PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE

LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE


Celts

Harold Whetstone Johnston wrote in “The Private Life of the Romans”: “The towns were for the most part self-governing. The charters of some of them have been found. The magistrates were elected by popular vote, and the election notices painted on the walls at Pompeii show that all classes took a lively interest in the elections. This does not mean that the spirit of the municipalities was democratic. [Source: “The Private Life of the Romans” by Harold Whetstone Johnston, Revised by Mary Johnston, Scott, Foresman and Company (1903, 1932) forumromanum.org |+|]

“The classes were divided by clearly-drawn lines. The candidates for office must come from those who were eligible for membership in the town council (curia); for this there was a property qualification. They must be free-born and of good reputation and not engaged in any disreputable business. No salaries were attached to the offices, however. Indeed, each magistrate was expected to pay a fee (honorarium) on his election, and to make substantial gifts for the benefit of the citizens and the beautifying of the town. Like the great magistrates at Rome they were entitled to the toga praetexta, the curule chair, the attendance of lictors, and special seats at the games.

“Town Council. The curia, or town council, usually consisted of one hundred members (decuriones), including the ex-magistrates. They had to be of a certain age, at least twenty-five; they had to possess the required amount of property, and be free-born. They were entitled to the best places at the games and to the bisellia. Apparently they used the city water free of charge, and at any public entertainment or distribution of money they were entitled to a larger share than the common people. Each probably paid a fee on his admission to the curia and was expected to make generous gifts of some sort for the benefit of his city. |+|

Websites on Ancient Rome: Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Rome sourcebooks.fordham.edu ; Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Late Antiquity sourcebooks.fordham.edu ; Forum Romanum forumromanum.org ; “Outlines of Roman History” forumromanum.org; “The Private Life of the Romans” forumromanum.org|; BBC Ancient Rome bbc.co.uk/history; Perseus Project - Tufts University; perseus.tufts.edu ; Lacus Curtius penelope.uchicago.edu; Gutenberg.org gutenberg.org The Roman Empire in the 1st Century pbs.org/empires/romans; The Internet Classics Archive classics.mit.edu ; Bryn Mawr Classical Review bmcr.brynmawr.edu; De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors roman-emperors.org; British Museum ancientgreece.co.uk; Oxford Classical Art Research Center: The Beazley Archive beazley.ox.ac.uk ; Metropolitan Museum of Art metmuseum.org/about-the-met/curatorial-departments/greek-and-roman-art; The Internet Classics Archive kchanson.com ; Cambridge Classics External Gateway to Humanities Resources web.archive.org/web; Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy iep.utm.edu; Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy plato.stanford.edu; Ancient Rome resources for students from the Courtenay Middle School Library web.archive.org ; History of ancient Rome OpenCourseWare from the University of Notre Dame /web.archive.org ; United Nations of Roma Victrix (UNRV) History unrv.com

Roman Provinces

Chief Roman Provinces (with dates of their acquisition or organization): Total, 32. Many of the main provinces were subdivided into smaller provinces, each under a separate governor—making the total number of provincial governors more than one hundred. [Source: “Outlines of Roman History” by William C. Morey, Ph.D., D.C.L. New York, American Book Company (1901), forumromanum.org \~\]


Gaulic warrior

EUROPEAN PROVINCES
1) Western.
Spain (205-19 B.C.).
Gaul (France, 120-17 B.C.).
Britain (A.D. 43-84).
2) Central.
Rhaetia et Vindelicia (roughly Switzerland, northern Italy15 B.C.).
Noricum (Austria, Slovenia, 15 B.C.).
Pannonia (western Hungary, eastern Austria, northern Croatia, north-western Serbia, northern Slovenia, western Slovakia and northern Bosnia and Herzegovina. A.D. 10).
3) Eastern.
Illyricum (northern Albania, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and coastal Croatia, 167-59 B.C.).
Macedonia (northern Greece, modern Macedonia, 146 B.C.).
Achaia (western Greece, 146 B.C.).
Moesia (Central Serbia, Kosovo, northern modern Macedonia, northern Bulgaria and Romanian Dobrudja 20 B.C.).
Thrace (northeast Greece, A.D. 40).
Dacia (Romania, A.D. 107). \~\

AFRICAN PROVINCES
Africa proper (Libya, former Carthage, 146 B.C.).
Cyrenaica and Crete (74, 63 B.C.).
Numidia (Algeria, small parts of Tunisia, Libya, 46 B.C.).
Egypt (30 B.C.).
Mauretania (western Algeria, Morocco, A.D. 42). \~\


Illyrian footman

ASIATIC PROVINCES
1) In Asia Minor (Anatolia, modern Turkey)
Asia proper (western Turkey133 B.C.).
Bithynia et Pontus (northern Turkey, south of the Black Sea, 74, 65 B.C.).
Cilicia (southeast coast of Turkey, 67 B.C.).
Galatia (central Turkey, 25 B.C.).
Pamphylia et Lycia (southwest Turkey, 25, A.D. 43).
Cappadocia (eastern Turkey, A.D. 17).
2) In Southwestern Asia.
Syria (64 B.C.).
Judea (Israel, 63 - A.D. 70).
Arabia Petraea (A.D. 105).
Armenia (A.D. 114).
Mesopotamia (A.D. 115).
Assyria (A.D. 115). \~\

ISLAND PROVINCES
Sicily (241 B.C.).
Sardinia et Corsica (238 B.C.).
Cyprus (58 B.C.). \~\

Townspeople in the Roman Empire

Harold Whetstone Johnston wrote in “The Private Life of the Romans”: “Equites. Members of the equestrian order made up the aristocracy of the municipia as the “nobles” did at Rome. Conspicuous among them were the retired army officers, occasionally tribunes, but more often the centurions who were sometimes retired with equestrian rank, particularly the primipilarii, or men who had attained the chief centurionship of their legions. Such a man might come back to cut a big figure in his home town (patria), or might settle in the province where he had seen service. In either case inscriptions often survive to tell us of his war record and his benefactions to his native town. [Source: “The Private Life of the Romans” by Harold Whetstone Johnston, Revised by Mary Johnston, Scott, Foresman and Company (1903, 1932) forumromanum.org |+|]|

