BRAHMA, VISHNU, SHIVA
The Hindu triumvirate consists of three gods — Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva — who are responsible for the creation, upkeep and destruction of the world. Vishnu is the preserver of the universe, while Shiva's role is to destroy it in order to re-create. Brahma's job was creation of the world and all creatures. His name should not be confused with Brahman, who is the supreme God force present within all things. [Source: BBC]
Brahma is not worshipped and there are very few temples in his honor due to 'mythological' reasons. Vishnu (and the incarnations of Him, Rama and Krishna), Shiva (and his various forms), their wives, are very popular with numerous temples and followers. The wives of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva are Saraswati, Laxmi, and Parvati, respectively. Collectively, they are sometimes referred to as Divine mother (or Shakti). Two of Parvati's fierce but very powerful forms are Durga and Kali.
Vinay Lal, a professor of history at UCLA writes: “Shiva is represented as the Destroyer, Brahma as the Creator: Vishnu holds the universe in balance, acting as the Preserver. However, the worship of Brahma is almost unknown in India, and Indian sectarian history and conflict resolves itself largely, though by no means exclusively, into a struggle between the adherents of Shiva, called Saivites, and the followers of Vishnu or Vaishnavites. The rival claims of the followers of Shiva and Vishnu are found in most Indian texts, stretching as far back as the Mahabharata, but there are also attempts to reconcile these claims with the argument that Shiva and Vishnu are in reality one. Thus, according to the Harivamsa, there is "no difference between Shiva who exists in the form of Vishnu, and Vishnu who exists in the form of Shiva." [Source: Vinay Lal, professor of history, UCLA]
Steven M. Kossak and Edith W. Watts from The Metropolitan Museum of Art wrote: “Initially, Hinduism was centered around three male gods: Brahma, creator of the cosmos; Vishnu, preserver and protector of the universe; and Shiva, destroyer of the universe so that from the formless void it may be created again. Brahma has never had a large number of worshippers. Shiva, Vishnu, and the Great Goddess Devi (Mahadevi) in their myriad forms are the most widely worshipped Hindu gods. They are described in the Puranas, a group of texts formulated between A.D. 200 and 800.” [Source: Steven M. Kossak and Edith W. Watts, The Art of South, and Southeast Asia, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York <*>]
Brahma is the creator of the Universe and the god of wisdom. He is one of the three most important Hindu gods. Brahma is shown as a man with red skin wearing white robes and riding on a goose or a swan. He has four arms in which he carries the Vedas, and a combination of the following things: a sceptre, a spoon, a string of beads, a bow and a water jug. There are many different stories about Brahma's birth. One story is that Brahma hatched from a floating golden egg. Another story is that he was born from a lotus which grew out of Vishnu's navel. Brahma created his consort who is known by several names: Satarupa, Savitri, Sarasvati, Gayatri and Brahmani. [Source: British Museum]
Shiva is the god who destroys the world when it is in a state of chaos and ungodliness. He is also the lord of the beasts. Shiva is associated with meditation. Shiva wears a snake coiled round his neck and hair. He holds a trident in his hand and sits on a deer skin in a yogic position. Shiva rides on a bull called Nandi. Shiva's wife is Parvati and his son is Kartikeya.
Vishnu was a minor deity in early times. Later on, he became one of the main Hindu gods. He appears as a man with four arms riding on a mythical bird or resting on a serpent. In his four hands, Vishnu holds a conch shell, a discus, a lotus and a mace. From time to time, Vishnu descends to earth in a human, animal or creature form to restore the balance of good and evil in the world. It is thought that he has descended nine times already. Some of his more well-known incarnations are the hero Krishna, the hero Rama, a tortoise and a fish.
Websites and Resources on Hinduism: Hinduism Today hinduismtoday.com ; Heart of Hinduism (Hare Krishna Movement) iskconeducationalservices.org ; India Divine indiadivine.org ; Religious Tolerance Hindu Page religioustolerance.org/hinduism ; Hinduism Index uni-giessen.de/~gk1415/hinduism ; Wikipedia article Wikipedia ; Oxford center of Hindu Studies ochs.org.uk ; Hindu Website hinduwebsite.com/hinduindex ; Hindu Gallery hindugallery.com ; Hindusim Today Image Gallery himalayanacademy.com ; Encyclopædia Britannica Online article britannica.com ; International Encyclopedia of Philosophy by Shyam Ranganathan, York University iep.utm.edu/hindu ; Vedic Hinduism SW Jamison and M Witzel, Harvard University people.fas.harvard.edu ; The Hindu Religion, Swami Vivekananda (1894), Wikisource ; Hinduism by Swami Nikhilananda, The Ramakrishna Mission .wikisource.org ; All About Hinduism by Swami Sivananda dlshq.org ; Advaita Vedanta Hinduism by Sangeetha Menon, International Encyclopedia of Philosophy (one of the non-Theistic school of Hindu philosophy) ; Journal of Hindu Studies, Oxford University Press academic.oup.com/jhs ; Hindu Texts: Sanskrit and Prakrit Hindu, Buddhist and Jain Manuscripts Vol. 1 archive.org/stream and Volume 2 archive.org/stream ; Clay Sanskrit Library claysanskritlibrary.org ; Sacred-Texts: Hinduism sacred-texts.com ; Sanskrit Documents Collection: Documents in ITX format of Upanishads, Stotras etc. sanskritdocuments.org ; Ramayana and Mahabharata condensed verse translation by Romesh Chunder Dutt libertyfund.org ; Ramayana as a Monomyth from UC Berkeley web.archive.org ; Ramayana at Gutenberg.org gutenberg.org ; Mahabharata Online (in Sanskrit) sub.uni-goettingen.de ; Mahabharata holybooks.com/mahabharata-all-volumes ; Mahabharata Reading Suggestions, J. L. Fitzgerald, Das Professor of Sanskrit, Department of Classics, Brown University brown.edu/Departments/Sanskrit_in_Classics ; Mahabharata Gutenberg.org gutenberg.org ; Bhagavad Gita (Arnold translation) wikisource.org/wiki/The_Bhagavad_Gita ; Bhagavad Gita at Sacred Texts sacred-texts.com ; Bhagavad Gita gutenberg.org gutenberg.org
