SEPHARDIC AND ASHKENAZI JEWS AND JEWS FROM DIFFERENT COUNTRIES

JEWISH GROUPS


Jewish children with their teacher in Samarkand, present-day Uzbekistan

Jewish groups are often differentiated from each other and from non-Jewish groups by linguistic criteria. In some places Jews have traditionally spoken a domestic language different from that of their neighbors. In other places Jews have spoken the same domestic language as their neighbors. Hebrew has traditionally been the language of prayer, religious matters, legal affairs and sometimes literature. Knowledge of the language has often differentiated Jews from non-Jewish groups that lived around them. Goyim is the Hebrew word for gentiles (people who are not Jewish).

In the Middle East and Central Asia, Jews generally spoke language that were intelligible to their non-Jewish neighbors. In the Balkans, Kurdistan, Turkey and Azerbaijan, Jews spoke a language that was not intelligible to their non-Jewish neighbors.

Before the creation of Israel, Jews existed in most of the countries of North Africa and the Middle East with the exception of Saudi Arabia and the Gulf states. These Jews generally spoke the language of their native country or region and tended to congregate in urban areas.

Jewish subgroups in Russia include Ashkenazim (Georgian) Jews, Bukharan Jews (from Uzbekistan) and the Tats, or "Mountain Jews", from the Caucasus, mostly Dagestan and Azerbaijan. The Krymchacks are a Jewish ethnic group that lives in the Crimea. Also known as Crimean Jews or Tatar Jews, they traditionally spoke of vernacular of Crimean Tatar and have been regarded by many as not really being Jews even though the practiced an Orthodox form of Judaism. They have lived side by side with Ashkenazim Jews and used to practice polygamy.

Websites and Resources: Judaism Judaism101 jewfaq.org ; Aish.com aish.com ; Wikipedia article Wikipedia ; torah.org torah.org ; Chabad,org chabad.org/library/bible ; Religious Tolerance religioustolerance.org/judaism ; BBC - Religion: Judaism bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/judaism ; Encyclopædia Britannica, britannica.com/topic/Judaism; Virtual Jewish Library jewishvirtuallibrary.org/index ; Yivo Institute of Jewish Research yivoinstitute.org ; Jewish History: Jewish History Timeline jewishhistory.org.il/history ; Wikipedia article Wikipedia ; Jewish History Resource Center dinur.org ; Center for Jewish History cjh.org ; Jewish History.org jewishhistory.org ; Holocaust Museum ushmm.org/research/collections/photo ; Jewish Museum London jewishmuseum.org.uk ; Internet Jewish History Sourcebook sourcebooks.fordham.edu ; Complete Works of Josephus at Christian Classics Ethereal Library (CCEL) ccel.org

Diversity Among Israeli Jews

Israeli Jews are an incredibly diverse group. The divisions are defined by country of origin, political and religious views, economic class. The groups often clash more than they get along. Many hold strong views and zealously defend their positions. Israeli society, it has been said, is not a melting pot or even a mosaic, it is like a Jackson Pollack painting.

Within Israel today you can find black Jews from Ethiopia, dark-skinned Sephardic Jews from North Africa and the Middle East, light-skinned Ashkenazi Jews of European origin, ultra-religious Orthodox Jews, secular Jews that rarely visit a synagogue, leftist Jews, rightist Jews and hundreds of combinations and shades. Jews with different leanings often live in separate communities. Bitter disputes sometimes occur over who is a Jew and who isn’t.

The Israeli population is made of immigrants for more than 100 countries. Of the 5,759,000 people in Israel in 1996, 21 percent were Jews born in pre-1948 Israel; 32 percent were Jewish immigrants or offspring of immigrants from Europe or the Americas; 13 percent were Jewish immigrants or offspring of immigrants from Asia; 15 percent were Jewish immigrants or offspring of immigrants from Africa; and 19 percent were non-Jews, mostly Muslim Arabs and some Druze and Christians.