“Augustales. Below and apart from these were rated the wealthy freedmen. Ineligible for office and council as they were, a special distinction and an opportunity for service and generosity were provided for them in the institution of the Augustales, a college of priests in charge first of the worship of Augustus and then of the following emperors. Each year the decuriones selected a board of six (seviri) to act for that year. At the public ceremonies of which they were in charge they were entitled to wear a gold ring like that of the equites and the bordered toga. They paid a fee on election, provided the necessary sacrifices, and proudly rivaled the decuriones in gifts to the community. |+|

“Plebs. Then came the plebs, the citizens not entitled to serve in the council, and below them the poor freedmen. These were the men who kept or worked in the small shops and made up the membership of the many guilds of which we find traces at Pompeii and which must have been very much the same in other cities. However hard their work and simple their fare, they could not have found their life mere drudgery. They expected the magistrates to see to it that bread and oil, the two great necessities of life, were abundant and cheap in the markets. They also expected them to furnish entertainment in the shape of games in the amphitheater and theater and of feasts as well. Even small towns had their public baths, where the fee was always low, and was sometimes remitted for longer or shorter periods by the generosity of wealthy citizens.” |+|

Administration of the Provinces


Town market

During the reign of Augustus the number of provinces was increased by taking in the outlying territory south of the Rhine and the Danube. The new frontier provinces were Rhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia, and Moesia. The provinces were not only increased in number, but were thoroughly reorganized. They were first divided into two groups,—the senatorial, or those which remained under the control of the senate; and the imperial, or those which passed under the control of the emperor. The latter were generally on the frontiers, and required the presence of an army and a military governor. The governors of the imperial provinces were lieutenants (legati) of the emperor. Appointed by him, and strictly responsible to him, they were no longer permitted to prey upon their subjects, but were obliged to rule in the name of the emperor, and for the welfare of the people. The senatorial provinces, on the other hand, were still under the control of proconsuls and propraetors appointed by the senate. But the condition of these provinces was also greatly improved. The establishment of the new government thus proved to be a great benefit to the provincials. Their property became more secure, their commerce revived, their cities became prosperous, and their lives were made more tolerable. [Source: “Outlines of Roman History” by William C. Morey, Ph.D., D.C.L. New York, American Book Company (1901), forumromanum.org \~\]

Suetonius wrote: “After having thus set the city and its affairs in order, he added to the population of Italy by personally establishing twenty-eight colonies; furnished many parts of it with public buildings and revenues; and even gave it, at least to some degree, equal rights and dignity with the city of Rome, by devising a kind of votes which the members of the local Senate were to cast in each colony for candidates for the city offices and send under seal to Rome against the day of the elections. To keep up the supply of men of rank and induce the commons to increase and multiply, he admitted to the equestrian military careera those who were recommended by any town, while to those of the commons who could lay claim to legitimate sons or daughters when he made his rounds of the districts he distributed a thousand sesterces for each child. [Source: Suetonius (c.69-after 122 A.D.): “De Vita Caesarum--Divus Augustus” (“The Lives of the Caesars--The Deified Augustus”), written A.D. c. 110, “Suetonius, De Vita Caesarum,” 2 Vols., trans. J. C. Rolfe (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1920), pp. 123-287]

“The stronger provinces, which could neither easily nor safely be governed by annual magistrates, he took to himself; the others he assigned to proconsular governors selected by lot. But he changed some of them at times from one class to the other, and often visited many of both sorts. Certain of the cities which had treaties with Rome, but were on the road to ruin through their lawlessness, he deprived of their independence; he relieved others that were overwhelmed with debt, rebuilt some which had been destroyed by earthquakes, and gave Latin rights or full citizenship to such as could point to services rendered the Roman people. I believe there is no province, excepting only Africa and Sardinia, which he did not visit; and he was planning to cross to these from Sicily after his defeat of Sextus Pompeius, but was prevented by a series of violent storms, and later had neither opportunity nor occasion to make the voyage.


street in Ostia

“Except in a few instances he restored the kingdoms of which he gained possession by the right of conquest to those from whom he had taken them or joined them with other foreign nations. He also united the kings with whom he was in alliance by mutual ties, and was very ready to propose or favour intermarriages or friendships among them. He never failed to treat them all with consideration as integral parts of the empire, regularly appointing a guardian for such as were too young to rule or whose minds were affected, until they grew up or recovered; and he brought up the children of many of them and educated them with his own.”

With the division of the provinces, the administration of the finances was also divided between the senate and the emperor. The revenues of the senatorial provinces went into the treasury of the senate, or the aerarium; while those of the imperial provinces passed into the treasury of the emperor, or the fiscus. The old wretched system of farming the revenues, which had disgraced the republic and impoverished the provincials, was gradually abandoned. The collection of the taxes in the senatorial as well as the imperial provinces was placed in the charge of imperial officers. It was not long before the cities themselves were allowed to raise by their own officers the taxes due to the Roman government. Augustus also laid the foundation of a sound financial system by making careful estimates of the revenues and expenditures of the state; and by raising and expending the public money in the most economical and least burdensome manner. [Source: “Outlines of Roman History” by William C. Morey, Ph.D., D.C.L. New York, American Book Company (1901), forumromanum.org \~\]

Hadrian in the Provinces

Hadrian spent more than half (maybe as much a two thirds) of his 21-year reign on the road outside Italy, primarily overseeing the construction of new cities and fortifications along the frontier. He originally set out from Rome with the purpose of studying the many tribes and cultures in his vast empire. "He marched on foot and bareheaded over the snows of Cledonia and the sultry plains of Egypt," wrote 18th century historian Edward Gibbons. During his rule Hadrian’s Wall was erected in northwest England, Hadrian's Gate was built in southern Turkey and Hadrian's Theater was constructed in Carthage. Hadrian united Greece into a confederation with a headquarters in Athens. He codified Athenian Law, finished the Temple of Zeus in Olympia (one of the seven wonders) and rebuilt the shrines in Delphi. Hadrian also outlawed circumcision which lead to a Jewish revolt.

