shall regulate the economy with a view to ensure the nation's economic security, the development of all forms of property and social development of the population. 5) Livestock are national wealth and shall be protected by the State.

Article six: 1) In Mongolia the land, its subsoil, forests, water, fauna and flora and other natural resources shall be subject to people's power and State protection. 2) The land, except that given to the citizens of Mongolia for private ownership, as well as the subsoil with its mineral resources, forests, water resources and wildfowl shall be the property of the State. 3) The State may give for private ownership plots of land, except pasturage and land under public utilization and special use, only to the citizens of Mongolia. This provision shall not apply to the ownership of the subsoil thereof. Citizens shall be prohibited to transfer the land in their ownership to foreign citizens and stateless persons by way of selling, bartering, donating or pledging as well as from transferring it to others for their possession and use without permission from competent State authorities. 4) The State shall have the right to hold landowners responsible for the land, to exchange or take it over with compensation on the grounds of special public need, or confiscate the land if it is used in a manner adverse to the health of the population, the interests of environmental protection or national security. 5) The State may allow foreign citizens, legal persons and stateless persons to lease land for a specified period of time under conditions and procedures as provided for by law.

Rights and Freedoms in the Mongolian Constitution

Chapter Two of The Constitution of Mongolia reads: Article Fourteen l. All persons lawfully residing within Mongolia are equal before the law and the Court. 2) No person shall be discriminated against on the basis of ethnic origin, language, race, age, sex, social origin and status, property, occupation and position, religion, opinion and education. Every one shall be a person before the law. Article Fifteen 1) The grounds and procedure for Mongolian nationality, acquisition or loss of citizenship shall be determined only by law. 2) Deprivation of Mongolian citizenship, exile and extradition of citizens of Mongolia shall be prohibited.

Article Sixteen The citizens of Mongolia are guaranteed to enjoy the following rights and freedoms: 1) the right to life. Deprivation of human life shall be strictly prohibited unless capital punishment is imposed by due judgment of the Court for the most serious crimes, pursuant to Mongolian Criminal law. 2) the right to a healthy and safe environment, and to be protected against environmental pollution and ecological imbalance. 3) the right to fair acquisition, possession, ownership and inheritance of movable and immovable property. Illegal confiscation and requisitioning of the private property of citizens shall be prohibited. If the State and its bodies appropriate private property on the basis of exclusive public need, they shall do so with due compensation and payment. 4) the right to free choice of employment, favorable conditions of work, remuneration, rest and private farming. No one shall be subjected to forced labor. 5) the right to material and financial assistance in old age, disability, childbirth and childcare and in other circumstances as provided by law.

6) the right to the protection of health and medical care. The procedure and conditions of free medical aid shall be determined by law. 7) the right to education. The state shall provide basic general education free of charge; Citizens may establish and operate private schools if these meet the requirements of the State. 8) the right to engage in creative work in cultural, artistic and scientific fields and to benefit thereof. Copyrights and patents shall be protected by law. 9) the right to take part in the conduct of State affairs directly or through representative bodies. The right to elect and to be elected to State bodies. The right to elect shall be enjoyed from the age of eighteen years and the age of eligibility for being elected shall be determined by law according to the requirements in respect of the bodies or positions concerned. 10) the right to form a party or other mass organization and freedom of association to these organizations on the basis of social and personal interests and opinion. All political parties and other mass organizations shall uphold public order and state security, and abide by law. Discrimination and persecution of a person for joining a political party or other mass organization or for being their member shall be prohibited. Party membership of some categories of state employees may be suspended. 11) men and women shall enjoy equal rights in political, economic, social, cultural fields and in family relationship. Marriage shall be based on the equality and mutual consent of the spouses who have reached the age determined by law. The State shall protect the interests of the family, motherhood and the child. 12) the right to submit a petition or a complaint to State bodies and officials. The State bodies and officials shall be obliged to respond to the petitions or complaints of citizens in conformity with law.