Judaism in Israel


Immigrant Yemeni Jews in Israel

Only Orthodox Judaism functions as an established religion in Israel. Other forms of the religion—such as the Reform and Conservative sect to which many American Jews belong—are not recognized and not given much respect by the Israeli government or ordinary Israelis. Conversions performed by Reform and Conservative rabbis are not recognized in Israel.

Since around 80 percent of Israeli do not regard themselves as Orthodox they are lumped together as secular Jews. Many of these are non-religious but the majority regard themselves as practicing Jews. Although they do not regularly visit synagogues, they pray, light candles and engage in Jewish rituals to varying degrees. They have been educated in Jewish history in school and accept rabbinical authority on matters like circumcision, marriage, divorce and death.

To get a sense of how little influence Judaism has a many Israelis, check out the beaches, which are often crowded on the Sabbath and have people at them on solemn holidays like Yom Kippur.

There are around 20,000 synagogues in Israel in addition to religious councils in most cities and large towns. The main religious authority, the rabbinate, controls courts that make decisions about many legal matters, and even dietary matters by naming foods that are kosher. It is controlled by Orthodox Jews. Only Orthodox rabbis are allowed to perform marriages, conversions and burials. Even secular Jews regard Orthodox Jews as “real” Jews and are dismissive of liberal Jews.

Jewish Populations by Country

The list of Jewish populations by country below is ranked on the basis of population size. For the most part the core and enlarged population numbers are taken from DellaPergola's chapter "World Jewish Population" of the American Jewish Year Book of 2014. DellaPergola's population figures are primarily based on national censuses combined with trend analysis. The "core Jewish population" in the diaspora is defined as "all persons who, when asked in a socio-demographic survey, identify themselves as Jews; or who are identified as Jews by a respondent in the same household, and do not have another monotheistic religion." The the "enlarged Jewish population" is defined by adding those "persons who state they are partly Jewish", "non-Jews who have Jewish parents", and "non-Jewish members of Jewish households" to the "core Jewish population." A number of tiny countries with small Jewish populations not listed in DellaPergola are provided by The Jewish Virtual Library. Country populations used to deduce the "Population per Jewish Person" numbers are taken from the CIA World Factbook. [Source: Wikipedia +]


Satmar community in Williamsburg, Brooklyn, USA

Country or Territory — Core Jewish Population — Population per Jewish Person — Enlarged Jewish Population
World — 14,200,000 — 505 — 20,000,000
Israel — 6,399,000 — 1.32 — 6,451,000
United States — 5,300,000 - 7,039,000 — 53 — 7,282,000
France — 465,000 — 139 — 600,000
Canada — 385,000 — 90 — 550,000
United Kingdom — 269,568 — 220 — 370,000
Russia — 186,000 — 766 — 500,000
Argentina — 181,300 - 230,000 — 238 — 330,000
Germany — 99,695 — 832 — 250,000
Australia — 112,500 — 213 — 135,000
Brazil — 95,000 — 2,133 — 150,000
South Africa — 70,000 — 691 — 80,000 - 92,000
Ukraine — 63,000 — 703 — 400,000
Hungary — 47,900 — 207 — 150,000
Mexico — 40,000 - 67,476 3,007 — 50,000 - 67,476

Spain — 30,000 — 900 — 50,000
Belgium — 30,000 — 348 — 40,000
Netherlands — 29,900 — 563 — 45,000
Italy — 28,000 — 2,171 — 45,000
Poland — 8,000 — 4,750 — 12,000 - 100,000
Switzerland — 19,000 — 424 — 25,000
Chile — 18,500 — 939 — 25,000
Turkey — 17,200 — 4,801 — 21,000
Sweden — 15,000 — 648 — 20,000
Uruguay — 12,000 - 17,200 — 278 — 25,000
Belarus — 11,500 — 835 — 25,000
Panama — 10,000 — 361 — 11,000
Romania — 9,400 — 2,312 — 20,000
Austria — 9,000 — 914 — 20,000
Iran — 8,756 — 9,186 — 12,000
Azerbaijan — 9,100 — 1,113 — 16,000
Venezuela — 8,000 — 3,608 — 12,000