Brahma is the first god in the Hindu triumvirate, or trimurti Brahma is the "father of all" and has traditionally been recognized as the creator god. He is rarely depicted and is not worshiped as other gods in part because he has already fulfilled his duty by creating everything and will not do anything until the beginning of the next creation cycle.Brahma is also known Ishwara or Mahanshakti. His shakti or consort is Saraswati, the goddess of knowledge, music and poetry. She is often depicted holding a musical instrument in her hand. The swan (or goose), a symbol of knowledge, is the mount for both Brahma and Saraswati. Brahma is also sometimes recognized as the “Self,” and is represented by “Om,” the sound with no form. Brahma should not be confused with Brahman, who is the supreme God force present within all things.
Brahma is a representation of the impersonal brahman in a human form, usually with four faces facing the cardinal directions and four arms. In reality, Brahma receives little devotion from worshipers, who may mention him in passing while giving their attention to the other main gods. There are few temples in India dedicated to him; instead, his image may stand in niches on the walls of temples built for other deities. Religious stories usually place Brahma as an intermediate authority who cannot handle a problem and passes it on to either Vishnu or Shiva. The concept of the trinity (trimurti ), expressed in beautiful art works or invoked even by believers, is in practice a philosophical construct that unites all deistic traditions within Hinduism into one overarching symbol. [Source: Library of Congress *]
When Brahma is depicted he is show with four, crowned, bearded heads---each facing towards one of the cardinal points---and has eight arms, in which he carries: 1) the four Vedas, 2) a rosary, 3) a pot with holy water, 4) a scepter, 5) a spoon, 6) a disc, 7) a fly whisk, and 8) a lotus flower. It is believed that his heads came from the four Vedas (the most ancient religious texts for Hindus).
Brahma is said to have been born from a golden egg or a lotus flower that sprung from the naval of Vishnu, while he reclined on a serpent on the waves of the ocean during a cosmic sleep. Brahma originally had five heads. He acquired them when he fell in love with Saraswati---who was shy and tried to escape his glances---so he could see wherever she went. Some also believe that the caste system, or four varnas, came from different part of Brahma's body.
Brahman and God
All Hindu gods are regarded as refracted image of Brahma. He created the universe and founded a tradition of teachers. He taught everything he knew to the great sage Narada Muni, who taught it to Vyasadeva, the compiler of the Bhagavad Gita .
Vedanta, the basis of Hinduism, asserts that Brahman,the 'impersonal' God and the universal soul, is the Absolute Truth. Brahman has multiple roles to play: the creator, the maintainer, and the destroyer all in one. This can be viewed as the origin of the trinity Gods namely Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva.
Gavin Flood wrote: “Brahman is a Sanskrit word which refers to a transcendent power beyond the universe. As such, it is sometimes translated as 'God' although the two concepts are not identical. Brahman is the power which upholds and supports everything. According to some Hindus this power is identified with the self (atman) while others regard it as distinct from the self. Most Hindus agree that Brahman pervades everything although they do not worship Brahman. Some Hindus regard a particular deity or deities as manifestations of Brahman.” [Source: Prof. Gavin Flood, BBC]
Hindu Concept of God
Brahma Professor Flood wrote: “Most Hindus believe in God but what this means varies in different traditions. The Sanskrit words Bhagavan and Ishvara mean 'Lord' or 'God' and indicate an absolute reality who creates, sustains and destroys the universe over and over again. It is too simplistic to define Hinduism as belief in many gods or 'polytheism'. Most Hindus believe in a Supreme God, whose qualities and forms are represented by the multitude of deities which emanate from him. God, being unlimited, can have unlimited forms and expressions. [Source: Prof. Gavin Flood, BBC |::|]
“God can be approached in a number of ways and a devoted person can relate to God as a majestic king, as a parent figure, as a friend, as a child, as a beautiful woman, or even as a ferocious Goddess. Each person can relate to God in a particular form, the ishta devata or desired form of God. Thus, one person might be drawn towards Shiva, another towards Krishna, and another towards Kali. Many Hindus believe that all the different deities are aspects of a single, transcendent power. |::|
“In the history of Hinduism, God is conceptualised in different ways, as an all knowing and all pervading spirit, as the creator and force within all beings, their 'inner controller' (antaryamin) and as wholly transcendent. There are two main ideas about Bhagavan or Ishvara: Bhagavan is an impersonal energy. Ultimately God is beyond language and anything that can be said about God cannot capture the reality. Followers of the Advaita Vedanta tradition (based on the teachings of Adi Shankara) maintain that the soul and God are ultimately identical and liberation is achieved once this has been realised. This teaching is called non-dualism or advaita because it claims there is no distinction between the soul and the ultimate reality. |::|
“Bhagavan is a person. God can be understood as a supreme person with qualities of love and compassion towards creatures. On this theistic view the soul remains distinct from the Lord even in liberation. The supreme Lord expresses himself through the many gods and goddesses. The theologian Ramanuja (also in the wider Vedanta tradition as Shankara) makes a distinction between the essence of God and his energies. We can know the energies of God but not his essence. Devotion (bhakti) is the best way to understand God in this teaching.” |::|
Why Is Brahma Not Worshipped So Much?