Hadrian showed a stronger sympathy with the provinces than any of his predecessors, and under his reign the provincials attained a high degree of prosperity and happiness. He conducted himself as a true sovereign and friend of his people. To become acquainted with their condition and to remedy their evils, he spent a large part of his time in visiting the provinces. Pat Southern wrote for the BBC: “Trajan’s reign had been one of warfare and territorial expansion, when the empire reached its greatest extent. By contrast, Hadrian’s reign was one of peace and consolidation, except for a serious revolt in Judaea in 132 AD. In Africa he built walls to control the transhumance routes, and in Germany he built a palisade with watch towers and small forts to delineate Roman-controlled territory. In Britain, he built the stone wall which bears his name, perhaps the most enduring of his frontier lines. [Source: Pat Southern, BBC, February 17, 2011 |::|]


Hadrian visiting a Romano-British Pottery

Hadrian made his temporary residence in the chief cities of the empire,—in York, in Athens, in Antioch, and in Alexandria—where he was continually looking after the interests of his subjects. In the provinces, as at Rome, he constructed many magnificent public works; and won for himself a renown equal, if not superior, to that of Trajan as a great builder. Rome was decorated with the temple of Venus and Roma, and the splendid mausoleum which to-day bears the name of the Castle of St. Angelo. Hadrian also built strong fortifications to protect the frontiers, one of these connecting the head waters of the Rhine and the Danube, and another built on the northern boundary of Britain. [Source: “Outlines of Roman History” by William C. Morey, Ph.D., D.C.L. New York, American Book Company (1901), forumromanum.org \~\]

Life in the Provinces: Travel, Correspondence, Commerce: The general organization of the provinces remained with few changes. There were still the two classes, the senatorial, governed by the proconsuls and propraetors, and the imperial, governed by the legati, or the emperor’s lieutenants. The improvement which took place under the empire in the condition of the provinces was due to the longer term of office given the governors, the more economic management of the finances, and the abolition of the system of farming the revenues. \~\

The good influence of such emperors as Hadrian is seen in the new spirit which inspired the life of the provincials. The people were no longer the prey of the taxgatherer, as in the times of the later republic. They could therefore use their wealth to improve and beautify their own cities. The growing public spirit is seen in the new buildings and works, everywhere erected, not only by the city governments, but by the generous contributions of private citizens. The relations between the people of different provinces were also becoming closer by the improvement of the means of communication. The roads were now extended throughout the empire, and were used not merely for the transportation of armies, but for travel and correspondence. The people thus became better acquainted with one another. Many of the highways were used as post-roads, over which letters might be sent by means of private runners or government couriers. \~\

The different provinces of the empire were also brought into closer communication by means of the increasing commerce, which furnished one of the most honored pursuits of the Roman citizen. The provinces encircled the Mediterranean Sea, which was now the greatest highway of the empire. The sea was traversed by merchant ships exchanging the products of various lands. The provinces of the empire were thus joined together in one great commercial community. \~\

Pliny the Younger as an Administrator for Trajan in Asia Minor

Bithynia was Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor (present-day Turkey). William Stearns Davis wrote: “About 112 CE. Trajan appointed Pliny the Younger, a distinguished Senator and literary man, as governor of Bithynia — a province suffering from previous maladministration. The nature of the governor's problems and the obligation he was under of referring very petty matters to the Emperor appears clearly in the following letters. This correspondence of Trajan and Pliny (given here only in small part) is among the most valuable bits of historical data we have for the whole Imperial Age.


Hadrian border stone in Bulgaria

Pliny the Younger: Letters, X.25 ff: The Correspondence of a Provincial Governor and the Emperor Trajan: Pliny to Trajan: “The people of Prusa, Sire, have a public bath in a neglected and dilapidated state. They wish - with your kind permission -- to restore it; but I think a new one ought to be built, and I reckon you can safely comply with their wishes. [Then the governor names various ways to find the money, especially cutting down the free distribution of oil.]” [Source: Pliny the Younger (61/62-113 A.D.) and Trajan (r.98-117 A.D.): Letters, Book X. 25ff : The Correspondence of a Provincial Governor and the Emperor Trajan, c. 112 A.D. William Stearns Davis, ed., “Readings in Ancient History: Illustrative Extracts from the Sources,” 2 Vols. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1912-13), Vol. II: Rome and the West, 196-210, 215-222, 250-251, 289-290, 295-296, 298-300]

Trajan to Pliny: “If the building of a new bath will not cripple the finances of Prusa, we can indulge their wishes; only it must be understood that no new taxes are to be raised to meet the cost, and that their contributions for necessary expenses shall not show any falling off.”

Pliny to Trajan: “A desolating fire broke out in Nicomedia, and destroyed a number of private houses, and two public buildings -- the almshouse and the temple of Isis -- although a road ran between them. The fire was allowed to spread farther than it need, first owing to the violent wind; second, to the laziness of the citizens, it being generally agreed they stood idly by without moving, and simply watched the conflagration. Besides there was not a single public fire engine or bucket in the place, and not one solitary appliance for mastering a fire. However, these will be provided upon orders I have already given. But, Sire, I would have you consider whether you think a fire company of about 150 men ought not to be formed? I will take care that no one not a genuine fireman shall be admitted, and that the guild should not misapply the charter granted it. Again there would be no trouble in keeping an eye on so small a body.”

Trajan to Pliny: “You have formed the idea of a possible fire company at Nicomedia on the model of various others already existing; but remember that the province of Bithynia, and especially city-states like Nicomedia, are the prey of factions. Give them the name we may, and however good be the reasons for organization, such associations will soon degenerate into dangerous secret societies. It is better policy to provide fire apparatus, and to encourage property holders to make use of them, and if need comes, press the crowd which collects into the same service.”

Pliny to Trajan: “Sire, a person named Julius Largus of Pontus, whom I have never seen or heard of before, has intrusted me with the management of his property with which he seeks to prove his loyalty to you. For he has asked me in his will to undertake as heir the division of his property, and after keeping 50,000 sesterces, hand over all the remainder to the free cities of Heraclea and Teos. He leaves it to my discretion whether I think it better to erect public works and dedicate them to your glory, or to start an athletic festival, to be held every five years, and to be called the "Trajan Games." I have decided to lay the facts before you and ask your decision.”

Trajan to Pliny: “Julius Largus, in picking you out for your trustworthiness, has acted as though he knew you intimately. So do you consider the circumstances of each place, and the best means of perpetuating his memory, and follow the course you think best.”