Jewish preacher from pre-World-War II Poland

New Zealand — 6,867 — 655 — 10,000[45]
Denmark — 6,400 — 870 — 8,500
Morocco — 6,000 — 13,745 — 6,500
Latvia — 5,600 — 387 — 12,000
Hong Kong — 5,000 — 1,422 — 5,000
India — 5,000 — 247,269 — 7,000
Greece — 4,500 — 2,398 — 6,000
Colombia — 4,500 — 10,277 — 5,200
Czech Republic — 3,900 — 2,725 — 15,000
Uzbekistan — 3,800 — 7,613 — 8,000
Moldova — 3,700 — 968 — 7,500
Kazakhstan — 3,100 — 5,790 — 6,500
Lithuania — 2,900 — 1,209 — 6,500
Georgia — 2,800 — 1,763 — 6,000
Slovakia — 2,600 — 2,093 — 4,500
Singapore — 2,500 — 18,557 — 500
Costa Rica — 2,500 — 1,902 — 3,000
China — 2,500 — 542,277 — 3,000
Bulgaria — 2,000 — 3,462 — 6,000
Estonia — 2,000 — 629 — 3,400
Peru — 1,900 — 15,867 — 3,000
Croatia — 1,700 — 2,629 — 3,000
Ireland — 1,600 — 3,020 — 2,400
Puerto Rico — 1,500 — 2,431 — 2,500

Uganda — 1,500 — 23,089 — 2,500
Serbia — 1,400 — 5,149 — 2,800
Finland — 1,300 — 4,052 — 1,800
Norway — 1,300 — 3,960 — 2,000
Japan — 1,000 — 127,103 — 1,400
Paraguay — 900 - 1,000 — 7,448 — 1,500
Guatemala — 900 — 16,274 — 1,500
Tunisia — 900 — 12,153 — 1,100
Ecuador — 290 — 26,090 — 300
Luxembourg — 600 — 867 — 900
Portugal — 600 — 18,022 — 1,000
Gibraltar — 600 — 48 — 800
Cuba — 500 — 22,094 — 1,500
United States Virgin Islands — 500 — 208 — 700
Bolivia — 500 — 21,262 — 900
Bosnia and Herzegovina — 500 — 7,742 — 1,000


Bukharan Jewish girl in the 1870s

Kyrgyzstan — 500 — 11,208 — 1,000
Zimbabwe — 400 — 34,430 — 600
Armenia — 300 - 500 — 10,200 — 300 - 500
The Bahamas — 300 — 1,070 — 400
Vietnam — 300 — 311,403 — 300
Kenya — 300 — 150,033 — 700
Pakistan — 200 - 1500 — 980,870 — 1500
Lebanon — 200 — 29,415 — 200
Jamaica — 200 — 14,650 — 400
Netherlands Antilles — 200 — 1,525 — 400
Suriname — 200 — 2,865 — 400
Turkmenistan — 200 — 25,860 — 400
Thailand — 200 — 338,705 — 300
French Polynesia — 120 1,533 — 120
Macedonia — 260 — 20,910 — 360
Philippines — 100 — 1,076,680 — 200
Dominican Republic — 260 — 103,497 — 200
El Salvador — 100 — 61,255 — 200
Cyprus — 100 — 11,724 — 200
Malta — 100 — 4,126 — 200
Slovenia — 100 — 19,882 — 200
South Korea — 100 — 490,400 — 200
Taiwan — 100 — 233,600 — 200

Ethiopia — 100 — 966,334 — 1,000
Botswana — 100 — 21,558 — 200
Democratic Republic of the Congo — 100 — 774,337 — 200
Namibia — 100 — 21,984 — 200
Nigeria — 100 — 1,771,558 — 200
United Arab Emirates — 100 — 91,570 — 500
Iceland — 100 — 3,325 — 100
Yemen — 40 - 50 — 289,467 — 300
Martinique — 90 — 4,289 — 90
Fiji — 60 — 15,050 — 60
New Caledonia — 50 — 5,340 — 50
Albania — 40 - 50 — 75,500 — 40 - 50
Egypt — 18 — 5,259,277 — 40 - 50
Bahrain — 36 36,500 — 36