Brahma is the least worshipped major god in Hinduism today. It is said there is only one Brahma temple in all of India, in the town of Pushkar in Rajasthan, compared with the many thousands devoted to Shiva and Vishnu. This is not completely true. There are other Brahma temple but it safe to say there are not many of them. A number of stories in the Hindu mythology attempt to explain why he is rarely worshipped. According to one view Brahma's role as the creator is over and thsu why is it necessary to worship him. Because Vishnu preserves the world and Shiva keeps the cycle of death and rebirth going it makes more sense to worship them. [Source: BBC |::|]
“One story that explains why Brahma is not worshiped, according to the BBC, goes: Brahma created a woman in order to aid him with his job of creation. She was called Shatarupa. She was so beautiful that Brahma became infatuated with her, and gazed at her wherever she went. This caused her extreme embarrassment and Shatarupa tried to turn from his gaze. But in every direction she moved, Brahma sprouted a head until he had developed four. Finally, Shatarupa grew so frustrated that she jumped to try to avoid his gaze. Brahma, in his obsession, sprouted a fifth head on top of all. |::|
“It is also said in some sources that Shatarupa kept changing her form. She became every creature on earth to avoid Brahma. He however, changed his form to the male version of whatever she was and thus every animal community in the world was created. Lord Shiva admonished Brahma for demonstrating behaviour of an incestuous nature and chopped off his fifth head for 'unholy' behaviour. Since Brahma had distracted his mind from the soul and towards the cravings of the flesh, Shiva's curse was that people should not worship Brahma. As a form of repentance, it is said that Brahma has been continually reciting the four Vedas since this time, one from each of his four heads. |::|
Vishnu is known as the Preserver and is a god with many incarnations. Generally regarded as nice, eternally young and attractive, he is often depicted with a crown and reclining on a multi-headed serpent with a lotus flower emerging from his navel. He usually has four arms. One carries a mace, which represents the basic force from which all other forces are derived. The others hold a conch, a disc, and a ball or a lotus. Lakshmi, the Goddess of Wealth is Vishnu's wife. Their mount in Garuda, the man-eagle.
Vishnu, Raja Ravi, Varma and Lord_GarudaSteven M. Kossak and Edith W. Watts from The Metropolitan Museum of Art wrote: “Vishnu preserves and maintains order in the universe. Whenever destructive forces, usually symbolized by demons, threaten to overwhelm the world, Vishnu descends in the form of an avatar to restore moral order. His concern for human political and social activities expresses the gentle and just-minded side of the One. It is believed that in our present universe, Vishnu has already appeared in nine incarnations, taking such animal forms as a fish and a tortoise and various human forms such as Krishna, Rama, and the Buddha. It is believed he will appear once more in the future. As Rama, he symbolizes the importance of loyalty and obedience. As Krishna, he is the divine lover as well as a slayer of demons. Krishna’s consort, Radha, and his female devotees, in their passionate longing for him, symbolize the soul’s desire to be one with God.” [Source: Steven M. Kossak and Edith W. Watts, The Art of South, and Southeast Asia, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York <*>]
The historical Vishnu is good example of a single god that was coalesced from multiple gods over time. In the early Vedic verses Vishnu was a dwarf capable of crossing the universe in three strides. He was a minor deity who performed these feats mainly to amuse the other gods and was mentioned only five times in the Rig Veda. His antics as a dwarf made him popular and he became a major god, it is believed, after he was merged with an early sun god.
Vishnu is associated with “right action” and is considered an upholder of Hindu values. He preserves the universe by staying awake. If he falls asleep creation will withdraw intro a seed from it which it will emerge when creation occurs again. His role as preservers is greatly valued by Indians who worship Vishnu and pay homage to him in many ways. Vaishnavites, devotees of Vishnu, are one of the largest Hindu sects. See Sects.
As one of the most important gods in the Hindu pantheon, Vishnu is surrounded by a number of extremely popular and well-known stories and is the focus of a number of sects devoted entirely to his worship. Vishnu contains a number of personalities, often represented as ten major descents (avatars) in which the god has taken on physical forms in order to save earthly creatures from destruction. In one story, the earth was drowning in a huge flood, so to save it Vishnu took on the body of a giant turtle and lifted the earth on his back out of the waters. A tale found in the Vedas describes a demon who could not be conquered. Responding to the pleas of the gods, Vishnu appeared before the demon as a dwarf. The demon, in a classic instance of pride, underestimated this dwarf and granted him as much of the world as he could tread in three steps. Vishnu then assumed his universal form and in three strides spanned the entire universe and beyond, crushing the demon in the process. [Source: Library of Congress *]
Vishnu, His Incarnations and Other Gods
Vishnu is worshiped in the form of his incarnations and sometimes viewed as embodiment of the entire pantheon of Hindu gods. He is often depicted with other gods, such as Agni, Indra and Yama, placed on other parts of his body. Brahma was created from a lotus flower that sprouted from Vishnu's navel. Lord Jagannath, a reincarnation of Vishnu, was created by a celestial carpenter who shaped the deity, his brother and sister from a miraculous log. Vishnu’s wife is Lakshima.