Pliny the Younger and Trajan Communicate About Public Works Asia Minor


Pliny the Younger: Letters, X.25 ff: The Correspondence of a Provincial Governor and the Emperor Trajan: Pliny to Trajan: “Sire, the people of Nicomedia spent 3,229,000 sesterces [Arkenberg: about $1,857,000 in 1998 dollars] upon an aqueduct, which was left in an unfinished state, and I may say in ruin, and they also levied taxes to the extent of 2,000,000 sesterces [Arkenberg: about $1,543,000 in 1998 dollars] for a second one. This, too, has been abandoned, and to get a water supply those who have wasted these vast sums must go to a new expense. I have visited a splendid clear spring, from which it seems to me the supply ought to be brought to the town [and have formed a scheme that seems practicable].” [Source: Pliny the Younger (61/62-113 A.D.) and Trajan (r.98-117 A.D.): Letters, Book X. 25ff : The Correspondence of a Provincial Governor and the Emperor Trajan, c. 112 A.D. William Stearns Davis, ed., “Readings in Ancient History: Illustrative Extracts from the Sources,” 2 Vols. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1912-13), Vol. II: Rome and the West, 196-210, 215-222, 250-251, 289-290, 295-296, 298-300]

Trajan to Pliny: “Steps must certainly be taken to provide Nicomedia with a water supply; and I have full confidence you will undertake the duty with all due care. But I profess it is also part of your diligent duty to find out who is to blame for the waste of such sums of money by the people of Nicomedia on their aqueducts, and whether or no there has been any serving of private interests in this beginning and then abandoning of [public] works. See that you bring to my knowledge whatever you find out.”

Pliny to Trajan: “The theater at Nicaea, Sire, the greater part of which has already been constructed -- though it is still unfinished -- has already cost over 10,000,000 sesterces [Arkenberg: about $7,500,000 in 1998 dollars] -- at least so I am told, for the accounts have not been made out; and I am fearful lest the money has been thrown away. For the building has sunk and there are great gaping crevices to be seen, either because the ground is damp, or owing to the [bad quality] of the stone. [It is doubtful if the affair is worth completing.] Just before I came the Nicaeans also began to restore the public gymnasium, which had been destroyed by fire, on a larger scale than the old building, and they have already disbursed a considerable sum thereon, and I fear to little purpose [for it is very ill constructed]. Moreover the architect -- the rival, to be sure, of the man who began the work -- asserts that the walls, although twenty-two feet thick, cannot bear the weight placed upon them, because they have not been put together with cement in the middle and have not been strengthened with brickwork.”

Trajan to Pliny: “You are the best judge of what to do at Nicaea. It will be enough for me to be informed of the plan you adopt. All Greek peoples have a passion for gymnasia, so perhaps the people of Nicaea have set about building one on a rather lavish scale, but they must be content to cut their coat according to their cloth. You again must decide what advice to give the people of Claudiopolis.”

Pliny to Trajan: “When I asked for a statement of the expenditures of the city of Byzantium -- which are abnormally high -- it was pointed out to me, Sire, that a delegate was sent every year with a complimentary decree to pay his respects to you, and that he received 12,000 sesterces for so doing. Remembering your instructions I ordered him to stay at home and to forward the decree by me in order to lighten the expenses. I beg you to tell whether I have done right.”

Trajan to Pliny: “You have done quite right, my dear Pliny, in canceling the expenditure of the Byzantines. . . for that delegate. They will in the future do their duty well enough, even though the decree alone is sent me through you.”

Letters Between Trajan and Pliny the Younger on Christians in Asia Minor


Pliny to Trajan: “It is my custom, Sire, to refer to you in all cases where I am in doubt, for who can better clear up difficulties and inform me? I have never been present at any legal examination of the Christians, and I do not know, therefore, what are the usual penalties passed upon them, or the limits of those penalties, or how searching an inquiry should be made. I have hesitated a great deal in considering whether any distinctions should be drawn according to the ages of the accused; whether the weak should be punished as severely as the more robust, or whether the man who has once been a Christian gained anything by recanting? Again, whether the name of being a Christian, even though otherwise innocent of crime, should be punished, or only the crimes that gather around it?

“In the meantime, this is the plan which I have adopted in the case of those Christians who have been brought before me. I ask them whether they are Christians, if they say "Yes," then I repeat the question the second time, and also a third -- warning them of the penalties involved; and if they persist, I order them away to prison. For I do not doubt that -- be their admitted crime what it may -- their pertinacity and inflexible obstinacy surely ought to be punished.

“There were others who showed similar mad folly, whom I reserved to be sent to Rome, as they were Roman citizens. Later, as is commonly the case, the mere fact of my entertaining the question led to a multiplying of accusations and a variety of cases were brought before me. An anonymous pamphlet was issued, containing a number of names of alleged Christians. Those who denied that they were or had been Christians and called upon the gods with the usual formula, reciting the words after me, and those who offered incense and wine before your image -- which I had ordered to be brought forward for this purpose, along with the regular statues of the gods -- all such I considered acquitted -- especially as they cursed the name of Christ, which it is said bona fide Christians cannot be induced to do.

“Still others there were, whose names were supplied by an informer. These first said they were Christians, then denied it, insisting they had been, "but were so no longer"; some of them having "recanted many years ago," and more than one "full twenty years back." These all worshiped your image and the god's statues and cursed the name of Christ.

“But they declared their guilt or error was simply this -- on a fixed day they used to meet before dawn and recite a hymn among themselves to Christ, as though he were a god. So far from binding themselves by oath to commit any crime, they swore to keep from theft, robbery, adultery, breach of faith, and not to deny any trust money deposited with them when called upon to deliver it. This ceremony over, they used to depart and meet again to take food -- but it was of no special character, and entirely harmless. They also had ceased from this practice after the edict I issued -- by which, in accord with your orders, I forbade all secret societies.

“I then thought it the more needful to get at the facts behind their statements. Therefore I placed two women, called "deaconesses," under torture, but I found only a debased superstition carried to great lengths, so I postponed my examination, and immediately consulted you. This seems a matter worthy of your prompt consideration, especially as so many people are endangered. Many of all ages and both sexes are put in peril of their lives by their accusers; and the process will go on, for the contagion of this superstition has spread not merely through the free towns, but into the villages and farms. Still I think it can be halted and things set right. Beyond any doubt, the temples -- which were nigh deserted -- are beginning again to be thronged with worshipers; the sacred rites, which long have lapsed, are now being renewed, and the food for the sacrificial victims is again finding a sale -- though up to recently it had almost no market. So one can safely infer how vast numbers could be reclaimed, if only there were a chance given for repentance.

Trajan to Pliny: “You have adopted the right course, my dear Pliny, in examining the cases of those cited before you as Christians; for no hard and fast rule can be laid down covering such a wide question. The Christians are not to be hunted out. If brought before you, and the offense is proved, they are to be punished, but with this reservation -- if any one denies he is a Christian, and makes it clear he is not, by offering prayer to our gods, then he is to be pardoned on his recantation, no matter how suspicious his past. As for anonymous pamphlets, they are to be discarded absolutely, whatever crime they may charge, for they are not only a precedent of a very bad type, but they do not accord with the spirit of our age.”