The above list represents countries with at least a few dozen Jews. There are reports of Jewish communities in other countries and territories in the low single digits that are on the verge of extinction, particularly in the Muslim world where Jews were persecuted in nearly all Muslim countries in response to the creation of the modern state of Israel in 1948. Egypt, for example, had a Jewish community of 80,000 in the early 20th century but had fewer than 40 as of 2014, mainly because of the forced expulsion movements to Israel and other countries. Afghanistan may have only one Jew left, Zablon Simintov, despite a 2,000 year history of Jewish presence. Syria, the home of another ancient Jewish community, saw mass exodus at the end of the 20th century and numbered fewer than 20 in the midst of the Syrian Civil War. The size of the Jewish community in Indonesia has been variously given as 65, 100, or 18 at most over the last 50 years. +

Ten countries with the largest core Jewish populations in 2013 were: Country — Core Jewish population — percent of total
1) Israel — 6,014,300 — 43.4 percent
2) United States — 5,425,000 — 39.2 percent
3) France — 478,000 — 3.5 percent
4) Canada — 380,000 — 2.7 percent
5) United Kingdom — 290,000 — 2.1 percent
6) Russian Federation — 190,000 — 1.4 percent
7) Argentina — 181,500 — 1.3 percent
8) Germany — 118,000 — 0.9 percent
9) Australia — 112,500 — 0.8 percent
10) Brazil — 95,200 — 0.7 percent [Source: Jewish Data Bank]

Ashkenazi Jews

20120504-Warsaw Nozyk Synagogue Meeting_with_rabbi_.JPG
Ashkenazic Jews in Poland
Ashkenazic Jews are Jews in Israel of European origin. They include early Zionists, Holocaust survivors and immigrants and settlers that arrived mainly before and after World War II and the descendants. They make up about half of Israel’s Jewish citizens. The term Ashkenazic is derived from Ashkenaz, the medieval name of Germany.

Of the world’s Jews, about 82 percent are Ashkenazic Jews. Ashkenazic Jews have traditionally dominated Israeli politics, the arts, literature and journalism and shaped the Israeli mentality. The Israel that people think of is primarily the Israel of the Ashkenazic Jews. Yiddish, ultra-Orthodox sidelocks and black coats and Fiddler on the Roof culture is associated more with Ashkenazic Jews

Ashkenazic Jews are declining in numbers and power and experiencing self doubt and ridicule are suffering in way that is not all that different from that experienced by American WASPs. One Israeli scholar told the New Yorker, “It turns out the old Ashkenazi---the secular community, especially---are the dinosaurs. We lack identity and vitality.”

Kevin Alan Brook wrote in Khazaria.com: “At Family Tree DNA's November 2015 genetic genealogy conference, Doron Behar delivered a presentation on the latest findings on the genetics of Ashkenazic Levites who belong to haplogroup R1a. Behar tested 66 Ashkenazic Levite samples and 10 non-Ashkenazic holders of R1a1 using the company's "Big Y" test. The results showed that the branches next-closest to Ashkenazim are Yezdi and Iberian holders, followed by Palestinian Arabs, and much farther away is an Assyrian. Roberta Estes wrote here that "Doron was able to confirm that the Levite population did arise in the Near East." While this seems true based on the data, one of Behar's slides nevertheless says "Unresolved origin", but maybe he means unresolved in terms of the precise population in that region that had transmitted this haplogroup to Jewish people.” [Source: Kevin Alan Brook, Khazaria.com]

Sephardic (Middle Eastern) Jews

20120504-Sabbath Horn Yemenite Jew.jpg
Yemenite Jew
Sephardic Jews are primarily the descendants of Jews that settled in Spain in the Middle Ages, were expelled from there in 1492 and settled in North Africa. The word “Sephardic” is derived from the medieval name used by Jews to describe the Iberian peninsula.

Of the world’s Jews, 11 percent are Sephardic Jews from North Africa and 7 percent are Oriental Jews. The term Oriental Jews can be used in place of Sephardic Jew. It can also refer to Jews from Central Asia and India.