Vishnu often takes an earthly from to save the world. The 10 incarnations he uses are 1) Matsya, the fish that saved the first man from the great flood; 2) Kurma, a tortoise that serves as a base for the mountain that supports the universe and is the creature that found the sacred ambrosia in the milk can; 3) a boar with the body of a man who holds the Earth goddess in his hands; 4) a man-lion who attacks the king of the demons with his paws; 5) a dwarf who obtains the earth, sky and hell and helps the gods gain possession of the world; 6) Rama in human form with an ax; 7) Rama, the hero of the Ramayana; 8) Krishna; 9) Buddha; and 10) a man-horse. By far the most important incarnations are Rama and Krishna. Rama is sometimes called the God of Truth. He is often depicted with a bow. See Ramayana and Mahabharata Above, See Krishna Below.
The incarnation of Vishnu known to almost everyone in India is his life as Ram (Rama in Sanskrit), a prince from the ancient north Indian kingdom of Ayodhya, in the cycle of stories known as the Ramayana (The Travels of Ram). On one level, this is a classic adventure story, as Ram is exiled from the kingdom and has to wander in the forests of southern India with his beautiful wife Sita and his loyal younger brother Lakshman. After many adventures, during which Ram befriends the king of the monkey kingdom and joins forces with the great monkey hero Hanuman, the demon king Ravana kidnaps Sita and takes her to his fortress on the island of Lanka (modern Sri Lanka). A huge war then ensues, as Ram with his animal allies attacks the demons, destroys them all, and returns in triumph to North India to occupy his lawful throne. Village storytellers, street theater players, the movies, and the national television network all have their versions of this story. In many parts of the country, but especially in North India, the annual festival of Dussehra celebrates Ram's adventures and his final triumph and includes the public burning of huge effigies of Ravana at the end of several days of parties. Everyone knows that Ram is really Vishnu, who came down to rid the earth of the demons and set up an ideal kingdom of righteousness--Ram Raj--which stands as an ideal in contemporary India. Sita is in reality his consort, the goddess Lakshmi, the ideal of feminine beauty and devotion to her husband. Lakshmi, also known as Shri, eventually became the goddess of fortune, surplus, and happiness. Hanuman, as the faithful sidekick with great physical and magical powers, is one of the most beloved images in the Hindu pantheon with temples of his own throughout the country. *
Iconography of Vishnu
Shiva and Vishnu Vishnu is sometimes used to symbolize the universe with his left eye representing night; his right eye representing day; clouds emerging from his hair; and the sun emanating from his mouth. From his nose comes the breath of life, which if properly directed can produce enlightenment. The conch shell, a symbol closely associated with Vishnu, is also associated with creation and is often blown at temples to indicate the presence of Vishnu. Vishnu sculpture often feature the god inside a flaming wheel.
Steven M. Kossak and Edith W. Watts from The Metropolitan Museum of Art wrote: “Vishnu is usually depicted with four arms and wears a tall conical crown. Typically, one of his hands makes the fear-allaying gesture. His animal mount is Garuda, a man-bird and ancient solar symbol of power. In Vishnu’s nine previous avatars, he appeared as a fish, tortoise, boar, man-lion, dwarf, the ax-bearer Parashurama, Rama, Krishna, and the Buddha. Vishnu’s tenth appearance, yet to come, will be Kalki. His two most popular avatars are Krishna and Rama, both of whom, like Vishnu, are portrayed with dark blue-gray colored skin.Vishnu’s usual attributes are: The Great Goddess Devi. [Source: Steven M. Kossak and Edith W. Watts, The Art of South, and Southeast Asia, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York <*>]
In iconography Vishnu may appear as any of his ten incarnations but often stands in sculpture as a princely male with four arms that bear a club, discus, conch, and lotus flower. He may also appear lying on his back on the thousand-headed king of the serpents, Shesha-Naga, in the milk ocean at the center of time, with his feet massaged by Lakshmi, and with a lotus growing from his navel giving birth to the god Brahma, a four-headed representation of the creative principle. Vishnu in this representation is the ultimate source of the universe that he causes to expand and contract at regular cosmic intervals measuring millions of years. On a more concrete level, Vishnu may become incarnate at any moment on earth in order to continue to bring sentient creatures back to himself, and a number of great religious teachers (including, for example, Chaitanya in Bengal) are identified by their followers as incarnations of Vishnu. *
Bearded Shiva Shiva (Siva) is regarded as the destroyer, preserver, and creator because he completes the Hindu cosmological cycle and ushers in the return of creation. He wears a chignon with curls and has a vertical third eye in the middle of his forehead. He often is depicted with four arms, carrying a string of beads, a symbol of his teaching, and a trident. The beads are called Rudraksha beads, a reference to his early name. Hindus who worship Shiva as their primary god are members of the Shaivism sect.
