EARLY MAN AND HOMINID PALEONTOLOGY, TECHNIQUES AND FAMOUS DISCOVERY SITES
Olduvai Gorge Scientists have found fossils of 5,000 individual hominids as far back as 4.4 million years, perhaps 7 million years.
Scientists that study hominids are known for the ferocious critiques that they hurl at their colleagues. The field is highly competitive and careers can be made with a single discovery.
Scientists often can determine how old a fossilized hominid was when it died by noting how worn the teeth are. Pitted tooth enamel is an indicator or starvation and malnutrition. The easiest way to determine the sex is by examining the pelvic bones. Females have large round openings, large enough to accommodate the head of a baby. Males have a heart-shaped opening.
Famous discoveries include Java Man, Peking Man, the Taung Child, Lucy and the first Neanderthal. See Java Man, Peking Man, Taung Child, Neanderthal, Pitsdown Man
Famous hominid scientists include the Leakeys family (See Below) and Donald Johanson, the discoverer of Lucy and now director of the Institute of Human Origins at Arizona State University. Tim White, a paleoanthropologist at the University of California, Berkeley, who was in on the Lucy discovery when he was only 28, is one of the most quoted scientists in the hominid field today.
Websites and Resources: Modern Human Origins modernhumanorigins.com ; Talk Origins Index talkorigins.org/origins ; Hall of Human Origins American Museum of Natural History amnh.org/exhibitions ; Time Space Chart Hominid Fossils Pictures msu.edu/~heslips ; Smithsonian Human Origins Program humanorigins.si.edu ; Wikipedia article on Human Evolution Wikipedia ; Becoming Human University of Arizona site becominghuman.org ; Human Evolution Images evolution-textbook.org ;Hominid Species talkorigins.org ; Institute of Human Origins iho.asu.edu ; Paleoanthropology Link talkorigins.org ; Britannica Human Evolution britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/275670/human-evolution ;Modern Human Origins modernhumanorigins.com ; Human Evolution handprint.com ; Paleoanthropology and Evolution Links unipv.it/webbio/dfpaleoa ;National Geographic Atlas of the Human Journey genographic.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/atlas ; Yale Peabody Museum peabody.yale.edu/exhibits/fossils ; Humin Origins Washington State University wsu.edu/gened/learn-modules ; Book: The Human Evolution Source Book
Stone Age Periods
1835 winged hominid hoax Pleistocene 1,000,000 (or 500,000) to 10,000 years ago, period of ice ages.
Paleolithic, 500,000—10,000 B.C., refers to cultures of the Pleistocene period
Lower Paleolithic, 500,000—250,000 B.C..
Middle Paleolithic, 250,000—60,000 B.C..
Upper Paleolithic, 60,000—10,000 B.C..
Mesolithic is sometimes used to describe a period between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods.
Neolithic (from about 9500 to 6000 B.C.), last stage of stone age, the use of polished stone tools and the beginning of agriculture
History of Paleontology
One of the earliest published reports on prehistoric man was made in 1800 by English antiquarian John Frere. In his Account of Flint Weapons Discovered at Hoxne in Suffolk he described flint hand axes found below a layer of mammoth bones by workmen digging up clay for bricks and concluded the tools were “fabricated and used by a people who had not the use of metals” and lived in “a very remote period indeed, even beyond that of the present world.” The report was largely ignored. In the 1840s, French prehistorian Jacques Boucher de Perthese trained workmen to search for stone axes.
The science of paleontology owes it origin to Charles Darwin’s book On the Origin of Species , which was published in 1859 and shook conventional thinking with the theories of evolution and natural selection. Studies of geology had already opened mind to enormity of time and raised questions about the Biblical time line. The first remains ever found of a prehistoric human ancestor were found in 1856 in the Neander Valley in Germany. Darwin provided a theory and framework to attach these discoveries and others that followed.
The words Paleolithic and Neolithic, meaning “Old Stone Age” and “New Stone Ages,” and the word “cave-man” were coined by John Lubbock, Darwin’s only student. Many of the those who study early man and hominid today are called paleoanthropologists.
