BUREAUCRACY AND ADMINISTRATION IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE

BUREAUCRACY AND ADMINISTRATION IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE


Roman seal

Some people regard the Roman Empire as the Golden Age of Europe. The Romans created a legal and political system that endures to this day, and not only conquered a lot of territory but established an administration system to run it.

Andrew Wallace-Hadrill of the University of Reading wrote for the BBC: “ One image of the imperial system is of strong, effective central control. The figure of the emperor himself, as defined by Julius Caesar and Augustus, stands for good order in contrast to the chaos of pluralism - squabbling city-states or competing aristocrats. [Source: Professor Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, BBC, February 17, 2011 |::|]

“Historians have underlined the benefits of provincial government restrained by imperial control and the development of a sophisticated and complex law code which still underlies continental legal systems. They have pointed to the benefits of the central bureaucracy built up by the early emperors, especially Claudius, which provided a structure for long-term continuity amid changing dynasties. That bureaucratic mentality, you could say, transmitted from late antiquity through the papacy to modern nation states, is what makes contemporary Brussels possible. |::|

It was during the period of the Antonines (A.D. 96-192 particularly Hadrian: 117 – 138 and Antoninus Pius: 138 – 161) that the imperial government reached its highest development. This government was, in fact, the most remarkable example that the world has ever seen of what we may call a “paternal autocracy”—that is government in the hands of a single ruler, but exercised solely for the benefit of the people. In this respect the ideals of Julius and Augustus seem to have been completely realized. The emperor was looked upon as the embodiment of the state, the personification of law, and the promoter of justice, equality, and domestic peace. Every department of the administration was under his control. He had the selection of the officials to carry into execution his will. The character of such a government the Romans well expressed in their maxim, “What is pleasing to the prince has the force of law.” [Source: “Outlines of Roman History” by William C. Morey, Ph.D., D.C.L. New York, American Book Company (1901), forumromanum.org \~\]

Websites on Ancient Rome: Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Rome sourcebooks.fordham.edu ; Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Late Antiquity sourcebooks.fordham.edu ; Forum Romanum forumromanum.org ; “Outlines of Roman History” forumromanum.org; “The Private Life of the Romans” forumromanum.org|; BBC Ancient Rome bbc.co.uk/history; Perseus Project - Tufts University; perseus.tufts.edu ; Lacus Curtius penelope.uchicago.edu; Gutenberg.org gutenberg.org The Roman Empire in the 1st Century pbs.org/empires/romans; The Internet Classics Archive classics.mit.edu ; Bryn Mawr Classical Review bmcr.brynmawr.edu; De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors roman-emperors.org; British Museum ancientgreece.co.uk; Oxford Classical Art Research Center: The Beazley Archive beazley.ox.ac.uk ; Metropolitan Museum of Art metmuseum.org/about-the-met/curatorial-departments/greek-and-roman-art; The Internet Classics Archive kchanson.com ; Cambridge Classics External Gateway to Humanities Resources web.archive.org/web; Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy iep.utm.edu; Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy plato.stanford.edu; Ancient Rome resources for students from the Courtenay Middle School Library web.archive.org ; History of ancient Rome OpenCourseWare from the University of Notre Dame /web.archive.org ; United Nations of Roma Victrix (UNRV) History unrv.com

Bureaucracy and Administration Under Augustus

In accordance with his general policy Augustus did not interfere with the old republican offices and magistrates, but allowed them to remain as undisturbed as possible. The consuls, praetors, quaestors, and other officers continued to be elected just as they had been before. But the emperor did not generally use these magistrates to carry out the details of his administration. This was performed by other officers appointed by himself. The position of the old republican magistrates was rather one of honor than one of executive responsibility. [Source: “Outlines of Roman History” by William C. Morey, Ph.D., D.C.L. New York, American Book Company (1901), forumromanum.org]


Suetonius wrote: “To enable more men to take part in the administration of the State, he devised new offices: the charge of public buildings, of the roads, of the aqueducts, of the channel of the Tiber, of the distribution of grain to the people, as well as the prefecture of the city, a board of three for choosing Senators, and another for reviewing the companies of the knights whenever it should be necessary. He appointed censors, an office which had long been discontinued. He increased the number of praetors. He also demanded that whenever the consulship was conferred on him, he should have two colleagues instead of one; but this was not granted, since all cried out that it was a sufficient offence to his supreme dignity that he held the office with another and not alone. [Source: Suetonius (c.69-after 122 A.D.): “De Vita Caesarum--Divus Augustus” (“The Lives of the Caesars--The Deified Augustus”), written A.D. c. 110, “Suetonius, De Vita Caesarum,” 2 Vols., trans. J. C. Rolfe (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1920), pp. 123-287]

“He was not less generous in honouring martial prowess, for he had regular triumphs voted to above thirty generals, and the triumphal regalia to somewhat more than that number. To enable Senators' sons to gain an earlier acquaintance with public business, he allowed them to assume the broad purple stripe immediately after the gown of manhood and to attend meetings of the Senate; and when they began their military career, he gave them not merely a tribunate in a legion, but the command of a division of cavalry as well; and to furnish all of them with experience in camp life, he usually appointed two Senators' sons to command each division. He reviewed the companies of knights at frequent intervals, reviving the custom of the procession after long disuse. But he would not allow an accuser to force anyone to dismount as he rode by, as was often done in the past; and he permitted those who were conspicuous because of old age or any bodily infirmity to send on their horses in the review, and come on foot to answer to their names whenever they were summoned. Later he excused those who were over thirty-five years of age and did not wish to retain their horses from formally surrendering them.

“Having obtained ten assistants from the Senate, he compelled each knight to render an account of his life, punishing some of those whose conduct was scandalous and degrading others; but the greater part he reprimanded with varying degrees of severity. The mildest form of reprimand was to hand them a pair of tablets publicly, which they were to read in silence on the spot. He censured some because they had borrowed money at low interest and invested it at a higher rate.