Notitia Dignitatum (Register of Dignitaries), A.D. 400

The Notitia Dignitatum (Register of Dignitaries, c. A.D. 400) is an official listing of all civil and military posts in the Roman Empire, East and West. It survives as a 1551 copy of the now-missing original and is the major source of information on the administrative organization of the late Roman Empire. William Fairley wrote: “The Notitia Dignitatum is an official register of all the offices, other than municipal, which existed in the Roman Empire.... Gibbon gave to this document a date between 395 and 407 when the Vandals disturbed the Roman regime in Gaul. [Source: Notitia Dignitatum (Register of Dignitaries), William Fairley, in Translations and Reprints from Original Sources of European History, Vol. VI:4 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press), 1899].

“The Notitia Dignitatum has preserved for us, as no other document has done, a complete outline view of the Roman administrative system in early fifth century. The hierarchic arrangement is displayed perfectly. The division of prefectures, dioceses and provinces, and the rank of their respective governors is set forth at length. The military origin of the whole system appears in the titles of the staff officers, even in those departments whose heads had, since the time of Constantine, been deprived of all military command.”


Roman Provinces in AD 2nd century


Pretorian Prefect of Illyricum

Under the control of the illustrious pretorian prefect of Illyricum are the dioceses mentioned below: of Macedonia; of Dacia.
The provinces of Macedonia are six: Achaia; Macedonia; Crete; Thessaly; ancient Epirus; new Epirus; and a part of Macedonia salutaris.
The provinces of Dacia are five: Mediterranean Dacia; ripuarian Dacia; Moesia prima; Dardania; Praevalitana; and part of Macedonia salutaris.
[Source: Notitia Dignitatum (Register of Dignitaries), William Fairley, in Translations and Reprints from Original Sources of European History, Vol. VI:4 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press), 1899].

The staff of the illustrious pretorian prefect of Illyricum: A chief of staff,
A chief deputy,
A chief assistant,
A custodian,
A keeper of the records,
Four receivers of taxes; one of these for gold; another for services.
An assistant,
A curator of correspondence,
A registrar,
Secretaries,
Aids,
Notaries.
The pretorian prefect of Illyricum. himself issues [post-warrants].

Administrative Positions in Asia

Proconsul of Asia
Under the control of the worshipful proconsul of Asia are the provinces mentioned below:
Asia, The Islands, Hellespontus.
His staff is as follows:
A chief of the same staff,
A chief deputy,
A chief assistant,
A custodian,
A keeper of the records.
Receivers of taxes,
Clerks,
A receiver of requests,
Secretaries and other officials.
The proconsul of Asia is entitled to ___
[Source: Notitia Dignitatum (Register of Dignitaries), William Fairley, in Translations and Reprints from Original Sources of European History, Vol. VI:4 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press), 1899].

Augustal Prefect
Under the control of the worshipful Augustal prefect are the provinces mentioned below:
Lybia superior, Lybia inferior, Thebais, Egypt, Arcadia, Augustamnica.
His staff is as follows:
A chief of staff from the school of confidential agents of the first class, who at the close of two years' service, after adoring the imperial clemency, goes forth with insignia.*
A chief deputy,
A custodian,
A quaestor,
An assistant,
A keeper of the records,
Receivers of taxes,
A curator of correspondence, Secretaries and other attendants.

The Augustal prefect is entitled to____
* That is, advanced to such rank, consular or proconsular, as carries with it the privilege of insignia of office. Consular rank was attainable by those who did not become actual consuls.


Roman E,pire at Its Height in AD 117


Vicar of the Diocese of Asia
Under the control of the worshipful vicar of the diocese of Asia are the provinces mentioned below: Pamphylia, Lydia, Caria, Lycia. Lycaonia, Pisidia, Phrygia Pacatiana, Phrygia salutaris.
The staff of the worshipful vicar of the diocese of Asia is as follows:
A chief of staff from the school of confidential agents of the first class, who at the close of two years' service, after adoring the imperial clemency, goes forth with insignia.
A chief deputy,
A custodian,
An assistant,
A keeper of the records,
Receivers of taxes,
A curator of correspondence,
Secretaries and other officials.
The vicar of the diocese of Asia is entitled to____

Duke of Scythia
Under the control of the worshipful duke of Scythia:
Seven squadrons of cavalry
Auxiliaries: Eight organizations.
Legions of borderers: Seven organizations.
His staff is as follows:
A chief of staff, who at the end of his term of service pays adoration as a protector,*
Accountants and their assistants,
A custodian,
An assistant,
A receiver of requests, or under-secretary,
Secretaries and other officials.
The duke of Scythia is entitled to five post-warrants in the year.
*This adoration was equivalent to a modern presentation at court. A protector was a highly-privileged member of the imperial body-guard. To adore as protector was to be admitted either to this body-guard or to a rank equivalent to it in the nicely graded scale of precedence.

Consular of Palestine Under the control of the right honorable* consular of Palestine: (* Consulars, correctors, and most presidents were clarissimi, right honorable) His staff is as follows: A chief of staff, A chief deputy, A custodian, A chief assistant, A receiver of taxes, A keeper of the records, A receiver of requests, Secretaries and other cohortalini,* who are not allowed to pass to another service without a warrant from the imperial clemency. All the other consulars have a staff similar to that of the consular of Palestine. (* The lower members of staffs of officials of lesser dignity were called cohortalini; those attached to the higher staffs apparitores; these in the.staff; of the great palace functionaries, palatini. The cohortalini formed an hereditary caste from which escape was very difficult.)


Roman Empire at the time of Agustus in AD 14


President OF Thebais.
Under the control of the right honorable president of Thebais.
The province of Thebais.
The staff is as follows: [Precisely as in preceding section.]
All the other presidents have a staff similar to that of the president of Thebais.