Andre Lero-Gourhan revolutionized the practice of excavations by recognizing that vertical digs destroy the context of a site. Over 20 years (1964-1984) he and his students painstakingly excavated —scraping away the soil in small horizontal squares and making notes of where everything was located— the 12,000-year-old site of Pincevent, offering of the most detailed picture up to that point of life in the Paleolithic period.
Fossilized Bones and Hominids
early theory of evolution Very few living organisms leave behind fossil traces. The bones and remains of most ancient creatures decay or wither away to dust. A particular set of circumstances has to unfold for bones to be preserved after a creature dies.
Since the number of homonids is very small when compared to the total number of animals that have existed in the history of the world their bones are particularly hard to find. Teeth enamel is the hardest substance in the human body and thus hominid teeth are most common hominid fossils.
For the bones to be persevered ideally they have to be picked clean (by scavengers like hyenas) of material which might cause the bone to rot, and then be covered quickly by sediment (by material carried in a flash flood, for example) before they decay in the sun. In many cases, after thousands of years the water-soluble materials in the bones are leeched away, leaving behind fossils. By this time additional layers of sediment have covered the bones. For the fossils to be found they need to be exposed in a place where a scientist or fossil hunter can find them. Geological processes such as uplift and erosion have to occur to bring the fossils to the surface. [Source: Kenneth Weaver, National Geographic, November 1985 [┹]
Discovering Early Hominid Bones
Important discoveries are very rare events. Even in the richest sites, hominid fossil generally make up less than 0.1 percent of all fossils found. Some scientists spend their whole life searching without finding anything.
Few discoveries have been made areas with dense vegetation. Find are usually made in arid, sparsely vegetated areas where seasonal rains erode the landscape, exposing fossil bones. Many discoveries have been on the surface of the earth by sharp-eyed fossil hunters—many of them people hired by scientists not the scientists themselves—who cover large areas on foot. Only highly promising areas are excavated.
Paleoanthropologists, paleontologists, archaeologists and their helpers search for bone fragments exposed by erosions. Once a bone has been found or a promising site has been selected, paleontologists mark discoveries with flags, so their context can be recorded and the location can be meticulously examined. Obvious fossils such as teeth are picked up by hand. Fossils encased in rock are removed dental picks and porcupine quills. Soil is sieved for small pieces teeth and bone. It is very slow work. When prehistoric bones are found they are immediately covered in plaster for their protection.
Hominid fossils tend to be very delicate. Many bones are found crushed. Some turn to powder when they are extracted. When bones are found scientists and fossil hunters often repeatedly douse them with hardeners, clear away the soil or cut away the rock around them, and immediately seal the bones or wrap them in plaster. Many hominid fossils found in east Africa show evidence of being ravaged by hyenas after death.
Assembling and Working with Hominid Bones
bones in stone Assembling hominid bone fragments and making sense of what is found after bones are found is a difficult, time consuming process. In most cases the process involves shifting through large amounts of dirt, sand and rocks near a site where an initial discovery is made to find bones and bone fragments that belong to the same specimen and other member of its species. After that scientists work out where layers containing similar fossils might have eroded to and then sifting through the dirt, sand and rocks in these places to look for more bones and fragments. After that stage is completed—a process that can take months—the pieces are taken to a lab and fitted together, a process that can take years.
In some rare situations bones are found fossilized in rocks like those of dinosaurs bones. This doesn’t happen as often with hominids because the sediments they are found in are not that old and generally have not had enough time to form into rock. When such a hominid fossil is found it is considered a great discovery because the bones are found together in one place and looking high and low for the pieces is not necessary. On the down side though it can be painstaking work— done largely with dental tools—to remove the bones from the rock without damaging the bones. Again this process takes years and often require even more time to place fragments together and work out where the bones go in relation to the others.