Administration of Rome and Italy

After more than a hundred years of civil war Rome was in need of some improvement to say the least. Augustus met this need by creating certain new officers to keep the city under better control. In the first place, he established a city police under the charge of a chief (praefectus urbi), to preserve order and prevent the scenes of violence which had been of such frequent occurrence. In the next place, he created a fire and detective department under the charge of another chief (praefectus vigilum), to have jurisdiction over all incendiaries, burglars, and other night-prowlers. [Source: “Outlines of Roman History” by William C. Morey, Ph.D., D.C.L. New York, American Book Company (1901), forumromanum.org \~\]


“He then placed the grain supply under a regular officer (praefectus annonae) who was to superintend the transport of grain from Egypt, and was held responsible for its proper distribution. Moreover, he broke up the “secret clubs” which had been hotbeds of disorder, and substituted in their place more orderly societies under the supervision of the government. For administrative purposes the city was divided into fourteen districts, or wards. By these arrangements, life and property became more secure, and the populace became more orderly and law-abiding. \~\

“Italy was now extended to the Alps, the province of Cisalpine Gaul having lately been joined to the peninsula. The whole of Italy was divided by Augustus into eleven “regions,” or administrative districts. In order to maintain the splendid system of roads which had been constructed during the republican period, the emperor appointed a superintendent of highways (curator viarurn) to keep them in repair. He also established a post system by which the different parts of the peninsula could be kept in communication with one another. He suppressed brigandage by establishing military patrols in the dangerous districts. It was his policy to encourage everywhere the growth of a healthy and vigorous municipal life. To relieve the poverty of Italy he continued the plan of Julius Caesar in sending out colonies into the provinces, where there were better opportunities to make a living.” \~\

Administration of the Provinces

During the reign of Augustus the number of provinces was increased by taking in the outlying territory south of the Rhine and the Danube. The new frontier provinces were Rhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia, and Moesia. The provinces were not only increased in number, but were thoroughly reorganized. They were first divided into two groups,—the senatorial, or those which remained under the control of the senate; and the imperial, or those which passed under the control of the emperor. The latter were generally on the frontiers, and required the presence of an army and a military governor. The governors of the imperial provinces were lieutenants (legati) of the emperor. Appointed by him, and strictly responsible to him, they were no longer permitted to prey upon their subjects, but were obliged to rule in the name of the emperor, and for the welfare of the people. The senatorial provinces, on the other hand, were still under the control of proconsuls and propraetors appointed by the senate. But the condition of these provinces was also greatly improved. The establishment of the new government thus proved to be a great benefit to the provincials. Their property became more secure, their commerce revived, their cities became prosperous, and their lives were made more tolerable. [Source: “Outlines of Roman History” by William C. Morey, Ph.D., D.C.L. New York, American Book Company (1901), forumromanum.org \~\]


Caesar with some surrendering Gauls

Suetonius wrote: “After having thus set the city and its affairs in order, he added to the population of Italy by personally establishing twenty-eight colonies; furnished many parts of it with public buildings and revenues; and even gave it, at least to some degree, equal rights and dignity with the city of Rome, by devising a kind of votes which the members of the local Senate were to cast in each colony for candidates for the city offices and send under seal to Rome against the day of the elections. To keep up the supply of men of rank and induce the commons to increase and multiply, he admitted to the equestrian military careera those who were recommended by any town, while to those of the commons who could lay claim to legitimate sons or daughters when he made his rounds of the districts he distributed a thousand sesterces for each child. [Source: Suetonius (c.69-after 122 A.D.): “De Vita Caesarum--Divus Augustus” (“The Lives of the Caesars--The Deified Augustus”), written A.D. c. 110, “Suetonius, De Vita Caesarum,” 2 Vols., trans. J. C. Rolfe (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1920), pp. 123-287]

“The stronger provinces, which could neither easily nor safely be governed by annual magistrates, he took to himself; the others he assigned to proconsular governors selected by lot. But he changed some of them at times from one class to the other, and often visited many of both sorts. Certain of the cities which had treaties with Rome, but were on the road to ruin through their lawlessness, he deprived of their independence; he relieved others that were overwhelmed with debt, rebuilt some which had been destroyed by earthquakes, and gave Latin rights or full citizenship to such as could point to services rendered the Roman people. I believe there is no province, excepting only Africa and Sardinia, which he did not visit; and he was planning to cross to these from Sicily after his defeat of Sextus Pompeius, but was prevented by a series of violent storms, and later had neither opportunity nor occasion to make the voyage.

“Except in a few instances he restored the kingdoms of which he gained possession by the right of conquest to those from whom he had taken them or joined them with other foreign nations. He also united the kings with whom he was in alliance by mutual ties, and was very ready to propose or favour intermarriages or friendships among them. He never failed to treat them all with consideration as integral parts of the empire, regularly appointing a guardian for such as were too young to rule or whose minds were affected, until they grew up or recovered; and he brought up the children of many of them and educated them with his own.”

With the division of the provinces, the administration of the finances was also divided between the senate and the emperor. The revenues of the senatorial provinces went into the treasury of the senate, or the aerarium; while those of the imperial provinces passed into the treasury of the emperor, or the fiscus. The old wretched system of farming the revenues, which had disgraced the republic and impoverished the provincials, was gradually abandoned. The collection of the taxes in the senatorial as well as the imperial provinces was placed in the charge of imperial officers. It was not long before the cities themselves were allowed to raise by their own officers the taxes due to the Roman government. Augustus also laid the foundation of a sound financial system by making careful estimates of the revenues and expenditures of the state; and by raising and expending the public money in the most economical and least burdensome manner. [Source: “Outlines of Roman History” by William C. Morey, Ph.D., D.C.L. New York, American Book Company (1901), forumromanum.org \~\]

Roman Bureaucracy and Administration Improved Under Claudius


Claudius

the Roman Empire prospered during the reign Claudius I (born 10 B.C, ruled A.D. 37 -45). Regarded as a crippled, uncouth scholar and characterized by some as a "dim-witted oaf" because he stuttered and had the habit of drooling, Claudius improved Rome’s administrative efficiency by centralizing the government, taking control of the treasury, and expanding the civil service. According to the Metropolitan Museum of Art: “Rome prospered during the succeeding He engaged in a vast program of public works, including new aqueducts, canals, and the development of Ostia as the port of Rome.

It is to the credit of Claudius that he was greatly interested in the condition of the provinces. He spent much time in regulating the affairs of the East. The kingdom of Thrace was changed into a province, and governed by a Roman procurator. Lycia, in Asia Minor, also was made a province, as well as Mauretania in Africa. One of the most important changes which he made was the restoration of the kingdom of the Jews to Herod Agrippa. This he did out of respect for this people, and to allay the bad feeling which had been stirred up during the previous reign. But Claudius especially showed his interest in the provinces by extending to them the rights of Roman citizenship. The civitas was granted to a large part of Gaul, thus carrying out the policy which had been begun by Julius Caesar. If we except the scandals of the court, the reign of Claudius may be regarded as inspired by prudence and a wise regard for the welfare of his subjects. [Source: “Outlines of Roman History” by William C. Morey, Ph.D., D.C.L. New York, American Book Company (1901), forumromanum.org \~\]

Suetonius wrote: “Jurisdiction in cases of trust, which it had been usual to assign each year and only to magistrates in the city, he delegated for all time and extended to the governors of the provinces. He annulled a clause added to the Lex Papia Poppaea by Tiberius, implying that men of sixty could not beget children. He made a law that guardians might be appointed for orphans by the consuls, contrary to the usual procedure, and that those who were banished from a province by its magistrates should also be debarred from the city and from Italia. He himself imposed upon some a new kind of punishment, by forbidding them to go more than three miles outside of the city [The "relegatio" was a milder form of exile, without loss of citizenship or confiscation of property, but in this case the offenders were not banished, but confined to the city and its immediate vicinity]. When about to conduct business of special importance in the Senate, he took his seat between the two consuls or on the tribunes' bench. He reserved to himself the granting of permission to travel, which had formerly been requested of the Senate. [Source: Suetonius (c.69-after 122 A.D.) : “De Vita Caesarum:Claudius” (“The Lives of the Caesars: Claudius”), written in A.D. 110, 2 Vols., translated by J. C. Rolfe, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, and London: William Henemann, 1920), Vol. I, pp. 405-497, modernized by J. S. Arkenberg, Dept. of History, Cal. State Fullerton]