Count of the Egyptian Frontier

Under the control of the worshipful military count of Egypt:
The fifth Macedonian legion, at Memphis,
The thirteenth twin legion, at Babylon,
The Stablesian horse, at Pelusium,
The Saracen Thamudene horse, at Scenae Veteranorum,
The third Diocletiana legion, at Andropolis,
The second Trajana legion, at Parembole,
The Theodosian squadron, recently organized,
The Arcadian squadron, recently organized,
The second squadron of Armenians, in the lesser Oasis.
And these which are assigned from the lesser register:*1
(* The lesser register was the list of lower military officers and their commands, which was in charge sometimes of the quaestor and sometimes of the bureau of memorials, under the master of the offices)
[Source: Notitia Dignitatum (Register of Dignitaries), William Fairley, in Translations and Reprints from Original Sources of European History, Vol. VI:4 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press), 1899].

The third squadron of Arabs, at Thenenuthis,
The eighth squadron of Vandals, at Nee,
The seventh squadron of Sarmatians, at Scenae Mandrorum,
The first squadron of Egyptians, at Selle,
The veteran squadron of Gauls, at Rinocoruna,
The first Herculian squadron, at Scenae without Gerasa,
The fifth squadron of Raetians, at Scenae Veteranorum,
The first Tangiers squadron, at Thinunepsi,

The Aprian squadron, at Hipponos,
The second squadron of Assyrians, at Sosteos,
The fifth squadron of Praelecti at Dionysias,
The third cohort of Galatians, at Cefro,
The second cohort of Asturians, at Busiris.
Of the province of Augustamnica:
The second Ulpian squadron of Africans, at Thaubastos,
The second squadron of Egyptians, at Tacasiria,
The first cohort of archers, at Naithu,
The first Augustan cohort of Pannonians, at Tohu,
The first cohort of Epirotes, at Castra Judaeorum,
The fourth cohort of Juthungians, at Aphroditopolis,
The second cohort of Ituraeans, at Aiy,
The second cohort of Thracians, at Muson,
The fourth cohort of Numidians, at Narmunthi

The staff is as follows:
A chief of staff from the school of confidential agents of the first class, who, after adoring the imperial clemency, goes forth with insignia.
Receivers of taxes,
A custodian,
An assistant,
A receiver of requests, or under- secretary,
Secretaries and other officials.
The count of Egypt is entitled to seven post-warrants in the year.


Roman Empire at the Time of the Tetrarchy in the AD 3rd Century


Prefect of Rome, Italy and Gaul

Prefect of the City
Under the control of the illustrious prefect of the city of Rome are held the administrative positions mentioned below:
The prefect of the grain supply,
The prefect of the watch,
The count of the aqueducts,
The count of the banks and bed of the Tiber, and of the sewers,
The count of the port,
The master of the census,
The collector of the wine-tax,
The tribune of the swine-market,
The consular of the water-supply,
The curator of the chief works,
The curator of public works,
The curator of statues,
The curator of the Galban granaries,
The centenarian of the port,*
The tribune of art works
* The functions of this officer and the next one cannot be accurately determined, and the translation is uncertain in the latter case, tribunus rerum nitentium.
[Source: Notitia Dignitatum (Register of Dignitaries), William Fairley, in Translations and Reprints from Original Sources of European History, Vol. VI:4 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press), 1899].

The staff of the illustrious prefect of the city:
A chief of staff,
A chief deputy,
A chief assistant,
A custodian,
A keeper of the records,
Receivers of taxes,
A chief clerk (or receiver),
Assistants,
A curator of correspondence,
A registrar,
Secretaries,
Aids,
Clerks of the census,
Ushers,
Notaries.

Pretorian Prefect of Italy Under the control -of the illustrious pretorian prefect of Italy are the dioceses mentioned below: Italy; Illyricum; Africa.
Provinces: of Italy seventeen: Venetia; Aemilia; Liguria; Flaminia and Picentim, and Picenum; Tuscia and Umbria; Picenum suburbicarium; Campania; Sicily; Apulia and Calabria, Lucania andd Brittii; the Cottian Alps; Raetia prima, Raetia secunda; Samnium; Valeria; Sardinia; Corsica.
of Illyricum. six: Pannonia secunda; Savia; Dalmatia; Pannonia prima; Mediterranean Noricum; ripuarian Noricum.
of Africa seven: Byzacium; Numidia; Mauritania Sitifensis; Mauritania Caesariensis; Tripolis. The prefect of the grain tribute of Africa; the prefect of the patrimonial estates.

The staff of the illustrious pretorian prefect of Italy:
A chief of staff,
A chief deputy,
A chief assistant,
A custodian,
A keeper of the records, Receivers of taxes,
Assistants,
A curator of correspondence,
A registrar,
Secretaries,
Aids,
Notaries.

Pretorian Prefect of the Gauls
Under the control of the illustrious pretorian prefect of the Gauls are the dioceses mentioned below: The Spains; the Seven Provinces; the Britains.
Provinces: of the Spains seven: Baetica; Lusitania;, Callaecia; Tarraconensis; Carthaginensis; Tingitania; the Balearic Isles.
of the Seven Provinces seventeen:* Viennensis; Lugdumensis prima; Germania prima, Germania secunda; Belgica prima; Belgica secunda; the Maritime Alps; the Pennine and Graian Alps; Maxima Sequanorum; Aquitania prima; Aquitania secunda; Novempopuli; Narbonensis prima; Narbonensis secunda; Lugdunensis Secunda; Lugdugnensis tertia; Lugduneusis Senonia.
(* for the anomaly of seventeen provinces ranged under the title. The Seven Provinces. Subdivision and addition had caused what was originally the diocese of The Five Provinces to include the seventeen here named. of the Britains five: Maxima Caesariensis; Valentia; Britannia prima; Britannia secunda; Flauia Caesariensis.

The staff of the illustrious pretorian prefect of the Gauls:
[Precisely the same as that of the pretorian prefect of the East]


Western Roman Empire in AD 460 around the time of its collapse


Count of the Sacred Bounties

Under the control of the illustrious cou n t of the sacred bounties.
The count of the bounties in Illyricum,
The count of the wardrobe,
The count of gold,
The count of the Italian bounties,
Accountants:
The accountant of the general tax of Pannonia secunda, Dalmatia and Savia,
The accountant of the general tax of Pannonia prima, Valeria, Mediterranean and ripuarian Noricum.
The accountant of the general tax of Italy,
The accountant of the general tax of the city of Rome,
The accountant of the general tax of the Three Provinces, that is, of Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica,
The accountant of the general tax of Africa,
The accountant of the general tax of Numidia,
The accountant of the general tax of Spain,
The accountant of the general tax of the Five Provinces,
The accountant of the general tax of the Gauls,
The accountant of the general tax of the Britains.
[Source: Notitia Dignitatum (Register of Dignitaries), William Fairley, in Translations and Reprints from Original Sources of European History, Vol. VI:4 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press), 1899].