In the lab the fossil fragments are sorted on a tray and the material the fragments are located in is moistened with acetone which makes it easy to distinguish fossil from rock. Under a microscope rock is removed from rock-encased fossils grain by grain using engraving tools. Sometimes CT scans and 3-D reconstruction software are used to figure out how bones and bone fragments—too delicate to handle—fit together.
Recently scientists have started using huge, expensive synchotors, normally used in nuclear particle physics, to zap hominid bones and teeth with radiation and see what turns up. The technique is especially useful in analyzing teeth to see what is revealed in each layer of enamel that were applied in various stages of a subject’s life. Using this method scientists have gained insight into what subjects ate, their health and other information at different times in their life sort of like the way tree rings can supply information about fires and droughts as well as age.
Lucy bones Archaeologists crawl, kneel and laboriously brush away dirt with a brush from objects they unearth. Soil, sand and excavated material are sifted through screen to retrieve small artifacts.
Archaeologists often dig a series of trial trenches to figure out the best places to excavate. Photographs are taken of each phase of the work for future reference. Soil is sifted so that small objects are not overlooked. When something is found it is often swept with a brush and removed with a trowel so it doesn’t break.
Artifacts are brought into workshops are catalogued. Delicate objects are restored in situ. Other objects are restored in the work room or laboratory.
It is very important to record the position of all the objects that are found. The vertical position of an object, as defined by the layer in the earth, or strata, where it is found reveals its date or at least it relations to what came before and after it. Archaeologists carefully remove earth layer by layer when they are excavating so they can determine the date or period of objects and not mix them up with objects from other periods.
The strata are often look like the layers of a layer cake, with the oldest layers being the ones that are the deepest in the earth. Each layer and the locations of artifacts are carefully measured, often with surveying equipment. The layers can be dated by using the dating methods listed below.
The horizontal position of an object and it locations in relation to other objects often give clues to what the object is used for. The locations of each significant object found are recorded using a grid system that usually can be overlaid on the excavation site. These days measurements can be done with lasers and excavation records and survey data can quickly be transferred to computer to create a three-dimensional model of excavated objects and their positions.
Modern Archaeology Techniques
Sites are located with ariel surveys and satellite imagery. Satellite images sometimes reveals the outlines of promising sites and trade routes obscured by sands or vegetation cover or sites that are otherwise missed on the ground. Seismological devices used by geologists are widely employed by archeologists.
Foods and drinks from ancient times can be determined by analyzing samples in a spectrometer and looking for organic compounds, especially long-chain lipids, triglycerides and fatty acids that characterize many foods. The presence of beer can be determined by the presence of calcium oxalate (“beerstone”). Wine can be determined by tartaric acid and its salts. Samples can be extracted from pottery and jars with solvents. Specific fatty acids can be markers for meat such goat, mutton and pork. Anisic acid is an indicator of anise, or fennel.
Brains, Faces and Mikhail M. Gerasimov
Paleoneurology is the study of the brains of ancient hominids. This is primarily done by analyzing the structure of the brain by examining the insides hominid skulls and through DNA research of genes linked with brain activity found in both humans and apes.
These days is becoming common to reconstruct faces of ancient hominids using methods pioneered by Mikhail M. Gerasimov (1907- 1970), a Russian archaeologist, paleontologist and sculptor who developed a theory for approximating the faces of Ice Age hunters and famous people like Ivan the Terrible and Tamerlane by analyzing their skull features. His techniques have been adopted by forensics experts around the world to identify victims of murder, war crimes and other atrocities whose bones were found but not identified. Scientists using his techniques have re-created the faces of King Tut, the 9,200-year-old Kennewick Man found in the northwest United States, and all the great czars.
Gerasimov was the not the first to re-create faces based on skulls but was the first to use scientific methods to do Tapping into his vast reservoir of knowledge of facial and skull features based on years of working in forensic science, archaeology and anthropology, he applied strips of clay to a cast of skull to create likeness of skull’s owner. Gerasimov was the inspiration for the brilliant scientist, who helps solve the murder of thee victims who had their faces peeled away in the novel Gorky Park by Martin Cruz Smith and a film based on the novel with William Hurt.