“He gave the consular regalia even to the second grade of stewards [The procuratores were the emperor's agents, who performed various administrative duties throughout the empire. They were members of the equestrian ordo and were ranked on the basis of their annual stipend as trecenarii, ducenarii, centenarii, and sexagenarii, receiving, respectively, 300,000, 200,000, 100,000, and 60,000 sesterces]. If any refused senatorial rank [A common reason for this was the desire to engage in commerce, which senators were not allowed to do], he took from them the rank of eques also. Though he had declared at the beginning of his reign that he would choose no one as a senator who did not have a Roman citizen for a great-great-grandfather, he gave the broad stripe even to a freedman's son, but only on condition that he should first be adopted by a Roman eques.

Vespasian (ruled A.D. 69-79), Money and Control of the Roman Treasury

According to the Metropolitan Museum of Art: “ Vespasian showed great moderation and common sense in his dealings as emperor, but he was also known for his greed. One reason was that he needed to increase taxation in order to restore public finances and refill the imperial treasury. He reformed the Senate, whose authority and numbers had diminished under Nero and during the civil wars. Vespasian also recruited equestrian officers, who brought personal wealth, and Italian and provincial members, who brought local knowledge, to the imperial administration and civil service. Furthermore, he guaranteed a stable succession with his sons Titus and Domitian, both able administrators. [Source: Department of Greek and Roman Art,Metropolitan Museum of Art, October 2000, metmuseum.org ]

Suetonius wrote: “The only thing for which he can fairly be censured was his love of money. For not content with reviving the imposts which had been repealed under Galba, he added new and heavy burdens, increasing the amount of tribute paid by the provinces, in some cases actually doubling it, and quite openly carrying on traffic which would be shameful even for a man in private life; for he would buy up certain commodities merely in order to distribute them at a profit. He made no bones of selling offices to candidates and acquittals to men under prosecution, whether innocent or guilty. [Source: Suetonius (c.69-after 122 A.D.): “De Vita Caesarum: Vespasian” (“Life of Vespasian”), written c. A.D. 110, translated by J. C. Rolfe, Suetonius, 2 Vols., The Loeb Classical Library (London: William Heinemann, and New York: The MacMillan Co., 1914), II.281-321]


Vespasian is famous for introducing a a tax on toilets, like these in Ephesus

“He is even believed to have had the habit of designedly advancing the most rapacious of his procurators to higher posts, that they might he the richer when he later condemned them; in fact, it was common talk that he used these men as sponges, because he, so to speak, soaked them when they were dry and squeezed them when they were wet. Some say that he was naturally covetous and was taunted with it by an old herdsman of his, who on being forced to pay for the freedom for which he earnestly begged Vespasian when he became emperor cried: "The fox changes his fur, but not his nature." Others, on the contrary, believe that he was driven by necessity to raise money by spoliation and robbery because of the desperate state of the treasury and the privy purse; to which he bore witness at the very beginning of his reign by declaring that forty thousand millions were needed to set the State upright. This latter view seems the more probable, since he made the best use of his gains, ill gotten though they were.

“He was most generous to all classes, making up the requisite estate for senators [This had been increased to 1,200,000 sesterces by Augustus], giving needy ex-consuls an annual stipend of five hundred thousand sesterces, restoring to a better condition many cities throughout the empire which had suffered from earthquakes or fires, and in particular encouraging men of talent and the arts.

“He was the first to establish a regular salary of a hundred thousand sesterces for Latin and Greek teachers of rhetoric, paid from the privy purse. He also presented eminent poets with princely largess and great rewards, and artists, too, such as the restorer of the Venus of Cos [Doubtless referring to the statue of Venus consecrated by Vespasian in his Temple of Peace, the sculptor of which, according to Pliny, was unknown. The Venus of Cos was the work of Praxiteles], and of the Colossus [The colossal statue of Nero; see Nero, xxxi.1]. To a mechanical engineer, who promised to transport some heavy columns to the capitol at small expense, he gave no mean reward for his invention, but refused to make use of it, saying: "You must let me feed my poor commons."

“When Titus found fault with him for contriving a tax upon public toilets, he held a piece of money from the first payment to his son's nose, asking whether its odor was offensive to him. When Titus said "No," he replied, "Yet it comes from urine." On the report of a deputation that a colossal statue of great cost had been voted him at public expense, he demanded to have it set up at once, and holding out his open hand, said that the base was ready. He did not cease his jokes even then in apprehension of death and in extreme danger; for when among other portents the Mausoleum [Of Augustus] opened on a sudden and a comet appeared in the heavens, he declared that the former applied to Junia Calvina of the family of Augustus, and the latter to the king of the Parthians, who wore his hair long; and as death drew near, he said: "Woe's me. Methinks I'm turning into a god."”

Pliny the Younger as an Administrator for Trajan in Asia Minor

Bithynia was Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor (present-day Turkey). William Stearns Davis wrote: “About 112 CE. Trajan appointed Pliny the Younger, a distinguished Senator and literary man, as governor of Bithynia — a province suffering from previous maladministration. The nature of the governor's problems and the obligation he was under of referring very petty matters to the Emperor appears clearly in the following letters. This correspondence of Trajan and Pliny (given here only in small part) is among the most valuable bits of historical data we have for the whole Imperial Age.

Pliny the Younger: Letters, X.25 ff: The Correspondence of a Provincial Governor and the Emperor Trajan: Pliny to Trajan: “The people of Prusa, Sire, have a public bath in a neglected and dilapidated state. They wish - with your kind permission -- to restore it; but I think a new one ought to be built, and I reckon you can safely comply with their wishes. [Then the governor names various ways to find the money, especially cutting down the free distribution of oil.]” [Source: Pliny the Younger (61/62-113 A.D.) and Trajan (r.98-117 A.D.): Letters, Book X. 25ff : The Correspondence of a Provincial Governor and the Emperor Trajan, c. 112 A.D. William Stearns Davis, ed., “Readings in Ancient History: Illustrative Extracts from the Sources,” 2 Vols. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1912-13), Vol. II: Rome and the West, 196-210, 215-222, 250-251, 289-290, 295-296, 298-300]


Trajan to Pliny: “If the building of a new bath will not cripple the finances of Prusa, we can indulge their wishes; only it must be understood that no new taxes are to be raised to meet the cost, and that their contributions for necessary expenses shall not show any falling off.”