Provosts of the storehouses:
In Illyricum:
The provost of the storehouses at Salona in Dalmatia,
The provost of the storehouses at Siscia in Savia
The provost of the storehouses at Savaria in Pannonia prima,
In Italy:
The provost of the storehouses at Aquileia in Venetia,
The provost of the storehouses at Milan in Liguria,
The provost of the storehouses of the city of Rome,
The provost of the storehouses at Augsburg in Raetia secunda.
In the Gauls:
The provost of the storehouses at Lyons,
The provost of the storehouses at Arles,
The provost of the storehouses at Rheims,
The provost of the storehouses at Trier.
In the Britains:
The provost of the storehouses at London.

Procurators of the mints:
The procurator of the mint at Siscia,
The procurator of the mint at Aquileia,
The procurator of the mint in the city of Rome,
The procurator of the mint at Lyons,
The procurator of the mint at Arles,
The procurator of the mint at Trier.

Procurators of the weaving-houses:
The procurator of the weaving-house at Bassiana, in Pannonia secunda -removed from Salona,
The procurator of the weaving-house at Sirmium. in Pannonia secunda,
The procurator of the Jovian weaving-house at Spalato in Dalmatia,
The procurator of the weaving-house at Aquileia in Venetia inferior,
The procurator of the weaving-house at Milan in Liguria,
The procurator of the weaving-house in the city of Rome,
The procurator of the weaving-house at Canosa and Venosa in Apulia,
The procurator of the weaving-house at Carthage in Africa,
The procurator of the weaving-house at Arles in the province of Vienne,
The procurator of the weaving-house at Lyons,
The procurator of the weaving-house at Rheims in Belgica secunda,
The procurator of the weaving-house at Tourney Belgica Secunda,
The procurator of the weaving-house at Trier in Belgica secunda,
The procurator of the weaving-house at Autun- removed from Metz,
The procurator of the weaving-house at Winchester Britain.
Procurators of the linen-weaving houses:
The procurator of the linen-weaving house at Vienne in the Gauls,
The procurator of the linen-weaving house at Ravenna in Italy.

Procurators of the dye-houses:
The procurator of the dye-house at Tarentum in Calabria,
The procurator of the dye-house at Salona in Dalmatia
The procurator of the dye-house at Cissa in Venetia and Istria,
The procurator of the dye-house at Syracuse in Sicily,
The procurator of the dye-houses in Africa,
The procurator of the dyeihouse at Girba, in the Province of Tripolis,
The procurator of the dye-house in the Balearic Isles in Spain,
The procurator of the dye-house at Toulon in the Gauls.
The procurator of the dye-house at Narbonne.

Procurators of the embroiderers in gold and silver:
The procurator of the embroiderers in gold and silver at Arles,
The procurator of the embroiderers in gold silver and at Rheims,
The procurator of the embroiderers in gold and silver at Trier,

Procurators of the goods despatch:
For the Eastern traffic:
The provost of the first Eastern despatch, and the fourth [return],
The provost of the second Eastern despatch, and the third [return],
The provost of the second [return] despatch, and the third from the East,
The provost of the first (return] despatch, and the fourth from the East.
For the traffic with the Gauls:
The provost of the first Gallic despatch, and the fourth [return].
The counts of the markets in Illyricum.

The staff of the aforesaid illustrious count of the sacred bounties includes:
A chief clerk of the whole staff,
A chief clerk of the bureau of fixed taxes,
A chief clerk of the bureau of records,
A chief clerk of the bureau of accounts,
A chief clerk of the bureau of gold bullion,
A chief clerk of the bureau of gold for shipment,
A chief clerk of the bureau of the sacred wardrobe,
A chief clerk of the bureau of silver,
A chief clerk of the bureau of miliarensia,
A chief clerk of the bureau of coinage, and other clerks,
A deputy chief clerk of the staff, who is chief clerk of the secretaries,
A sub-deputy chief clerk who has charge of the goods despatch.

Count of the Private Domain

Under the control of the illustrious count of the private domain:
The count of the private bounties,
The count of the Gildonian patrimony,*1
The accountant of the private properties in Illyricum.
The accountant of the private properties in Italy,*2
The accountant of the private property in Italy,
[*1] Gildo was a Moor who had served the Romans against his rebellious brother in Africa, and been entrusted by them with a high position. But he in turn rebelled, and was killed in battle in 398. His forfeited estates formed the Gildonian patrimony. See Gibbon, Chap. XXIX.
[*2] The difference between an, accountant of the private property in Italy and one of the private properties (plural) is not understood. It way be a textual error.
[Source: Notitia Dignitatum (Register of Dignitaries), William Fairley, in Translations and Reprints from Original Sources of European History, Vol. VI:4 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press), 1899].

The accountant of the private property in the city of Rome and the suburbicarian regions, and the estate of Faustj
The accountant of the private property in Sicily,
The accountant of the private property in Africa,
The accountant of the private property in the Spains,
The accountant of the private property in the Gauls,
The accountant of the private property in the Five Provinces,
The accountant of the private property in the imperial estates in Africa,
The procurator of the private property in Sicily,
The procurator of the private property in Apulia and Calabria and the pastures of Carmignano,
The provost of the private property in Sequanicum, and Germania prima,
The procurator of the private property in Dalmatia,
The procurator of the private property in Savia,
The procurator of the private property in Italy,
The procurator of the private property in the estates of Julian in the urbicarian regions,
The procurator of the private property in Mauritania Sitifensis,
The procurator of the private property in the weaving-houses at Trier,
The procurator of the weaving-house at Viviers, rei privatae Metii translata anhelat, [*The text is corrupt an yields no sense/]
The provost of the private baggage-despatch to the Eastby the lower route, [* by the sea?]
The provost of the private baggage-despatch to the Gauls.

The staff of the aforesaid count of the private domain includes
A chief clerk of the whole staff,
A head of the bureau of remitted taxes,
A head of the bureau of the fixed taxes,
A head of the bureau of receipts,
A head of the bureau of private bounties, clerks and other attachés of the aforesaid bureaus,
A deputy chief clerk of the whole staff, who has charge of the documents of the staff,
Other palatine officials.

Count of the Household Horse
Count of the Household Foot
Under the control of the illustrious counts of the household horse and foot:
The household horse,
The household foot,
Those assigned from these.