Sephardic Jews are from mostly North Africa and the Middle East. Most are from Morocco, Yemen, Syria, Iran, Iraq and other Middle Eastern Islamic countries. Like Ashkenazi they make up about half of Israel’s Jewish citizens.. They traditionally have had dark skin and wore Middle-Eastern-style clothes. Their most devout members are identified by the black skullcaps. Some Sephardic women wear headscarves and long gowns in a manner similar to Muslim women.

Sephardic Jews are known as Sephardic Jews even though they are from the Middle East not Spain because Sephardic traditions from Spain took root in the Middle East because of the dissemination of Sephardic publications among Jews in the Middle East. Particularly influential was Sephardic interpretation of laws found in Joseph Karo’s Shulchan Aruch

Despite the fact that most Jews in Israel are of Middle Eastern descent the country was founded by Europeans. The first Jews who arrived from Arab nations often dressed like Arabs, ate Middle Eastern food, and lived in tents like Bedouins when they arrived. Most were illiterate, unskilled and poor. Although there are still disparities between European and Middle Eastern Jews, as time goes by they grow closer together, helped in part by the fact that over one forth of all Israeli marriages are between the two groups.♦

Difference Between Sephardic Jews and Ashkenazi Jews

Sephardic Jews and Ashkenazi Jews sometimes have different interpretation of Jewish laws and different takes on liturgical matters. They often speak different languages and have different pronunciations of Hebrew. The order of prayers in their prayer books vary slightly; Sephardic Jews but not Ashkenazi Jews allow polygamy and levirate marriage; and the passover diet is more restricted for Ashkenazi Jews than for Sephardic Jews.

20120504-Sephardic_Jews_Observe_Hoshanah_Rabah.jpg
Sephardic Jews observing Hoshanah Rabah
Many Sephardic Jews arrived in Israel after World War II. They have traditionally been less prosperous and less educated than Ashkenazic Jews. They also have traditionally been less well represnted in government, business, professions, the arts and the media. They have a higher birth rate and their numbers are increasing faster than those of Ashkenazic Jews.

Many Sephardic complain they are victims of ethnic and class discrimination. Many were taught in secular schools that the traditions of their parents were primitive. In the early 1970s Middle Eastern Jews made up 60 percent of all beginning classes in elementary schools but only 14 percent of those graduating from high school. The high school figure is much higher now but still lower than European Jews. Ori Orr, a Labor Party politician and former general, caused a stir when commented he said of Sephardic Jews: “I can’t speak with these people like I speak with others who are more Israeli in character.”

Many Sephardic Jews resent how they have been treated by the Ashkenazic Jewish establishment. One spokesman for the Shas party told the Washington Post, “In every city, Sephardim are always the bottom 10 percent. The Ashkenazi always threw us out; they made boys cut off their sidelocks; they wouldn’t allow religious teaching. They stole our culture.”

These days many Ultra-Orthodox Jews are Sephardic Jews.

Secular Jews

Secular Jews make up about 80 percent of the Jewish population in Israel (of these about 25 percent call themselves nonobservant Jews). Although they far outnumber the ultra-religious they are much less political. Found in their highest concentrations in coastal cities such as Tel Aviv and Haifa, they want Israel to be a prosperous and normal state rather than a religiously fanatical one. Their position on the Palestinians is pragmatic: whatever brings peace and security.

Secular Jews value hard work, success and have liberal political views. Many are Ashkenazim. Some secular Jews, especially young ones, feel alienated by rabbis and synagogues. Some have developed their own rites and interpretations of traditional rites.

20120504-PP New_Immigrants.jpg
New immigrants in Israel
Modern Israel is a liberal democracy founded largely by secularized Jews. This contrasts with the "Land of Israel" view of Ultra-Orthodox Jews who regard Israel the god-given homeland of the Jews.

Secular Jews and Ultra-Orthodox Jews lived side by side peacefully until the 1967 Six-Day War when Israel seized the West Bank, Gaza Strip and East Jerusalem and Ultra-Orthodox Jews felt this was the fulfillment of a prophecy in which the Jews reclaimed their Biblical lands. For them from then on religion, history and politics were intertwined.