Pliny to Trajan: “A desolating fire broke out in Nicomedia, and destroyed a number of private houses, and two public buildings -- the almshouse and the temple of Isis -- although a road ran between them. The fire was allowed to spread farther than it need, first owing to the violent wind; second, to the laziness of the citizens, it being generally agreed they stood idly by without moving, and simply watched the conflagration. Besides there was not a single public fire engine or bucket in the place, and not one solitary appliance for mastering a fire. However, these will be provided upon orders I have already given. But, Sire, I would have you consider whether you think a fire company of about 150 men ought not to be formed? I will take care that no one not a genuine fireman shall be admitted, and that the guild should not misapply the charter granted it. Again there would be no trouble in keeping an eye on so small a body.”

Trajan to Pliny: “You have formed the idea of a possible fire company at Nicomedia on the model of various others already existing; but remember that the province of Bithynia, and especially city-states like Nicomedia, are the prey of factions. Give them the name we may, and however good be the reasons for organization, such associations will soon degenerate into dangerous secret societies. It is better policy to provide fire apparatus, and to encourage property holders to make use of them, and if need comes, press the crowd which collects into the same service.”

Pliny to Trajan: “Sire, a person named Julius Largus of Pontus, whom I have never seen or heard of before, has intrusted me with the management of his property with which he seeks to prove his loyalty to you. For he has asked me in his will to undertake as heir the division of his property, and after keeping 50,000 sesterces, hand over all the remainder to the free cities of Heraclea and Teos. He leaves it to my discretion whether I think it better to erect public works and dedicate them to your glory, or to start an athletic festival, to be held every five years, and to be called the "Trajan Games." I have decided to lay the facts before you and ask your decision.”

Trajan to Pliny: “Julius Largus, in picking you out for your trustworthiness, has acted as though he knew you intimately. So do you consider the circumstances of each place, and the best means of perpetuating his memory, and follow the course you think best.”

Pliny the Younger and Trajan Communicate About Public Works Asia Minor

Pliny the Younger: Letters, X.25 ff: The Correspondence of a Provincial Governor and the Emperor Trajan: Pliny to Trajan: “Sire, the people of Nicomedia spent 3,229,000 sesterces [Arkenberg: about $1,857,000 in 1998 dollars] upon an aqueduct, which was left in an unfinished state, and I may say in ruin, and they also levied taxes to the extent of 2,000,000 sesterces [Arkenberg: about $1,543,000 in 1998 dollars] for a second one. This, too, has been abandoned, and to get a water supply those who have wasted these vast sums must go to a new expense. I have visited a splendid clear spring, from which it seems to me the supply ought to be brought to the town [and have formed a scheme that seems practicable].” [Source: Pliny the Younger (61/62-113 A.D.) and Trajan (r.98-117 A.D.): Letters, Book X. 25ff : The Correspondence of a Provincial Governor and the Emperor Trajan, c. 112 A.D. William Stearns Davis, ed., “Readings in Ancient History: Illustrative Extracts from the Sources,” 2 Vols. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1912-13), Vol. II: Rome and the West, 196-210, 215-222, 250-251, 289-290, 295-296, 298-300]


Trajan to Pliny: “Steps must certainly be taken to provide Nicomedia with a water supply; and I have full confidence you will undertake the duty with all due care. But I profess it is also part of your diligent duty to find out who is to blame for the waste of such sums of money by the people of Nicomedia on their aqueducts, and whether or no there has been any serving of private interests in this beginning and then abandoning of [public] works. See that you bring to my knowledge whatever you find out.”

Pliny to Trajan: “The theater at Nicaea, Sire, the greater part of which has already been constructed -- though it is still unfinished -- has already cost over 10,000,000 sesterces [Arkenberg: about $7,500,000 in 1998 dollars] -- at least so I am told, for the accounts have not been made out; and I am fearful lest the money has been thrown away. For the building has sunk and there are great gaping crevices to be seen, either because the ground is damp, or owing to the [bad quality] of the stone. [It is doubtful if the affair is worth completing.] Just before I came the Nicaeans also began to restore the public gymnasium, which had been destroyed by fire, on a larger scale than the old building, and they have already disbursed a considerable sum thereon, and I fear to little purpose [for it is very ill constructed]. Moreover the architect -- the rival, to be sure, of the man who began the work -- asserts that the walls, although twenty-two feet thick, cannot bear the weight placed upon them, because they have not been put together with cement in the middle and have not been strengthened with brickwork.”

Trajan to Pliny: “You are the best judge of what to do at Nicaea. It will be enough for me to be informed of the plan you adopt. All Greek peoples have a passion for gymnasia, so perhaps the people of Nicaea have set about building one on a rather lavish scale, but they must be content to cut their coat according to their cloth. You again must decide what advice to give the people of Claudiopolis.”

Pliny to Trajan: “When I asked for a statement of the expenditures of the city of Byzantium -- which are abnormally high -- it was pointed out to me, Sire, that a delegate was sent every year with a complimentary decree to pay his respects to you, and that he received 12,000 sesterces for so doing. Remembering your instructions I ordered him to stay at home and to forward the decree by me in order to lighten the expenses. I beg you to tell whether I have done right.”

Trajan to Pliny: “You have done quite right, my dear Pliny, in canceling the expenditure of the Byzantines. . . for that delegate. They will in the future do their duty well enough, even though

Reforms of Diocletian


Diocletian coin

Dr Jon Coulston of the University of St. Andrews wrote for the BBC: “The denigration of the imperial office through a vicious cycle of usurpations and assassinations was halted long enough by Diocletian (ruled 284 - 305 AD) and his co-emperors for stable rule to be re-established. He established a 'college' of four emperors - two senior men with the title 'Augustus' who appointed two junior 'Caesars' - called the Tetrarchy. This ensured stability of succession and meant that four men could handle simultaneous crises on widely-spread frontiers. [Source: Dr Jon Coulston, BBC, February 17, 2011 |::|]

“Military and civil (judicial and financial) administrations were entirely separated for enhanced security against rivals. Currency reforms, regularisation of army supply, enlargement of the army, and successful operations against usurpers and foreign enemies contributed to internal stability. New legions were raised and new, imposing designs in fortifications were applied across the empire. A programme of regime propaganda and harnessed traditional cults enhanced loyalty to the state.” |::|

The general result of the new policy of Diocletian was to give to the empire a strong and efficient government. The dangers which threatened the state were met with firmness and vigor. A revolt in Egypt was quelled, and the frontiers were successfully defended against the Persians and the barbarians. Public works were constructed, among which were the great Baths of Diocletian at Rome. At the close of his reign he celebrated a triumph in the old capital. [Source: “Outlines of Roman History” by William C. Morey, Ph.D., D.C.L. New York, American Book Company (1901), forumromanum.org \~\]

Notitia Dignitatum (Register of Dignitaries), A.D. 400

The Notitia Dignitatum (Register of Dignitaries, c. A.D. 400) is an official listing of all civil and military posts in the Roman Empire, East and West. It survives as a 1551 copy of the now-missing original and is the major source of information on the administrative organization of the late Roman Empire. William Fairley wrote: “The Notitia Dignitatum is an official register of all the offices, other than municipal, which existed in the Roman Empire.... Gibbon gave to this document a date between 395 and 407 when the Vandals disturbed the Roman regime in Gaul. [Source: Notitia Dignitatum (Register of Dignitaries), William Fairley, in Translations and Reprints from Original Sources of European History, Vol. VI:4 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press), 1899].