Gerasimov was born in St. Petersburg and grew up in the Siberian city of Irkutsk, As a boy he liked to collect mammoth bones and mix the bones of animals, say, putting a cats skull on the skeleton of a duck. He studied archaeology at Irkutsk University and Leningrad and helped establish the Laboratory for Plastic Reconstruction (now the Institute of Ethnology) in Leningrad. In the early 1940s Gerasimov was sent to Uzbekistan to open the tomb of Tamerlane, an act which is said to have unleashed a curse that unleashed World War II on the Soviet Union.
Techniques Used in Reconstructing Hominid Faces
Scientists using Gerasimov’s techniques begin by making a mold and copy of the skull and inserting pegs cut to average tissue thickness based on sex, race and size of the individual. Glass eyes were added, and clay strips of proper thickness are laid across the skull mold. Features are then added based on information gleaned from facial bones.
With hominid skulls which are mostly collections of fragment glued together, missing sections are reconstructed out of epoxy compounds, and distortions are corrected often by comparing the right and left side. Large missing spots are sculpted in clay based on modern primate anatomy. The glass eyes are inserted early and surrounded by musculature. The shape and size of the nose are calculated from surrounding none attachments. Superficial representations of facial muscles, fats and other tissues are added. The tissue is then covered with a clay skin. Using mold, features are impressed into the surface.
A silicon rubber mold is then made of the entre reconstruction and a new cast is created in urethane rubber. Skin tones are painted onto the finished cast. Hairs are individually punched into the skin and finishing touches are added. After the reconstruction is photographed, the image can be digitally enhanced.
Many scientists who use Gerasimov’s techniques have extensive training an anatomy, osteology and craniology. The key to get a face right is often in the details . Permanent ridges left by face muscles, for example, may provide clues to kind of expression worn on the face most of the time. The nose is often created based on a mirror image of the skeletal structure around the nostrils
Svante Paabo, a Swede who heads of the Max Planck Institute of Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, has been at the center of a lot of recent discoveries in study of the DNA of early man and his ancestors. In 2006, his team announced they had decoded fragments of Neanderthal DNA. The team has also uncovered how closely related humans are despite their outward appearances and has found key genetic markers that were crucial in the development of ancient man, including one, FOXP2, that played an important role in the development of the brain and language in modern humans 200,000 years ago.
Paabo grew up in Sweden fascinated by ancient cultures and archaeology, When he was 13, his mother, a food chemist in Stockholm, fulfilled her son’s wish and took him to Egypt to see the pyramids, Karnak and the Valley of the Kings. In 1975, he entered the University of Uppsala to study Egyptology but soon tired of the way it was taught with its emphasis understanding the grammar of the ancient Egyptian language rather that embarking on archaeological digs. He then found himself in medical school and became a biochemist like his Dad. While working on his Ph.D. in molecular immunology he took samples from mummies and tried to see if he could extract some DNA from them. He was able to get some from a 2,400-year-old mummy of an infant boy, with the discovery making the cover of the journal Nature before he even finished his PhD.
In the 1980s and 1990s Paabo was involve in unraveling the DNA is in ancient animals such as moas, mammoths and marsupial wolves, He also was part of the team that sequenced some DNA from the “Iceman” frozen in a glacier in the Alps. In 1997 he was invited by the German government to Leipzig to launch the Max Planck Institute of Evolutionary Anthropology, whose central aim of finding out “what makes human beings unique.”
In May 2010, the team lead by Paabo reported they had come along way sequencing the Neanderthal genome and among the discoveries they had made were that humans and Neanderthals mated and as a result of this union between 1 percent and 4 percent of the genes in people from Europe and Asia trace back to Neanderthals.
The research was published online in the journal Nature in March 2010 by Johannes Krause and Paabo of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzing, Germany. The work decoded the complete set of DNA from mitochondria. If the research does hold up it suggest a migration out of Africa around 1 million years ago. Scientists are now low looking for similarities between the DNA of the Siberian ancestor and that of Neanderthal. Neanderthals, Homo erectus and homo heidelbergensis.