Steven M. Kossak and Edith W. Watts from The Metropolitan Museum of Art wrote: “Shiva is worshipped as the ascetic god, remote when in meditation but also at times wild, passionate, and loving. As Lord of the Dance, he both destroys and creates the universe. His cosmic dance visualizes the cycles of creation and destruction in human lives, in the history of nations, and in the universe. Shiva is also manifest in a phallic emblem called a linga, and it is in this form that he is most often portrayed in the inner sanctum of his temples. Worshippers of Shiva believe that he is the supreme god who contains and controls all creation.” [Source: Steven M. Kossak and Edith W. Watts, The Art of South, and Southeast Asia, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York <*>]
Vinay Lal, professor of history at UCLA, wrote: “The name of Shiva does not appear in the Vedas, but he was earlier known as Rudra, or the Fearful and Destructive One. Though the power of destruction, which in the most intensified form makes him a Bhairava ('The Terrible Destroyer'), remains Shiva's principal attribute, the corollary of that attribute, namely creation or fertility, is also central to the identity of Shiva. This aspect of Shiva is represented by the lingam, or phallus, which is worshipped as a representation of Shiva. Sometimes the female genitals, or yoni, are placed alongside the lingam. These are not the only iconic representations of Shiva: he appears as the yogi, in whom are concentrated all the powers acquired by meditation, penance, and a life of austerity, or as the naked ascetic Digambara, with matted hair and a body smeared with ashes... To begin to enumerate Shiva's various forms, epithets, and representations is to unravel the multiple layering of Indian civilization. There are, needless to say, innumerable pilgrimage sites associated with Shiva, and temples to him are to be found in every nook and cranny of India. According to Hindu mythology, Shiva's home is on Mt. Kailash, at the foot of which is the purest and holiest lake to be found anywhere, Manasarovar [from the Sanskrit manas, which gives this site its name]. [Source: Vinay Lal, professor of history, UCLA]
In the Vedic verses Shiva was known as Rudra, a minor deity that protected cattle and was associated with the howl of the wind and healing herbs. He had both and positive and negative side: he could bring disease and he could cure it. In the Rig Veda he is mentioned only three times. Over time Rudra absorbed merged with an early fertility god and became Shiva. By the second century B.C. Shiva had become popular as indicated by the large number stone lingams, symbols of Shiva, found in archeological sites. In the A.D. 2nd century there were Shiva cults made up of devotees who made lewd gestures at women and sneering noises during ceremonies and slept in the ashes left behind from funeral pyres. By the seventh century Shiva had became a more mainstream Hindu God.
Shiva lives in his paradise on Mt. Meru (believed by many to be Mt. Kailas in Tibet), ), where he created the Ganges. He is the originator of all the performing arts. The rhythm of his drum and his dancing are thought to control the fate of the world and prepare it for a new creation. Shiva has many incarnations and appears in many different forms. They are sometimes better known and depicted more than Shiva himself. In the Shiva Purana , a medieval text devoted to Shiva, he has over 1,000 names, including Mahakala, the Lord of Time, and Maheshvara, the Lord of Knowledge.
Many Sides of Shiva
Shiva has a dark side that is derived from his role as the destroyer but is also associated with asceticism. He is sometimes depicted as a poverty-stricken holy man with a crescent moon in his matted hair and serpent-like Brahma chord wrapped around his bare torso, surrounded by animals and followers. When he mediates he perseveres the world sort of like the way Vishnu does when he sleeps.
The god Shiva is the other great figure in the modern pantheon. In contrast to the regal attributes of Vishnu, Shiva is a figure of renunciation. A favorite image portrays him as an ascetic, performing meditation alone in the fastness of the Himalayas. There he sits on a tiger skin, clad only in a loincloth, covered with sacred ash that gives his skin a gray color. His trident is stuck into the ground next to him. Around his neck is a snake. From his matted hair, tied in a topknot, the river Ganga (Ganges) descends to the earth. His neck is blue, a reminder of the time he drank the poison that emerged while gods and demons competed to churn the milk ocean. Shiva often appears in this image as an antisocial being, who once burned up Kama, the god of love, with a glance. But behind this image is the cosmic lord who, through the very power of his meditating consciousness, expands the entire universe and all beings in it. Although he appears to be hard to attain, in reality Shiva is a loving deity who saves those devotees who are wholeheartedly dedicated to him. [Source: Library of Congress *]
The bhakti literature of South India, where Shiva has long been important, describes the numerous instances of pure-hearted devotion to the beautiful lord and the final revelation of himself as Shiva after testing his devotees. Shiva often appears on earth in disguise, perhaps as a wandering Brahman priest, to challenge the charity or belief of a suffering servant, only to appear eventually in his true nature. Many of these divine plays are connected directly with specific people and specific sites, and almost every ancient Shiva temple can claim a famous poem or a famous miracle in its history. The hundreds of medieval temples in Tamil Nadu, almost all dedicated to Shiva, contain sculptured panels depicting the god in a variety of guises: Bhikshatana, the begging lord; Bhairava, a horrible, destructive image; or Nataraja, the lord of the dance, beating a drum that keeps time while he manifests the universe. *
Shiva’s Power, Passions and Sexual Energy
According to the BBC: Shiva is known to have untamed passion, which leads him to extremes in behaviour. Sometimes he is an ascetic, abstaining from all worldly pleasures. At others he is a hedonist. It is Shiva's relationship with his wife, Parvati which brings him balance. Their union allows him to be an ascetic and a lover, but within the bounds of marriage. [Source: BBC |::|]
“Hindus believe his powers of destruction and recreation are used even now to destroy the illusions and imperfections of this world, paving the way for beneficial change. According to Hindu belief, this destruction is not arbitrary, but constructive. Shiva is therefore seen as the source of both good and evil and is regarded as the one who combines many contradictory elements. |::|
Because he withholds his sexual urges and controls them, Shiva is able to transmute sexual energy into creative power, by generating intense heat. It is, in fact, the heat generated from discipline and austerity (tapas ) that is seen as the source for the generative power of all renunciants, and in this sense Shiva is often connected with wandering orders of monks in modern India. For the average worshiper, the sexual power of Shiva is seen in the most common image that represents him, the lingam. This is typically a cylindrical stone several feet tall, with a rounded top, standing in a circular base. On one level, this is the most basic image of divinity, providing a focus for worship with a minimum of artistic embellishment, attempting to represent the infinite. The addition of carved anatomical details on many lingams, however, leaves no doubt for the worshiper that this is an erect male sexual organ, showing the procreative power of God at the origin of all things.