“The Notitia Dignitatum has preserved for us, as no other document has done, a complete outline view of the Roman administrative system in early fifth century. The hierarchic arrangement is displayed perfectly. The division of prefectures, dioceses and provinces, and the rank of their respective governors is set forth at length. The military origin of the whole system appears in the titles of the staff officers, even in those departments whose heads had, since the time of Constantine, been deprived of all military command.”

Register of Dignitaries in the East

Register of the Dignitaries Both Civil and Military, in the Districts of the East: The pretorian prefect of the East.
The pretorian prefect of Illyricum.
The prefect of the city of Constantinople.
Two masters of horse and foot in the presence.
[The master] of horse and foot in the East.
[The master] of horse and foot in Thrace.
[The master] of horse and foot in Illyricum.
The provost of the sacred bedchamber.
The master of the offices.
The quaestor.
The count of the sacred bounties.
The count of the private domains.
Two counts of the household troops:
of horse,
of foot.
The superintendent of the sacred bedchamber.
The chief of the notaries.
The castellan of the sacred palace.
The masters of bureaus:
of memorials,
of correspondence,
of requests,
of Greek [versions].
[Source: Notitia Dignitatum (Register of Dignitaries), William Fairley, in Translations and Reprints from Original Sources of European History, Vol. VI:4 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press), 1899].


Diocletian's camp in Palmyra, Syria

Two proconsuls:
of Asia; of Achaia.
The count of the East.
The Augustal prefect.
Four vicars:
of [the diocese of] Asia; of [the diocese of] Pontus; of [the diocese of] the Thraces; of [the diocese of] Macedonia.
Two military counts:
of Egypt; of Isauria.
Thirteen dukes:
in [the diocese of] Egypt two:
of the Libyas; of Thebais.
in [the diocese of] the East six:
of Phoenice; of Euphratensis and Syria; of Palestine; of Osroena; of Mesopotamia; of Arabia.
in [the diocese of] Pontus one:
of Armenia.
in [the diocese of] Thrace two:
of Moesia secunda; of Scythia.
in [the diocese of] Illyricum two:
of ripuarian Dacia; of Moesia prima.

Fifteen consulars:
in [the diocese of] the East five:
of Palestine; of Phoenice; of Syria; of Cilicia; of Cyprus
in [the diocese of] Asia three:
of Pamphylia; of Hellespontus; of Lydia.
in [the diocese of] Pontus two:
of Galatia; of Bithynia.
in [the diocese of] Thrace two:
of Europe; of Thrace.
in [the diocese of] Ilyricum three:
of Crete; of.Macedonia; of Mediterranean Dacia.
Egypt, however, does not possess the consular dignity.

Forty presidents: in [the diocese of) Egypt five: of upper Lybia; of lower Lybia; of Thebais; of Egypt; of Arcadia. in [the diocese of] the East eight: of Palaestina salutaris; of Palaestina secunda; of Phoenice Libani; of Euphratensis; of Syria salutaris; of Osroena; of Mesopotamia; of Cilicia secunda. in [the diocese of] Asia seven: of Pisidia; of Lycaonia; of Phrygia Pacatiana; of Phrygia salutaris; of Lycia; of Caria; of the Islands. in [the diocese of] Pontus eight: of Honorias; of Cappadocia prima; of Cappadocia secunda; of Helenopontus; of Poutus Polemoniacus; of Armenia prima; of Armenia secunda; of Galatia salutaris. in [the diocese of] Thrace four: of Haemimontus; of Rhodope; of Moesia secunda; of Scythia. in [the diocese of] Illyricum eight: of Thessalia; of ancient Epirus; of new Epirus; of ripuarian Dacia; of Moesia prima; of Praevalitana; of Dardania; of Macedonia salutaris. Two correctors: of Augustamnica; of Paphlagonia.

Pretorian Prefect of the East

Under the control of the illustrious* pretorian prefect of the East are the dioceses below mentioned (*Each of the great officials of the empire at this time was dignified and graded by one of three titles: illustris, illustrious; speciabilis, worshipful; clarissimus, right honorable. The first of these titles is the highest. In general, it may be said that the illustrious correspond in rank to our cabinet officers, the worshipful to our State governors and highest military officers, and the right honorable to our brigadier-generals and colonels):
of the East; of Egypt; of Asia; of Pontus; of Thrace.
Provinces:of [the diocese of] the East fifteen:Palestine; Phoenice; Syria; Cilicia; Cyprus; Arabia (also a duke and a military count); Isauria; Palaestina salutaris; Palaestina secunda; Phoenice Libani; Euphratensis; Syria salutaris; Osroena; Mesopotamia; Cilicia secunda.
of [the diocese of] Egypt five:upper Libya; lower Libya; Thebais; Egypt; Arcadia.
of (the diocese of] Asia ten:Pamphylia; Hellespontus; Lydia; Pisidia; Lycaonia; Phrygia Pacatiana; Phrygia salutaris; Lycia; Caria; the Islands.
of [the diocese of] Pontus ten:Galatia; Bithynia; Honorias; Cappadocia prima; Cappadocia secunda; Pontus Polemoniacus; Helenopontus; Armenia prima; Armenia securida; Galatia)' salutaris.
of [the diocese of] Thrace six. Europa; Thracia; Heemimontus; Rhodopa; Moesia secunda-, Scythia.
[Source: Notitia Dignitatum (Register of Dignitaries), William Fairley, in Translations and Reprints from Original Sources of European History, Vol. VI:4 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press), 1899].


The staff *1 of the illustrious pretorian prefect of the East: chief of staff, (princeps) chief deputy, (cornicularius) chief assistant, (adiutor) custodian, (commentariensis) keeper of the records, (ab actis) Receivers of taxes, (numerarii) Assistants, (subadiuuae) A curator of correspondence, (cura epistolarum) A registrar, (regerendarius) Secretaries, (exceptores) Aids, (adiutores) Notaries. (singularii)

*1 The dozen officers or types of officers here indicated were the heads of departments under the pretorian prefect. All the other officia or staffs were on a similar model. These officials belonged to the political aristocracy. The whole number of officers might run into the hundreds, besides numbers of slaves who did the drudgery. The count of the officials; the proconsul of Africa, 400; the vicar of Africa, 300; the sacred bounties, 224 regular assistants and 610 supernumeraries. The beginning of a civil service career under the pretorian prefect for a Roman gentleman, after a training in the law, was the post of treasury advocate of whom we are told that there were at one time 150 under a single prefect.