Quest for the Origins of Human Life in Africa
In a review of the book Born in Africa: The Quest for the Origins of Human Life by Martin Meredith, Rachel Newcomb wrote in the Washington Post, “In 1924, anatomy professor Raymond Dart came across an unusual skull that a mining company had inadvertently blasted out of a hillside in a South African village. Despite its small brain size, the Taung Child, as the skull was to be named, had distinctively human features, including signs that its owner walked upright. But Dart’s finding contradicted prevailing scientific opinion, which held that the evolution of a large brain preceded other human adaptations, such as walking. Confirming this belief was the 1912 discovery of Piltdown Man, a skull found in a gravel pit in Piltdown, England. With its large cranium but otherwise apelike features, Piltdown Man supposedly represented the missing link between primates and humans, proving that humans came out of Asia and not Africa. [Source: Rachel Newcomb, Washington Post, July 14 2011]
Dart disagreed, and he enthusiastically published his findings. Yet the conservative scientific establishment savaged him, arguing that he had misidentified a mere primate. Among Dart’s other crimes were failing to follow proper research protocol and using “a ‘barbarous’ combination of Latin and Greek in naming the specimen Australopithecus.” After this professional drubbing, Dart suffered a nervous breakdown, and the Taung skull languished for years as a paperweight on the desk of a colleague. [Ibid]
Twenty-three years later, Robert Broom, a maverick fossil hunter and physician who conducted his South African excavations under the blazing sun dressed “in a dark suit and waistcoat, long-sleeved white shirt, stiff butterfly collar and somber tie,” made his own discovery of an australopithecine, finally vindicating Dart. In 1953, scientists confirmed that Piltdown Man had been an elaborate 40-year hoax, a skull patched together from a combination of human and orangutan remains and artificially distressed to appear ancient. The Piltdown skull was only a few hundred years old; the Taung Child, however, was eventually dated at 2.7 million years. Broom’s discoveries finally turned the tide of scientific opinion toward accepting humanity’s origins in Africa. [Ibid]
In Tanzania’s Olduvai Gorge, where Mary Leakey first spotted the 1.75 million-year-old skull she referred to affectionately as “Dear Boy,” researchers battled black dust clouds, drought conditions and incessant sun while also having “to contend with marauding lions, rhinoceroses and hyenas.” Later, Richard Leakey’s team found a 1.6 million-year-old, nearly complete skeleton in Kenya’s Lake Turkana, which “resembled a lunar landscape, a boundless expanse of lava and sand littered with the wrecks of ancient volcanoes. The winds and the heat were ferocious.” [Ibid]
Fossil hunting was an arduous and frequently unrewarding business. Sometimes years would pass with no discoveries at all as researchers scrambled to acquire funding and government permits. Although Meredith gives credit to native fossil hunters who unearthed noteworthy finds, the scientists, many of whom were skilled at self-promotion, take center stage. At the start of new fieldwork in Koobi Fora, Kenya, for example, Richard Leakey, “with romantic notions of himself as a heroic explorer riding across the African desert,” hired camels and let the cameras roll. In 1974, when Leakey’s American rival Donald Johanson announced his discovery of the 3.2 million-year-old australopithecine known as Lucy, he shouted on camera, “I’ve got you now, Richard!” Outsized personalities, turf wars, public insults and heated debates were the order of the day. [Ibid]
Book: Born in Africa: The Quest for the Origins of Human Life by Martin Meredith (PublicAffairs, 2011]
Famous Hominid Discovery Sites
Lake Turkana Famous sites were groundbreaking discoveries were made include the sites where Java Man, Peking Man, Taung Child, and the first Neanderthal were found. See Java Man, Peking Man, Taung Child, and the first Neanderthal.