Shiva’s Image and Representations
Shiva typically carries a trident and has a third eye in his forehead, signifying his all-seeing nature. He often has a serpent wrapped around him like a scarf and wears a skull and the crescent moon in his matted hair piled high upon his head.
According to the BBC: “ In his representations as a man, Shiva always has a blue face and throat. Strictly speaking his body is white, but images often show him with a blue body too. Even though Shiva is the destroyer, he is usually represented as smiling and tranquil. While other gods are depicted in lavish surroundings, Shiva is dressed in simple animal skin and in austere settings, usually in a yogic position. Parvati, whenever she is present, is always at the side of Shiva. Their relationship is one of equality. [Source: BBC |::|]
Shiva is represented with the following features: 1) A third eye: The extra eye represents the wisdom and insight that Shiva has. It is also believed to be the source of his untamed energy. On one occasion, when Shiva was distracted in the midst of worship by the love god, Kama, Shiva opened his third eye in anger. Kama was consumed by the fire that poured forth, and only returned to life when Parvati intervened. 2) A cobra necklace: This signifies Shiva's power over the most dangerous creatures in the world. Some traditions also say that the snake represents Shiva's power of destruction and recreation. The snake sheds its skin to make way for new, smooth skin. 3) The vibhuti are three lines drawn horizontally across the forehead in white ash. They represent Shiva's all-pervading nature, his superhuman power and wealth. Also, they cover up his powerful third eye. Members of Shaivism often draw vibhuti lines across their forehead. 4) The trident: The three-pronged trident represents the three functions of the Hindu triumvirate.
Shiva is sometimes represented as half man, half woman. His figure is split half way down the body, one half showing his body and the second half that of Parvati's. Shiva is also represented by Shiva linga. This is a phallic statue, representing the raw power of Shiva and his masculinity. Hindus believe it represents the seed of the universe, demonstrating Shiva's quality of creation. Worshippers of Shiva celebrate Mahashivratri, a festival at which the Shiva linga is bathed in water, milk and honey and worshipped.
Vinay Lal, professor of history at UCLA, wrote: “ In Indian art, Shiva can also be recognized by the presence of Nandi, or the bull, which is his vehicle; or by the trishul or trident, the weapon that he carries with him. He is known, according to some ancient authorities, by 1,008 epithets: among these are Nilakantha, "the blue-throated"; Panchanana, "the five-faced"; Nataraj, "The Lord of Dancers"; and Trilochana, "the three-eyed". “The "third eye of Shiva" has become the stuff of much legend, not only in India: it is with this eye that Shiva destroyed Kama, the Lord of Love, who had the impunity to tempt Shiva with amorous thoughts of his consort Parvati as he sat in penance. Shiva is often shown with Parvati; he is also shown as ardhnarishwara, half-man and half-woman. [Source: Vinay Lal, professor of history, UCLA]
Lingams (or lingas) are the phallic symbols that honor Shiva and represent male energy, rebirth, fertility and the creative forces of the universe.. They are found in varying sizes in many Hindu temples. A typical one is shaped like an erect phallus and made of polished stone. The vertical shaft is sometimes divided into the parts symbolizing the Hindu Trinity, with the upper rounded part associated with Shiva, the middle part linked to Vishnu, and the bottom part representing Brahma. According to the Shiva Purana “it is not the linga that is worshiped but the one whose symbol it is.”
Carved wooden lingam Steven M. Kossak and Edith W. Watts from The Metropolitan Museum of Art wrote: “Shiva has many roles and guises, each identified by particular attributes and poses. He is sometimes depicted with two arms but more frequently four, and he often carries a trident. In the center of his forehead is a third eye, shown vertically. His hairlocks, long and matted from his ascetic practices, are piled up in a tall chignon. Some of Shiva’s most common attributes are: 1) the third eye, indicating divine omniscience; 2) damaru, a hand drum, indicating the primordial sound of creation; 3) a crescent moon in his hair, representing the cyclical nature of time; 4) agni, the consuming fire of destruction; 5) an antelope, representing animal fertility (Shiva is lord of the animals); 6) a trident and battle ax, symbols of Shiva’s militance. [Source: Steven M. Kossak and Edith W. Watts, The Art of South, and Southeast Asia, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York <*>]
Lingams are usually set on a round base called a yoni , which represents Shakti and the female force. A channel is carved on the base to allow ablutions to flow out. Shiva worshipers like to pour cows milk on lingams, sprinkle them with flowers and red powder and make offering of fruits and sweets. The lingam and the base together are a sort of ying and yang statue that symbolizes the entire universe and the union and interaction between male and female power.