13) the right to personal liberty and safety. No one shall be searched, arrested, detained, persecuted or restricted of liberty except in accordance with procedures and grounds determined by law. No person shall be subjected to torture, inhumane, cruel or degrading treatment. Where a person is arrested his/her family and counsel shall be notified within a period of time established by law of the reasons for and grounds of the arrest. The privacy of citizens, their families, correspondence and homes shall be protected by law. 14) the right to appeal to the court to protect his/her rights if he/she considers that the rights or freedoms as spelt out by the Mongolian law or an international treaty have been violated; to be compensated for the damage illegally caused by others; not to testify against himself/herself, his/her family, or parents and children; to self-defense; to receive legal assistance; to have evidence examined; to fair trial; to be tried in his/her presence; to appeal against a court decision, to seek pardon. Compelling to testify against himself/ herself shall be prohibited. Every person shall be presumed innocent until proved guilty by a court by due process of law. The penalties imposed on the convicted shall not be applicable to his/her family members and relatives.

15) freedom of conscience and religion. 16) freedom of thought, opinion and expression, speech, press, peaceful assembly. Procedures for organizing demonstrations and other assemblies shall be determined by law. 17) the right to seek and receive information except that which the state and its bodies are legally bound to protect as secret. In order to protect human rights, dignity and reputation of persons and to ensure State defense, national security and public order secrets of the State, organization or individuals, which are not subject to disclosure shall be determined and protected by law. l8) the right to freedom of movement and residence within the country, right to travel and reside abroad and to return to their home country. The right to travel and reside abroad may be limited exclusively by law in order to ensure national security and the security of the population and protect public order.

History of the Soviet-Era Mongolian Constitution

The Constitution was adopted on July 6, 1960, by the People's Great Hural. It was the third constitution promulgated since the revolution of 1921. The first constitution was passed by the First National Great Hural on November 26, 1924. It abolished the system of monarchial theocracy, described the legislative consolidation of state power, provided a basic statement of socioeconomic and political rights and freedoms for the people, and espoused a national program that would bypass the capitalist stage of development in the course of promoting fundamental social transformations in order to bring about socialism in Mongolia. [Source: Library of Congress, June 1989 *]

The second constitution, adopted on June 30, 1940, took the Soviet constitution of 1936 as the model. As Mongolian premier Horloyn Choybalsan reported to the Eighth National Great Hural in 1940: "We are guided in our activity by the experience of the great country of socialism, the experience of the Soviet Union. Consequently, only the constitution of the Soviet Union may be a model for us in drafting our new constitution." In subsequent revisions to the 1940 Mongolian constitution in 1944, 1949, 1952, and 1959, disparities between the Mongolian and Soviet constitutions were reduced even further. *

Under the 1940 constitution, elections were restricted-- "enemies of the regime" could not vote--and indirect; lower bodies elected higher levels. Constitutional amendments introduced after 1944 changed this system, however, by restoring political rights, including the right of suffrage throughout the society; by instituting a unitary hierarchy of directly elected representative bodies; by reorganizing electoral districts; by replacing voting by the show of hands at open meetings with voting by secret ballot; and by abolishing the National Little Hural--the Standing Body of the National Great Hural-- transferring its functions to the National Great Hural, which was renamed People's Great Hural in 1951. The regime's justification for making these changes was that Mongolia had already realized many sociopolitical achievements in its advance toward socialism. Therefore, it became historically correct to introduce reforms that had been adopted in the more advanced society of the Soviet Union. *

1960 Soviet-Era Mongolian Constitution

The Constitution adopted in 1960 includes a lengthy preamble that acclaims the successes of the revolution and notes the importance of the "fraternal socialist assistance of the Soviet Union" to growth and development in Mongolia. The preamble clarifies the dominant role of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party as the "guiding and directing force in society," using as its guide the "all-conquering Marxist-Leninist theory." A renewed commitment is made to completing the construction of a socialist society and culture, and eventually, to building a communist society. Enunciated foreign policy goals describe a diplomacy based on the principles of peaceful coexistence and proletarian internationalism. [Source: Library of Congress, June 1989 *]