One secular Jew told the New Yorker, “The ultra-Orthodox treat us like goyim, with such contempt. They don’t serve in the Army, they don’t care that we die. They don’t even respect us.” Another secular Jew told Newsweek, “We don’t want them here. They hate us. They don’t think we’re Jews.”

Jews in Western Europe

Country or Territory — Core Jewish Population — Population per Jewish Person —Enlarged Jewish Population [Source: Wikipedia +]
France — 465,000 — 139 — 600,000
United Kingdom — 269,568 — 220 — 370,000
Germany — 99,695 — 832 — 250,000
Spain — 30,000 — 900 — 50,000
Belgium — 30,000 — 348 — 40,000
Netherlands — 29,900 — 563 — 45,000
Italy — 28,000 — 2,171 — 45,000

Poland — 8,000 — 4,750 — 12,000 - 100,000
Switzerland — 19,000 — 424 — 25,000
Sweden — 15,000 — 648 — 20,000
Austria — 9,000 — 914 — 20,000
Denmark — 6,400 — 870 — 8,500
Greece — 4,500 — 2,398 — 6,000
Ireland — 1,600 — 3,020 — 2,400
Finland — 1,300 — 4,052 — 1,800

Norway — 1,300 — 3,960 — 2,000
Luxembourg — 600 — 867 — 900
Portugal — 600 — 18,022 — 1,000
Gibraltar — 600 — 48 — 800
Cyprus — 100 — 11,724 — 200
Slovenia — 100 — 19,882 — 200
Malta — 100 — 4,126 — 200
Iceland — 100 — 3,325 — 100

Jews in Easter Europe and the Former Soviet Union


Polish Jews

Country or Territory — Core Jewish Population — Population per Jewish Person — Enlarged Jewish Population [Source: Wikipedia +]
Russia — 186,000 — 766 — 500,000
Ukraine — 63,000 — 703 — 400,000
Hungary — 47,900 — 207 — 150,000
Belarus — 11,500 — 835 — 25,000
Romania — 9,400 — 2,312 — 20,000
Azerbaijan — 9,100 — 1,113 — 16,000
Latvia — 5,600 — 387 — 12,000
Czech Republic — 3,900 — 2,725 — 15,000
Uzbekistan — 3,800 — 7,613 — 8,000

Moldova — 3,700 — 968 — 7,500
Kazakhstan — 3,100 — 5,790 — 6,500
Lithuania — 2,900 — 1,209 — 6,500
Georgia — 2,800 — 1,763 — 6,000
Slovakia — 2,600 — 2,093 — 4,500
Bulgaria — 2,000 — 3,462 — 6,000
Estonia — 2,000 — 629 — 3,400

Croatia — 1,700 — 2,629 — 3,000
Serbia — 1,400 — 5,149 — 2,800
Bosnia and Herzegovina — 500 — 7,742 — 1,000
Kyrgyzstan — 500 — 11,208 — 1,000
Armenia — 300 - 500 — 10,200 — 300 - 500
Turkmenistan — 200 — 25,860 — 400
Macedonia — 260 — 20,910 — 360
Albania — 40 - 50 — 75,500 — 40 - 50

Jews in the Middle East and North Africa


Iranian Jews in the 19th century

Country or Territory — Core Jewish Population — Population per Jewish Person — Enlarged Jewish Population [Source: Wikipedia +]
Israel — 6,399,000 — 1.32 — 6,451,000
Turkey — 17,200 — 4,801 — 21,000
Iran — 8,756 — 9,186 — 12,000
Morocco — 6,000 — 13,745 — 6,500
Tunisia — 900 — 12,153 — 1,100
Lebanon — 200 — 29,415 — 200
United Arab Emirates — 100 — 91,570 — 500
Yemen — 40 - 50 — 289,467 — 300
Egypt — 18 — 5,259,277 — 40 - 50
Bahrain — 36 36,500 — 36