The trident is another symbol associated with Shiva. The three forks are said to represent creation, preservation and destruction. Depictions of Shiva with three faces also represent the same balanced trilogy: two of the faces are usually opposites: maker and destroyer, or acetic and family-man, with the third face in the middle being a peaceful, reconciling force.
Shiva is often depicted with matted hair. This eludes to his time spent as an ascetic. He sometimes wears a necklace of skulls that symbolize his role as a destroyer and demon slayer. The vertical third eye in the middle of his forehead is equated with higher consciousness and Shiva’s power. The eye is always closed if it is open the universe will be destroyed.
Shiva is closely associated with Varanasi and death. It is said that anyone who dies in Varanasi will join Shiva straight away in Mt. Meru regardless of how much bad karma they have accumulated. Shiva is also closely associated with the Ganges, and India’s other holy rivers.
Shiva and Other Gods
Young Shiva slaying demons Shiva has many consorts that help express his many sides and bring out male and female power. The nature of this relationship is believed to be based on ancient mother goddess cults that were absorbed into Hinduism. Shiva’s consort is the mother goddess Devi (Shakti), the source of his divine energy. Devi has taken on many forms in the past, including , Gauri, Durga, Sati, the goddess of marital felicity and Kali, the powerful Goddess of Death.
Devi's best known incarnation is Parvati, Shiva's primary and eternal wife. Shiva and Parvati are held up as the perfect example of marital bliss by many Hindus, and one is rarely depicted without the other. Hindus believe Shiva and Parvati live in the Kailash mountains in the Himalayas. Parvati is the daughter of the sacred Himalayas. Renowned for her gentleness, she is regarded as the most benign and conservative of Shiva’s partners. She and Shiva have two sons: Skanda, the god of War, and Ganesh the popular elephant-headed god.
Natarja, an incarnation of Shiva, is the goddess of dance. She is often depicted in old bronze statues with four arms and one leg raised and the other crushing Apasmara, a dwarf-demon associated with confusion and ignorance. One hand assumes the gesture of protection, one points to a raised foot, one hold the drum that keeps the beat of the rhythm of creation. The forth holds the fire of dissolution. .
Nandi , the sacred bull, is Shiva’s mount when he rides through the heavens. It represents fertility; is often as white as the Himalayan peaks; and marks the entrance to a Shiva temples. A crescent moon encircling Shiva’s third eye is a symbol of the Nandi bull.
Vidya Dehejia, a professor at Columbia University, wrote: “ Renowned as a great dancer, Shiva has the appellation Nataraja, "Lord of Dance." Shiva is the great practitioner of yoga who spent aeons in meditation until he opened his eyes, saw the goddess Parvati, and fell in love with her. Parvati, the consort of Shiva, with the lion as her vehicle, is a major deity in her own right. As Durga, she slays demons whom the other gods are unable to control. One of her most celebrated feats is the destruction of the buffalo demon Mahisha. Two other deities are considered their children. Elephant-headed Ganesha is the god who removes obstacles and is worshipped at the start of any undertaking; his vehicle is the mouse. Skanda, a warlike youth, rides the peacock. [Source: Vidya Dehejia, Department of Art History and Archaeology, Columbia University Metropolitan Museum of Art]
Shiva, Parvati and Ganesh
The concept of reality as the complex interplay of opposite principles, male and female, thus finds its highest form in the mythology of Shiva and his consort Parvati (also known as Shakti, Kali, or Durga), the daughter of the mountains. This most controlled deity, the meditating Shiva, then has still another form, as the erotic lover of Parvati, embracing her passionately. *
Shiva and Parvati have two sons, who have entire cycles of myths and legends and bhakti cults in their own right. One son is called variously Karttikeya (identified with the planet Mars) or Skanda (the god of war or Subrahmanya). He is extremely handsome, carries a spear, and rides a peacock. According to some traditions, he emerged motherless from Shiva when the gods needed a great warrior to conquer an indestructible demon. In southern India, where he is called Murugan, he is a lord of mountain places and a great friend of those who dedicate themselves to him. Some devotees vow to carry on their shoulders specially carved objects of wood for a determined number of weeks, never putting them down during that time. Others may go further, and insert knives or long pins into their bodies for extended periods. *
Another son of Shiva and Parvati is Ganesh, or Ganapati, the Lord of the Ganas (the hosts of Shiva), who has a male human's body with four arms and the head of an elephant. One myth claims that he originated directly from Parvati's body and entered into a quarrel with Shiva, who cut off his human head and replaced it later with the head of the first animal he found, which happened to be an elephant. For most worshipers, Ganesh is the first deity invoked during any ceremony because he is the god of wisdom and remover of obstacles. People worship Ganesh when beginning anything, for example, at the start of a trip or the first day of the new school year. He is often pictured next to his mount, the rat, symbol of the ability to get in anywhere. Ganesh is therefore a clever figure, a trickster in many stories, who presents a benevolent and friendly image to those worshipers who placate him. His image is perhaps the most widespread and public in India, visible in streets and transportation terminals everywhere. The antics of Ganesh and Karttikeya and the interactions of Shiva and Parvati have generated a series of entertaining myths of Shiva as a henpecked husband, who would prefer to keep meditating but instead is drawn into family problems, providing a series of morality tales in households throughout India. *