The points outlined in the preamble are explained more fully in the main body of the Constitution. Compared with its 1940 predecessor, the 1960 Constitution is more succinct. The 1940 document had been divided into twelve chapters. The 1960 Constitution clusters most of the same content into four general sections: socioeconomic structure, state structure, basic rights and duties of citizens, and miscellaneous provisions. Within these categories, the articles are compressed into ten chapters, compared with twelve chapters in the 1940 constitution. *

In the first general section, the socialist system, rooted in the socialist ownership of national wealth and the means of production, is presented as the economic basis of society. Areas protected under law include private ownership of one's income and savings, housing, subsidiary husbandry, personal and household articles, as well as the right to an inheritance. These legal guarantees, however, are subject to the qualification that "it shall be prohibited to use the right of personal ownership to the detriment of state and social interests." The second and longest general section defines the state structure, following that laid down in the 1940 constitution, as amended in 1959. It details the nature, composition, and duties of all state organs of power, including the executive, the legislative, and the judicial at both the national and local levels. *

In the third general section, the fundamental rights and duties of citizens are grouped together, a departure from the previous constitutions. The rights promised in this basic law and the actual experience of Mongolians in daily life, however, are often at variance. Among the basic rights guaranteed are equality irrespective of sex, racial or national affiliations, faith, social origin, and status. These were overlooked in practice, to the extent that male Khalkha Mongols occupied most of the elite government positions, and religious practice has been an impediment to career advancement in an atheistic MarxistLeninist society. In addition, citizens are guaranteed freedom of speech, press, assembly, meeting, demonstration, and processions, but with the restriction that the activities must be practiced "in accordance with the interests of the working people and with a view to developing and strengthening the state system of the Mongolian People's Republic." *

A list of duties begins with the exhortation that "every citizen of the Mongolian People's Republic shall be obliged to: show dedication to the cause of building socialism; maintain the priority of the interests of society and the state vis-à-vis private interests; safeguard the concept of communal socialist property; and fulfill all civic duties, and demand the same of other citizens." Other duties involve supporting international friendship and worker solidarity "under the leadership of the Soviet Union," and teaching and practicing good social values. *

The Constitution can be amended by the People's Great Hural with a majority of not less than two-thirds of the delegate votes, a system that has produced frequent revision. Perhaps the most novel feature of the Constitution is contained in its concluding article, unique among socialist constitutions. Article 94 allows the gradual repeal of the constitutional provisions: "The Constitution . . . will be repealed when the need for the existence of the state, which is the principal instrument for building socialism and communism, disappears, when it will be replaced by a communist association of working people." *

Government Duties According to the Mongolian Constitution

Chapter Three of The Constitution of Mongolia reads: Article Thirty eight: 1) The Government is the highest executive body of the State. 2) The Government shall implement the State laws, in accordance with duties to direct economic, social and cultural development, shall exercise the following power: 1)) to organize and ensure nationwide implementation of the Constitution and other laws; 2)) to work out a comprehensive policy on science and technology, guidelines for economic and social development, the State budget, credit and fiscal plans and to submit these to the State Ikh Khural and to execute decisions taken thereon; 3)) to elaborate and implement comprehensive measures on sector, inter sector and regional development; 4)) to undertake measures on the protection of the environment and on the rational use and restoration of natural resources; 5)) to provide efficient leadership of central state administrative bodies and to direct the activities of local administrations; 6)) to strengthen the country's defense capabilities and to ensure national security; 7)) to take measures for the protection of human rights and freedoms, strengthening public order and the prevention of crime; 8)) to implement State foreign policy; 9)) to conclude and implement international treaties in consultation with and, subsequent ratification by the State Ikh Khural, as well as to conclude and abrogate intergovernmental treaties. 3. The specific competences, organization and procedure of the Government shall be determined by law.

Article Thirty nine: 1) The Government shall comprise the Prime Minister and members. 2) The Prime Minister, in consultation with President, shall submit his/her proposals on the structure and composition of the Government and on the changes in these to the State Ikh Khural. If the Prime Minister has not reached consensus with the President within 7 days he/she shall submit proposals to the State Ikh Khural by himself/herself. /amendments from 24 December 1999 and 14 December 2000. 3) The State Ikh Khural shall consider the candidates proposed by the Prime Minister one by one and take decisions on their appointment.