The officials named in the text received high salaries. After working through to the highest staff position, which was commonly held for either one or two years, they were eligible for the lower governorships, as presidents or correctors. and so on till the highest stations were reached. The Latin titles have been given to make it clear that the translation cannot be an exact equivalent for the terms in use under a system so different from anything now in existence.

The pretorian prefect of the East does not receive post-warrants for each year, but himself issues them. The cursus publicus was the post-service for the conveyance of government dispatches and of government officials. It was elaborately organized and very effective. Its control was in the bands of the pretorian prefects. Its control was in the hands of the pretorian prefects and and the master's of the offices. Other officers were limited in their use of this service, as the last paragraph of each chapter in the Notitia shows. There is no reference to this service in the Notitia of the West, though there is no reason to doubt that the regulations there were similar.

Counts of Sacred Bounties and Private Domain

Count of the Sacred Bounties.
Under the control of the illustrious count of the sacred bounties:
The counts of the bounties in all the dioceses,
The counts of the markets:
in the East and Egypt,
in Moesia, Scythia and Pontus,
in Illyricum.
The provosts of the store-houses,
The counts of the metals in Illyricum,
The count and the accountant of the general tribute of Egypt,
The accountants of the general tribute,
The masters of the linen vesture,
The masters of the private vesture,
The procurators of the weaving-houses,
The procurators of the dye-houses,
The procurators of the mints,
The provosts of the goods despatch,
The procuratorof the linen-weavers.
[Source: Notitia Dignitatum (Register of Dignitaries), William Fairley, in Translations and Reprints from Original Sources of European History, Vol. VI:4 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press), 1899].

The staff of the aforesaid count of the sacred bounties includes:
The chief clerk of the whole staff,
The chief clerk of the bureau of fixed taxes,
The chief clerk of the bureau of records,
The chief clerk of the bureau of accounts,
The chief clerk of the bureau of gold bullion,
The chief clerk of the bureau of gold for shipment,
The chief clerk of the bureau of the sacred wardrobe,
The chief clerk of the bureau of silver,
The chief clerk of the bureau of miliarensia,
The chief clerk of the bureau of coinage and other clerks of the above-mentioned bureaus,
A deputy chief clerk of the staff, who is chief clerk of the secretaries,
A sub-deputy chief clerk, who deals with the goods de spatch,
A fourth clerk who deals with requests, and other palatine [officials] of the aforesaid staff.
The count of the bounties is entitled to as many post warrants in the year as his occasions may require.


slaves carry amphoraw while accountants keep tally


Count of the Private Domain
Under the control of the illustrious count of the private domain:
The imperial estates,
The accountants of the private domain,
The private baggage train,
The provosts of the herds [* of horses] and stables,
The procurators of the pastures.

The staff of the aforesaid illustrious count of the private domain
A chief clerk of the whole staff,
A chief clerk of remitted taxes,
A chief clerk of the fixed taxes,
A chief clerk of receipts, [* for taxes paid]
A chief clerk of the bureau of private bounties, and other, clerks of the aforesaid bureaus,
A deputy chief clerk of the whole staff, who has charge of the documents of that staff, and other palatine [officials]
The count of the private domain is entitled to as many post- warrants in the year as his occasions may require.

Count of the Household Horse, Count of the Household Foot.
Under the control of the illustrious counts of the household horse and foot.
The household horse,
The household foot, and those of them deputized [on special missions].
The count of the household horse is entitled to ____
The count of the household foot is entitled to ____

Superintendent of the Sacred Bedchamber [The text is wanting.]

The Castellan
Under the control of the worshipful castellan (second grade of official nobility):
The pages,
The imperial household servants,
The custodians of the palaces,
The staff of the worshipful castellan aforesaid includes:
An imperial accountant,
An accountant for the imperial Augustae,
An assistant,
A record-keeper and his bureau, and other palatine [officials] of the aforesaid staff.

Chief of the Notaries Under the control of the worshipful chief of the notaries. The registry of all the official and administrative positions, both military and civil. He also has charge of the schools and the forces.* He does not have a staff, but an assistant from the school of the notaries. * He seems to have kept the records. if not to have controlled the disposition, of the troops in the various provinces, and to have issued the commissions of the higher military officers. The register of these is called the greater' or superior 11 register.

Masters of the Bureaus

The master of the bureau of memorials
formulates and issues all rescripts, and responds to petitions.
The master of the bureau of correspondence
deals with deputations from states, consultations * and petitions.
The master of the bureau of requests
deals with the hearing of cases and petitions.
The master of the bureau of Greek Correspondence
either himself formulates those letters which are usually issued in Greek, or when they have been formulated in Latin translates them into Greek.
No one of these has a staff of his own, but assistants chosen from the bureaus.
*References to the imperial authority of questions on which provincial magistrates were in doubt: appeals from judges rather than against them.

Register of Dignitaries in the West

Register of the Dignitaries Both Civil and Military, in the Districts of the West:
The pretorian prefect of Italy.
The pretorian prefect of the Gauls.
The prefect of the city of Rome.
The master of foot in the presence.
The master of horse in the presence.
The master of horse in the Gauls.
The provost of the sacred bedchamber.
The master of the offices.
The quaestor.
The count of the sacred bounties.
The count of the private domains.
The count of the household horse.
The count of the household foot.
The superintendent of the sacred bedchamber,
The chief of the notaries.
The castellan of the sacred palace.
The masters of bureaus:
of memorials; of correspondence; of requests.
The proconsul of Africa.
[Source: Notitia Dignitatum (Register of Dignitaries), William Fairley, in Translations and Reprints from Original Sources of European History, Vol. VI:4 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press), 1899].

Six vicars: of the city of Rome; of Italy; of Africa; of the Spains; of the Seven Provinces; of the Britains.
Six military counts: of Italy; of Africa; of Tingitania; of the tractus Argentoratensis; of the Britains; of the Saxon shore of Britain.
Thirteen dukes: of the frontier of Mauritania Caesariensis; of the Tripolitan frontier; of Pannonia prima and ripuarian Noricum; of Pannonia secunda; of ripuarian Valeria; of Raetia prima and secunda; of Sequanica; of the Armorican and Nervican tract; of Belgica secunda; of Germania prima; of Britannia; of Mogontiacensis.
Twenty-two consulars: of Pannonia;
in Italy eight: of Venetia and Histria; of Emilia; of Liguria; of Flaminia and Picenum annonarium; of Tuscia and Umbria; of Picenum suburbicarium; of Campania;of Sicilia.
in Africa two: of Byzacium; of Numidia.
in the Spains three: of Beatica; of Lusitania; of Callaecia.
in the Gauls six: of Viennensis; of Lugdunensis prima; of Germania prima; of Germania secunda; of Belgica prima; of Belgica secunda.
in the Britains two: of Maxima Caesariensis, of Valentia.
Three correctors:
in Italy two: of Apulia and Calabria; of Lucania and Brittii.
in Pannonia one: of Savia.