Shiva: Nataraj, The Lord of Dancers
Shiva is also known as Nataraj, the Lord of Dancers. According to the BBC: “Dance is an important art form in India, and Shiva is believed to be the master of it. He is often called the Lord of Dance. The rhythm of dance is a metaphor for the balance in the universe which Shiva is believed to hold so masterfully. His most important dance is the Tandav. This is the cosmic dance of death, which he performs at the end of an age, to destroy the universe. [Source: BBC |::|]
Vinay Lal, professor of history at UCLA, writes: “The most splendid representations of Nataraj are to be found in the Chola bronzes from South India, from around the 8th century to the 12th century; it is the image of Nataraj which is installed as the central deity in the great temple at Chidambaram in Tamil Nadu. The image of Shiva as Nataraj is indelibly stitched into the Indian imagination. "How many various dances of Shiva are known to His worshippers", says Ananda Coomaraswamy, "I cannot say. No doubt the root idea behind all of these dances is more or less one and the same, the manifestation of primal rhythmic energy." Continues Coomaraswamy, "Whatever the origins of Shiva's dance, it became in time the clearest image of the activity of God which any art or religion can boast of." [Source: Vinay Lal, professor of history, UCLA ==]
“A more fluid and energetic representation of a moving figure than the dancing figure of Shiva can scarcely be found anywhere. Though there are minor variations, the characteristic features of Nataraj are as follows: he is shown with four hands, two on either side. The upper left hand holds a flame, the lower left hand points down to the demon Muyalaka, who is shown holding a cobra. The demon is being crushed by Shiva's right foot; the other foot is raised. The upper right hand holds a drum, the lower one is in the abhaymudra, 'be without fear'. Shiva's hair is braided and jewelled, but some of his locks whirl as he dances; within the folds of his hair are a wreathing cobra, a skull, and the figure of Ganga. The entire figure stands on a lotus pedestal and is fringed by a circle of flames, which are touched by the hands holding the drum and the fire. ==
“The dance of Shiva represents his five activities: Shrishti (creation, evolution); Sthiti (preservation, support); Samhara (destruction, evolution); Tirobhava (illusion); and Anugraha (release, emancipation, grace). The symbolic significance of every aspect of the representation of Shiva is furnished by many texts, such as the Chidambara Mummani Kovai: "O my Lord, Thy hand holding the sacred drum has made and ordered the heavens and earth and other worlds and innumerable souls. Thy lifted hand protects both the conscious and unconscious order of thy creation. All these worlds are transformed by Thy hand bearing fire. Thy sacred foot, planted on the ground, gives an abode to the tired soul struggling in the toils of causality. It is Thy lifted foot that grants eternal bliss to those that approach Thee. These Five-Actions are indeed Thy Handiwork." ==
How Shiva Almost Destroyed the Universe by Dancing Too Soon
“According to one Hindu legend, Shiva almost signalled the end of this universe by performing this dangerous dance before its time. One day, the father of the goddess Sati decided to hold a prayer ceremony. At this prayer ceremony, all the gods would be invited and offerings would be made to them. But Shiva had married Sati against the wishes of her father and he was not invited. Sati was deeply offended on behalf of her husband. In anger, Sati prayed intensely and jumped into the sacred fire that was burning on the day of the ceremony. During this time, Shiva had been in the midst of deep meditation. But when Sati jumped into the fire, he awoke in great anger, realising what his wife had done. [Source: BBC |::|]
“The story becomes less certain at this point, but it is believed that Shiva started the cosmic dance of death. The whole universe was about to be destroyed before it was time. The gods who were present at the prayer ceremony were very concerned. In order to pacify him, they scattered the ashes of Sati over him. This did the trick. He calmed down and did not complete the dance. But he went into meditation for many years, deeply upset over the death of his wife, ignoring all his godly duties. |::|
“It was not until Sati was reborn as Parvati that Shiva finally came out of meditation. Through her love and patience, she taught him about family life and the importance of moderation. Shiva and Parvati are held up as the perfect example of marital bliss by many Hindus, and one is rarely depicted without the other. |::|
Image Sources: Wikimedia Commons
Text Sources: World Religions edited by Geoffrey Parrinder (Facts on File Publications, New York); Encyclopedia of the World’s Religions edited by R.C. Zaehner (Barnes & Noble Books, 1959); Encyclopedia of the World Cultures: Volume 3 South Asia edited by David Levinson (G.K. Hall & Company, New York, 1994); The Creators by Daniel Boorstin; A Guide to Angkor: an Introduction to the Temples by Dawn Rooney (Asia Book) for Information on temples and architecture. National Geographic, the New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Smithsonian magazine, Times of London, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, AFP, Lonely Planet Guides, Compton’s Encyclopedia and various books and other publications.
Last updated September 2018