Article Forty: 1) The term of the mandate of the Government shall be four years. 2) The terms of office of the Government shall start from the date of the appointment of the Prime Minister by the State Ikh Khural and terminate upon the appointment of a new Prime Minister.

Article Forty one : 1) The Prime Minister shall lead the Government and shall be responsible to the State Ikh Khural for the implementation of state laws. 2) The Government shall be accountable for its work to the State Ikh Khural. Article Forty two: Personal immunity of the Prime Minister and members of the Government shall be protected by law.

Article Forty three: 1) The Prime Minister may tender his/her resignation to the State Ikh Khural before the expiry of his/her terms of office if he/she considers that the Government is unable to exercise its power. 2) The Government shall step down in its entirety upon the resignation of the Prime Minister or if half of the members of the Government resign at the same time. 3) The State Ikh Khural shall consider the matter and make a final decision within 15 days after taking the initiative to dissolve the Government or receiving the President's proposal or the Prime Minister's statement on resignation. 4. The State Ikh Khural shall consider and take a decision on the dissolution of the Government if not less than one quarter of the members of the State Ikh Khural formally propose the dissolution of the Government. Article Forty four: If the Government submits a draft resolution requesting a vote of confidence, the State Ikh Khural shall proceed with the matter in accordance with paragraph 3 of Article 43)

Article Forty five: 1) The Government in conformity with legislation and within its power shall issue resolutions and ordinances which shall be signed by the Prime Minister and the Minister responsible for its application. 2) If these resolutions and ordinances are incompatible with legislation, the Government itself or the State Ikh Khural shall invalidate them. Article Forty six 1) Ministries and other government offices shall be constituted in accordance with law. 2) Genuine civil servants shall be Mongolian citizens. They shall strictly abide by the Constitution and other laws and work for the benefit of the people and in the interests of the State. 3) The working conditions and social guarantees of civil servants shall be determined by law.

Structure of Mongolian Communist Government in the 1980s

Mongolia in 1989 was a communist state modeled on Soviet political and government institutions. The government was a oneparty system, presided over by the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party. The party exercised political supervision and control over a pyramidal structure of representative governmental bodies known as hurals--assemblies of people's deputies. [Source: Library of Congress, June 1989 *]

The highly centralized governmental structure was divided into three major parts: the executive branch, presided over by the Council of Ministers; the legislative branch, represented at the national level by the unicameral People's Great Hural (the national assembly); and the judicial branch, with a Supreme Court presiding over a system of law administered by courts and by an Office of the Procurator of the Republic. The duties and responsibilities of each of these major bodies were identified in the Constitution promulgated in 1960. *

Beneath the national level were key administrative subdivisions consisting of eighteen aymags, or provinces, and of the three autonomous cities (hots) of Ulaanbaatar, Darhan, and Erdenet. On the next lower administrative level were counties, or somons, and town centers. At this basic level, government and economic activity were connected closely, so that the leadership of the somon and those of the livestock and agricultural cooperatives operating within the somon often were identical. *

The party related to the apex of the governmental system through its authoritative Political Bureau of the party Central Committee. In 1989 this nine-person body contained the presiding leadership of the country, and it was headed by party general secretary Jambyn Batmonh. Batmonh had dual power status in that he also was head of state as chairman of the Presidium of the People's Great Hural. Batmonh was promoted to these top-level positions in 1984 after his predecessor, Yumjaagiyn Tsedenbal, who had been in power since 1952, was replaced by the Central Committee, reportedly for health reasons. *

Below the national level, each aymag and somon had its own party organization that conveyed the policies and programs decided by the Political Bureau and directed the work of its counterpart assembly of people's deputies, its agricultural cooperatives, and the local government executive committee in implementing party programs on its level. The concentration of power at the top of the political system and within party channels had, throughout history, helped to create a complacent party and government bureaucracy, a development that hampered the leadership's plans to modernize the country and to stimulate economic development in the late 1980s. *