Thirty-one presidents:
in Illyricum four: of Dalmatia; of Pannonia prima; of Mediterranean Noricum; of ripuarian Noricum,
in Italy seven: of the Cottiau Alps; of Reetia prima; of Raetia secundum, of Samnium; of Valeria; of Sardinia; of Corsica.
in Africa two of Mauritania Sitifensis; of Tripolitana.
in the Spains four: of Tarraconensis; of Carthaginensis; of Tintgjtania; or the Balearic Isles.
in the Gauls eleven: of the maritime Alps; of the Pennine and Graian Alps of Maxima Sequanortim; of Aquitanica prima; Aquitanica secunda; of Novempopulana; of Narbonensis prima; of Narbonensis secunda; of Lugdunensis secunda; of Lugduneasis tertia; of Lugunensis Senonica.
in the Britains three: of Britannia prima; of Ezitannia secunda; of Flavia Caesariensis.

Prefect of Rome, Italy and Gaul

Prefect of the City
Under the control of the illustrious prefect of the city of Rome are held the administrative positions mentioned below:
The prefect of the grain supply,
The prefect of the watch,
The count of the aqueducts,
The count of the banks and bed of the Tiber, and of the sewers,
The count of the port,
The master of the census,
The collector of the wine-tax,
The tribune of the swine-market,
The consular of the water-supply,
The curator of the chief works,
The curator of public works,
The curator of statues,
The curator of the Galban granaries,
The centenarian of the port,*
The tribune of art works
* The functions of this officer and the next one cannot be accurately determined, and the translation is uncertain in the latter case, tribunus rerum nitentium.
[Source: Notitia Dignitatum (Register of Dignitaries), William Fairley, in Translations and Reprints from Original Sources of European History, Vol. VI:4 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press), 1899].

The staff of the illustrious prefect of the city:
A chief of staff,
A chief deputy,
A chief assistant,
A custodian,
A keeper of the records,
Receivers of taxes,
A chief clerk (or receiver),
Assistants,
A curator of correspondence,
A registrar,
Secretaries,
Aids,
Clerks of the census,
Ushers,
Notaries.

Pretorian Prefect of Italy Under the control -of the illustrious pretorian prefect of Italy are the dioceses mentioned below: Italy; Illyricum; Africa.
Provinces: of Italy seventeen: Venetia; Aemilia; Liguria; Flaminia and Picentim, and Picenum; Tuscia and Umbria; Picenum suburbicarium; Campania; Sicily; Apulia and Calabria, Lucania andd Brittii; the Cottian Alps; Raetia prima, Raetia secunda; Samnium; Valeria; Sardinia; Corsica.
of Illyricum. six: Pannonia secunda; Savia; Dalmatia; Pannonia prima; Mediterranean Noricum; ripuarian Noricum.
of Africa seven: Byzacium; Numidia; Mauritania Sitifensis; Mauritania Caesariensis; Tripolis. The prefect of the grain tribute of Africa; the prefect of the patrimonial estates.

The staff of the illustrious pretorian prefect of Italy:
A chief of staff,
A chief deputy,
A chief assistant,
A custodian,
A keeper of the records, Receivers of taxes,
Assistants,
A curator of correspondence,
A registrar,
Secretaries,
Aids,
Notaries.

Pretorian Prefect of the Gauls
Under the control of the illustrious pretorian prefect of the Gauls are the dioceses mentioned below: The Spains; the Seven Provinces; the Britains.
Provinces: of the Spains seven: Baetica; Lusitania;, Callaecia; Tarraconensis; Carthaginensis; Tingitania; the Balearic Isles.
of the Seven Provinces seventeen:* Viennensis; Lugdumensis prima; Germania prima, Germania secunda; Belgica prima; Belgica secunda; the Maritime Alps; the Pennine and Graian Alps; Maxima Sequanorum; Aquitania prima; Aquitania secunda; Novempopuli; Narbonensis prima; Narbonensis secunda; Lugdunensis Secunda; Lugdugnensis tertia; Lugduneusis Senonia.
(* for the anomaly of seventeen provinces ranged under the title. The Seven Provinces. Subdivision and addition had caused what was originally the diocese of The Five Provinces to include the seventeen here named. of the Britains five: Maxima Caesariensis; Valentia; Britannia prima; Britannia secunda; Flauia Caesariensis.

The staff of the illustrious pretorian prefect of the Gauls:
[Precisely the same as that of the pretorian prefect of the East]

Count of the Sacred Bounties

Under the control of the illustrious cou n t of the sacred bounties.
The count of the bounties in Illyricum,
The count of the wardrobe,
The count of gold,
The count of the Italian bounties,
Accountants:
The accountant of the general tax of Pannonia secunda, Dalmatia and Savia,
The accountant of the general tax of Pannonia prima, Valeria, Mediterranean and ripuarian Noricum.
The accountant of the general tax of Italy,
The accountant of the general tax of the city of Rome,
The accountant of the general tax of the Three Provinces, that is, of Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica,
The accountant of the general tax of Africa,
The accountant of the general tax of Numidia,
The accountant of the general tax of Spain,
The accountant of the general tax of the Five Provinces,
The accountant of the general tax of the Gauls,
The accountant of the general tax of the Britains.
[Source: Notitia Dignitatum (Register of Dignitaries), William Fairley, in Translations and Reprints from Original Sources of European History, Vol. VI:4 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press), 1899].

Provosts of the storehouses:
In Illyricum:
The provost of the storehouses at Salona in Dalmatia,
The provost of the storehouses at Siscia in Savia
The provost of the storehouses at Savaria in Pannonia prima,
In Italy:
The provost of the storehouses at Aquileia in Venetia,
The provost of the storehouses at Milan in Liguria,
The provost of the storehouses of the city of Rome,
The provost of the storehouses at Augsburg in Raetia secunda.
In the Gauls:
The provost of the storehouses at Lyons,
The provost of the storehouses at Arles,
The provost of the storehouses at Rheims,
The provost of the storehouses at Trier.
In the Britains:
The provost of the storehouses at London.

Procurators of the mints:
The procurator of the mint at Siscia,
The procurator of the mint at Aquileia,
The procurator of the mint in the city of Rome,
The procurator of the mint at Lyons,
The procurator of the mint at Arles,
The procurator of the mint at Trier.