Jews in Sub-Sahara Africa

Country or Territory — Core Jewish Population — Population per Jewish Person — Enlarged Jewish Population [Source: Wikipedia +]
South Africa — 70,000 — 691 — 80,000 - 92,000
Uganda — 1,500 — 23,089 — 2,500
Zimbabwe — 400 — 34,430 — 600
Kenya — 300 — 150,033 — 700
Ethiopia — 100 — 966,334 — 1,000
Botswana — 100 — 21,558 — 200
Democratic Republic of the Congo — 100 — 774,337 — 200
Namibia — 100 — 21,984 — 200
Nigeria — 100 — 1,771,558 — 200

Jews in the Americas


Passover seder at the White House

Country or Territory — Core Jewish Population — Population per Jewish Person — Enlarged Jewish Population [Source: Wikipedia +]
United States — 5,300,000 - 7,039,000 — 53 — 7,282,000
Canada — 385,000 — 90 — 550,000
Argentina — 181,300 - 230,000 — 238 — 330,000
Brazil — 95,000 — 2,133 — 150,000
Mexico — 40,000 - 67,476 3,007 — 50,000 - 67,476
Chile — 18,500 — 939 — 25,000
Uruguay — 12,000 - 17,200 — 278 — 25,000
Panama — 10,000 — 361 — 11,000
Venezuela — 8,000 — 3,608 — 12,000
Colombia — 4,500 — 10,277 — 5,200
Costa Rica — 2,500 — 1,902 — 3,000
Peru — 1,900 — 15,867 — 3,000
Puerto Rico — 1,500 — 2,431 — 2,500
Paraguay — 900 - 1,000 — 7,448 — 1,500
Guatemala — 900 — 16,274 — 1,500
Ecuador — 290 — 26,090 — 300

Cuba — 500 — 22,094 — 1,500
United States Virgin Islands — 500 — 208 — 700
Bolivia — 500 — 21,262 — 900
The Bahamas — 300 — 1,070 — 400
Jamaica — 200 — 14,650 — 400
Netherlands Antilles — 200 — 1,525 — 400
Suriname — 200 — 2,865 — 400
Dominican Republic — 260 — 103,497 — 200
El Salvador — 100 — 61,255 — 200
Martinique — 90 — 4,289 — 90

Jews in Asia and Oceania

Country or Territory — Core Jewish Population — Population per Jewish Person — Enlarged Jewish Population
Australia — 112,500 — 213 — 135,000
New Zealand — 6,867 — 655 — 10,000[45]
India — 5,000 — 247,269 — 7,000
Hong Kong — 5,000 — 1,422 — 5,000
China — 2,500 — 542,277 — 3,000
Singapore — 2,500 — 18,557 — 500

Japan — 1,000 — 127,103 — 1,400
Vietnam — 300 — 311,403 — 300
Pakistan — 200 - 1500 — 980,870 — 1500
Thailand — 200 — 338,705 — 300
French Polynesia — 120 1,533 — 120
Philippines — 100 — 1,076,680 — 200
South Korea — 100 — 490,400 — 200
Taiwan — 100 — 233,600 — 200
Fiji — 60 — 15,050 — 60
New Caledonia — 50 — 5,340 — 50


Jewish populations around the world, there are also significant numbers in Australian and India


Image Sources: Wikimedia, Commons, Schnorr von Carolsfeld Bible in Bildern, 1860

Text Sources: Internet Jewish History Sourcebook sourcebooks.fordham.edu “World Religions” edited by Geoffrey Parrinder (Facts on File Publications, New York); “ Encyclopedia of the World’s Religions” edited by R.C. Zaehner (Barnes & Noble Books, 1959); “Old Testament Life and Literature” by Gerald A. Larue, King James Version of the Bible, gutenberg.org, New International Version (NIV) of The Bible, biblegateway.com Complete Works of Josephus at Christian Classics Ethereal Library (CCEL), translated by William Whiston, ccel.org , Metropolitan Museum of Art metmuseum.org “Encyclopedia of the World Cultures” edited by David Levinson (G.K. Hall & Company, New York, 1994); National Geographic, BBC, New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Smithsonian magazine, Times of London, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, AFP, Lonely Planet Guides, Compton’s Encyclopedia and various books and other publications.

Last updated September 2018

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