Political Participation by Minorities and Women

According to the U.S. Department of State: There are no legal impediments to the participation of women or minorities in government and politics. Eleven women were members of the 76-member parliament, up from three in the previous parliament. This increase was due in part to a 2011 law that mandates a 20-percent quota for female candidates proposed by each political party or coalition. Two of the 19 cabinet ministers, as well as 11 of the 21 Supreme Court justices and two of the nine Constitutional Court justices, were women. Women and women’s organizations were vocal in local and national politics and actively sought greater female representation in government policymaking. Two ethnic Kazakhs, both Muslims, served in parliament during the year. There was also one Christian member of parliament. [Source: “Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2015: Mongolia,” Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, U.S. Department of State]

The country’s first female presidential candidate, Natsag Udval of the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party, participated in the 2013 elections. The female representatives continued to meet in a women’s caucus to address women’s and social issues. On December 10, 2014, parliament approved a new unity “Government for Solutions.”[Source: “Country Reports on Human Rights Rights Practices for 2014: Mongolia” Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, U.S. Department of State \+\]

On the results of the 2012 parliamentary elections, Li Narangoa of Australian National University wrote: “ the proportion of female candidates was nearly 32 per cent, well above the quota. At least 10 of them were elected, and 2 are still yet to be confirmed. These figures show a significant step forward and bring up the proportion of female legislators from less than 4 per cent to about 13–16 per cent — an historical high. The main reason for the increase was not the quota system but the increasing disillusionment with the male-dominated corrupt leadership and the perception that female leaders were less corrupt and more principled. Despite unfavourable listing on party ballot lists, four women won the election through the proportional system, which suggests that voters made conscientious candidate choices. [Source: Li Narangoa,, July 10, 2012]

As of 1996, women only held 2 seats in the 76 Great Hural (parliament). In the communist era the number of women in the Great Hural was set by a quota and was supposed to be equal to the number of men. The Eleventh People's Great Hural, elected in July 1986, had 370 deputies as determined by a constitutional amendment in 1981. Of the 370 elected deputies, nearly 89 percent were party members or candidate members; 28 percent, industrial workers; 28 percent, agrarian cooperative members; and 44 percent, intellectuals and bureaucrats. Also, 25 percent of the deputies were women. 1989 the deputy chairmen were the president of the Presidium, an army officer, a woman, and, to show recognition of minorities, a Kazakh. *[Source: Library of Congress, June 1989]

Civil Unrest and Political Violence in Mongolia

According to the OSCA: Mongolia is generally a peaceful country with few incidents of political violence, violent demonstrations, or civil unrest. The political process is relatively stable and allows for expression of dissenting views. Presidential elections were held in June 2013 in the absence of violence or civil unrest. There have been no widespread reports of violence or conflict between ethnic group. [Source: “Mongolia 2015 Crime and Safety Report,” Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC), Bureau of Diplomatic Security, U.S. Department of State ^^^]

Peaceful protests do occur in the center of Ulaanbaatar, but the turnout is usually small in number. There is a vocal nationalist-resource movement that has staged small protests targeting international mining consortia, with fringe elements occasionally vandalizing foreign-owned businesses. Large-scale demonstrations and acts of civil disobedience have been uncommon since the country rejected Soviet-style socialism in the early 1990s. There were violent post-election protests that left Turkmenistan people dead (See History).

Ultranationalist groups, although less active than in recent years, continued to commit isolated acts of violence, most often targeted at Chinese workers. Members of the LGBT community also continued to express fear of ultranationalists, who in the past have targeted LGBT persons. [Source: “Country Reports on Human Rights Rights Practices for 2015: Mongolia” Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, U.S. Department of State]

There have been no reports of terrorist attacks or indigenous terrorist groups operating in Mongolia. Authorities are cognizant that their porous borders might allow transnational terrorists to enter the country. Authorities closely monitor visitors from countries that have been the homes of transnational terrorists.

Image Sources:

Text Sources: New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Times of London, Lonely Planet Guides, Library of Congress, U.S. government, Compton’s Encyclopedia, The Guardian, National Geographic, Smithsonian magazine, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, AFP, Wall Street Journal, The Atlantic Monthly, The Economist, Foreign Policy, Wikipedia, BBC, CNN, and various books, websites and other publications.

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© 2008 Jeffrey Hays

Last updated April 2016

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