Procurators of the weaving-houses:
The procurator of the weaving-house at Bassiana, in Pannonia secunda -removed from Salona,
The procurator of the weaving-house at Sirmium. in Pannonia secunda,
The procurator of the Jovian weaving-house at Spalato in Dalmatia,
The procurator of the weaving-house at Aquileia in Venetia inferior,
The procurator of the weaving-house at Milan in Liguria,
The procurator of the weaving-house in the city of Rome,
The procurator of the weaving-house at Canosa and Venosa in Apulia,
The procurator of the weaving-house at Carthage in Africa,
The procurator of the weaving-house at Arles in the province of Vienne,
The procurator of the weaving-house at Lyons,
The procurator of the weaving-house at Rheims in Belgica secunda,
The procurator of the weaving-house at Tourney Belgica Secunda,
The procurator of the weaving-house at Trier in Belgica secunda,
The procurator of the weaving-house at Autun- removed from Metz,
The procurator of the weaving-house at Winchester Britain.
Procurators of the linen-weaving houses:
The procurator of the linen-weaving house at Vienne in the Gauls,
The procurator of the linen-weaving house at Ravenna in Italy.

Procurators of the dye-houses:
The procurator of the dye-house at Tarentum in Calabria,
The procurator of the dye-house at Salona in Dalmatia
The procurator of the dye-house at Cissa in Venetia and Istria,
The procurator of the dye-house at Syracuse in Sicily,
The procurator of the dye-houses in Africa,
The procurator of the dyeihouse at Girba, in the Province of Tripolis,
The procurator of the dye-house in the Balearic Isles in Spain,
The procurator of the dye-house at Toulon in the Gauls.
The procurator of the dye-house at Narbonne.

Procurators of the embroiderers in gold and silver:
The procurator of the embroiderers in gold and silver at Arles,
The procurator of the embroiderers in gold silver and at Rheims,
The procurator of the embroiderers in gold and silver at Trier,

Procurators of the goods despatch:
For the Eastern traffic:
The provost of the first Eastern despatch, and the fourth [return],
The provost of the second Eastern despatch, and the third [return],
The provost of the second [return] despatch, and the third from the East,
The provost of the first (return] despatch, and the fourth from the East.
For the traffic with the Gauls:
The provost of the first Gallic despatch, and the fourth [return].
The counts of the markets in Illyricum.

The staff of the aforesaid illustrious count of the sacred bounties includes:
A chief clerk of the whole staff,
A chief clerk of the bureau of fixed taxes,
A chief clerk of the bureau of records,
A chief clerk of the bureau of accounts,
A chief clerk of the bureau of gold bullion,
A chief clerk of the bureau of gold for shipment,
A chief clerk of the bureau of the sacred wardrobe,
A chief clerk of the bureau of silver,
A chief clerk of the bureau of miliarensia,
A chief clerk of the bureau of coinage, and other clerks,
A deputy chief clerk of the staff, who is chief clerk of the secretaries,
A sub-deputy chief clerk who has charge of the goods despatch.

Count of the Private Domain

Under the control of the illustrious count of the private domain:
The count of the private bounties,
The count of the Gildonian patrimony,*1
The accountant of the private properties in Illyricum.
The accountant of the private properties in Italy,*2
The accountant of the private property in Italy,
[*1] Gildo was a Moor who had served the Romans against his rebellious brother in Africa, and been entrusted by them with a high position. But he in turn rebelled, and was killed in battle in 398. His forfeited estates formed the Gildonian patrimony. See Gibbon, Chap. XXIX.
[*2] The difference between an, accountant of the private property in Italy and one of the private properties (plural) is not understood. It way be a textual error.
[Source: Notitia Dignitatum (Register of Dignitaries), William Fairley, in Translations and Reprints from Original Sources of European History, Vol. VI:4 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press), 1899].

The accountant of the private property in the city of Rome and the suburbicarian regions, and the estate of Faustj
The accountant of the private property in Sicily,
The accountant of the private property in Africa,
The accountant of the private property in the Spains,
The accountant of the private property in the Gauls,
The accountant of the private property in the Five Provinces,
The accountant of the private property in the imperial estates in Africa,
The procurator of the private property in Sicily,
The procurator of the private property in Apulia and Calabria and the pastures of Carmignano,
The provost of the private property in Sequanicum, and Germania prima,
The procurator of the private property in Dalmatia,
The procurator of the private property in Savia,
The procurator of the private property in Italy,
The procurator of the private property in the estates of Julian in the urbicarian regions,
The procurator of the private property in Mauritania Sitifensis,
The procurator of the private property in the weaving-houses at Trier,
The procurator of the weaving-house at Viviers, rei privatae Metii translata anhelat, [*The text is corrupt an yields no sense/]
The provost of the private baggage-despatch to the Eastby the lower route, [* by the sea?]
The provost of the private baggage-despatch to the Gauls.

The staff of the aforesaid count of the private domain includes
A chief clerk of the whole staff,
A head of the bureau of remitted taxes,
A head of the bureau of the fixed taxes,
A head of the bureau of receipts,
A head of the bureau of private bounties, clerks and other attachés of the aforesaid bureaus,
A deputy chief clerk of the whole staff, who has charge of the documents of the staff,
Other palatine officials.

Count of the Household Horse
Count of the Household Foot
Under the control of the illustrious counts of the household horse and foot:
The household horse,
The household foot,
Those assigned from these.

Superintendent of the Sacred Bedchamber
Under the control of worshipful superintendent of the sacred bedchamber: [The text is wanting.]

Castellan of the Sacred Palaces
Under the control of the worshipful castellan. [The same as in the similar office in the East, No. XVII, save that here we have the lady Augusta in the singular.]

Chief of the Notaries
Under the control of the worshipful chief of the notaries:
[The same as in No. XVIII, above.]

Masters of the Bureaus
The master of the bureau of memorials formulates all rescripts and issues them, and also responds to petitions.
The master of the bureau of correspondence deals with legations from cities and consultations and petitions.
The master of the bureau of requests deals with the hearing of cases and petitions.

Image Sources: Wikimedia Commons

Text Sources: Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Rome sourcebooks.fordham.edu ; Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Late Antiquity sourcebooks.fordham.edu ; Forum Romanum forumromanum.org ; “Outlines of Roman History” by William C. Morey, Ph.D., D.C.L. New York, American Book Company (1901), forumromanum.org \~\; “The Private Life of the Romans” by Harold Whetstone Johnston, Revised by Mary Johnston, Scott, Foresman and Company (1903, 1932) forumromanum.org |+|; BBC Ancient Rome bbc.co.uk/history/ ; Perseus Project - Tufts University; perseus.tufts.edu ; MIT, Online Library of Liberty, oll.libertyfund.org ; Gutenberg.org gutenberg.org Metropolitan Museum of Art, National Geographic, Smithsonian magazine, New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Live Science, Discover magazine, Times of London, Natural History magazine, Archaeology magazine, The New Yorker, Encyclopædia Britannica, "The Discoverers" [∞] and "The Creators" [μ]" by Daniel Boorstin. "Greek and Roman Life" by Ian Jenkins from the British Museum.Time, Newsweek, Wikipedia, Reuters, Associated Press, The Guardian, AFP, Lonely Planet Guides, World Religions edited by Geoffrey Parrinder (Facts on File Publications, New York); History of Warfare by John Keegan (Vintage Books); History of Art by H.W. Janson Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.), Compton’s Encyclopedia and various books and other publications.

Last updated October 2018

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