Superintendent of the Sacred Bedchamber
Under the control of worshipful superintendent of the sacred bedchamber: [The text is wanting.]

Castellan of the Sacred Palaces
Under the control of the worshipful castellan. [The same as in the similar office in the East, No. XVII, save that here we have the lady Augusta in the singular.]

Chief of the Notaries
Under the control of the worshipful chief of the notaries:
[The same as in No. XVIII, above.]

Masters of the Bureaus
The master of the bureau of memorials formulates all rescripts and issues them, and also responds to petitions.
The master of the bureau of correspondence deals with legations from cities and consultations and petitions.
The master of the bureau of requests deals with the hearing of cases and petitions.

Administrative Positions in Europe and Africa

Proconsul of Africa
Under the control of the worshipful proconsul of Africa:
The proconsular province and its two legates.
His staff is as follows:
A chief of staff from the school of confidential agents the first class,
A chief deputy,
Two receivers of taxes,
A chief clerk,
A custodian,
A chief assistant,
A keeper of the records,
Assistants,
Secretaries,
Notaries, and the rest of the staff.
[Source: Notitia Dignitatum (Register of Dignitaries), William Fairley, in Translations and Reprints from Original Sources of European History, Vol. VI:4 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press), 1899].

Vicar of the City of Rome
Under the control of the worshipful vicar of the city of are the provinces mentioned below:
Consulars:
of Campania,
of Tuscany and Umbria,
of suburbicarian Picenum,
of Sicily.
Correctors:
of Apulia and Calabria,
of Bruttii and Lucania.
Presidents:
of Samnium,
of Sardinia,
of Corsica,
of Valeria.
The staff of the aforesaid worshipful vicar is as follows:
[Same as in the preceding section, with the addition of curator of correspondence.]

Vicar of the Seven Provinces
Under the control of the worshipful vicar of the Seven Provinces:
Consulars:
of Vienne,
of Lyons,
of Germania prima,
of Germania secunda,
of Belgica, prima,
of Belgica secunda.
Presidents:
of the Maritime Alps,
of the Pennine and Graiam Alps,
of Maxima Sequanorum,
of Aquitanica prima,
of Aquitanica secunda,
of Novem populi,
of Narbonensis prima,
of Narbonensis secunda,
of Lugdunensis secunda,
of Lugdunensis tertia,
of Lugdunensis Senonia.
The staff of the aforesaid worshipful vicar of the Seven. Provinces:
[The same as in No. XIX.]

Vicar of the Britains
Under the control of the worshipful vicar of the Britains:
Consulars:
of Maxima Caesariensis,
of Valentia.
Presidents:
of Britannia prima,
of Britannia secunda,
of Flavia Caesariensis.
The staff of the same worshipful vicar is as follows:
[The same as in No. XIX]

Count of Tingitania
Under the control of the worshipful count of Tingitania:
Borderers:
[One prefect of a squadron, and seven tribunes of cohorts.]
The staff of the same worshipful count is as follows:
A chief of staff from the staffs of the masters of the soldiery in the presence; one year from that of the master of the foot, the other from that of the master of horse.
A custodian as above,
Two accountants, in alternate years from the aforesaid staffs.
A chief deputy,
A chief assistant,
An assistant,
A registrar,
Secretaries,
Notaries and other officials.

Duke of the Armorican Tract
Under the control of the worshipful duke of the Armorican and Nervican tract:
[One tribune of a cohort and nine military prefects.] *enumeration omitted
The Armorican and Nervican tract is extended to include the Five Provinces:
Aquitanica prima and secunda, Lugdunensis secunda and tertia.
The staff of the same worshipful duke includes:
A chief of staff from the staffs of the masters of soldiery in the presence in alternate years,
An accountant from the staff of the master of foot for one year,
A custodian from the aforesaid staffs in alternate years
A chief assistant;
An assistant,
A registrar,
Secretaries,
Notaries and other officials.

Consular of Campania
Under the control of the right honorable consular of Campania:
The province of Campania.
His staff is as follows:
A chief of staff from the staff of the pretorian prefect of Italy,
A chief deputy,
Two accountants,
A chief assistant,
A custodian,
A keeper of the records,
An assistant,
Secretaries and other cohartalini, who are not allowed to pass to another service without the permission of the imperial clemency.
All the other consulars have a staff like that of the consular of Campania.

Corrector of Apulia and Calabria.
Under the jurisdiction of the right honorable corrector of Apulia and Calabria:
The province of Apulia and Calabria.
His staff is as follows:
A chief of the same staff,
A chief deputy,
Two accouutants,
A custodian,
A chief assistant,
A keeper of the records,
An assistant,
Secretaries and other cohortalini, who are not allowed to pass to another service without the permission of the imperial clemency.
The other correctors have a staff like that of the corrector of Apulia and Calabria.

President of Dalmatia.
Under the jurisdiction of the honorable president of Dalmatia.
The province of Dalmatia.
His staff is as follows.
[The same as in others]
The other presidents have a staff like that of the president Dalmatia

Image Sources: Wikimedia Commons

Text Sources: Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Rome sourcebooks.fordham.edu ; Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Late Antiquity sourcebooks.fordham.edu ; Forum Romanum forumromanum.org ; “Outlines of Roman History” by William C. Morey, Ph.D., D.C.L. New York, American Book Company (1901), forumromanum.org \~\; “The Private Life of the Romans” by Harold Whetstone Johnston, Revised by Mary Johnston, Scott, Foresman and Company (1903, 1932) forumromanum.org |+|; BBC Ancient Rome bbc.co.uk/history/ ; Perseus Project - Tufts University; perseus.tufts.edu ; MIT, Online Library of Liberty, oll.libertyfund.org ; Gutenberg.org gutenberg.org Metropolitan Museum of Art, National Geographic, Smithsonian magazine, New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Live Science, Discover magazine, Times of London, Natural History magazine, Archaeology magazine, The New Yorker, Encyclopædia Britannica, "The Discoverers" [∞] and "The Creators" [μ]" by Daniel Boorstin. "Greek and Roman Life" by Ian Jenkins from the British Museum.Time, Newsweek, Wikipedia, Reuters, Associated Press, The Guardian, AFP, Lonely Planet Guides, World Religions edited by Geoffrey Parrinder (Facts on File Publications, New York); History of Warfare by John Keegan (Vintage Books); History of Art by H.W. Janson Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.), Compton’s Encyclopedia and various books and other publications.

Last updated October 2018

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