Many of the great early man discovery sites—Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, Lake Turkana, Kenya and Hadar and the Middle Awash, Ethiopia—are located in the Great Rift Valley in east Africa. The way the Great Rift Valley has formed makes it ideal for creating and collecting fossils. "It's a low area that collects sediments necessary to bury and preserve bones,” Bob Water of the University of California, Berkeley told National Geographic, "There's also volcanic ash, which lets us date the sediments. Faulting along the rift helps by bringing old bones back to the surface where we can find them."
Scientists now use satellite imagery to locate isolated but promising sites, where recession has washed ancient sediments that may reveal important remains.
Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania
Olduvai Gorge is where paleontologists Louis and Mary Leakey made many of their most important discoveries. A 30-mile-long ravine in Tanzania's Serengeti Plain, it is situated in a piece of land occupied between 1.9 and 1.2 million years ago by a salt lake surrounded by woodlands and savanna and between 1.2 million and 620,000 years by woodlands and savanna broken up pods and streams. Olduvai Gorge not produced some great hominid discoveries it also provided many clues to the climate conditions existing at the time that various hominid species lived.
The Leakeys chose Olduvai Gorge as a hominid prospecting site because of the vast amount of stone tools of exposed layers of rock that was two million year old years or older. The Leakeys worked the site for nearly two decades before Mary Leakey discovered the Zinjanthropus skull, one of the Leakey family’s greatest finds. The gorge became famous and associated with early hominid finds. A line from a joke in British satirical magazine Punch went: "When the first men were fashioned in the Good Lord's forge, He sent them, it seems, to Olduvai Gorge."
Olduvai Gorge The badlands around Hadar and Aramis, Ethiopia contains some of the world's richest fossil beds. Many of the fossil hunters are Afar tribesmen from the village of Elowaha to the north. Equipped with sticks for balance and traction on the tricky landscape of lose sands, lava and volcanic ash, the Afar, wrote paleoanthropologist Donald Johanson "can spot a hominid tooth from standing height with the sun in his eyes."
The badlands around Hadar and Aramis are known for their extreme heat, flash floods, malaria and occasional shoot-outs between rival clans and ethnic groups. There are also lions, hyenas and a variety of snakes that scientists and fossil hunters have to contend with. Although the region is dry and desolate now it was once home to forests and wetlands. Hominid find are rare. Fossil mammal that frequently show up including include ancient elephants, hippos, rhinos and antelopes.
Hadar is located near the head of the Great Rift Valley, where the African, Somali and Arabian tectonic plates meet. It has been the site of numerous volcanic eruptions which have left behind ash that make fossils found there relatively easy to precisely date. Lucy was discovered in 1974 near Hadar. More than than 320 Australopithecus afarenis fossils ranging in age between 3 million and 3.4 million years in age have been found in the same area.
Ethiopian king Haile Selassie gave permission to scientists to begin exploring Ethiopia for hominid fossils in the 1960s after he ran into Louis Leakey at a diplomatic event and asked him why all the great early man discoveries were being made in Kenya and Tanzania not Ethiopia. Leakey told the Ethiopian leader that significant fossils surely could be found all that was slacking was government permission to look. Selassie gave his permission. In the 1980s, the Communist government of Ethiopia imposed a 10 year moratorium on fieldwork in Ethiopia. Fieldwork resumed in the 1990s after the Communist regime was ousted. More discoveries were made and continue to made today. The biggest obstacle to working in the region today is trouble from gun-toting Afar tribesmen, some of whom are bitter they haven’t been hired as fossil hunters.
Aramis and Middle Awash, Ethiopia
Middle Awash area around Aramis Ethiopia has been described by National Geographic as “the most persistently occupied place on Earth. Hominids have lived there for almost six million years and left behind a step by step record of how mankind’s ancestors evolved.[Source: Jamie Shreeve, National Geographic, July 2010]
The Middle Awash area lies west of the often dry Awash River and north of Yardi Lake in a part of the Great Rift Valley not far from where Ethiopia, Somalia and Djibouti come together. The area has been ideal for preserving fossils as bones of prehistoric animals were quickly buried by sediments in flood plains and deltas and then were exposed millions of years later as the valley pulled apart and sediments were uplifted and eroded. Fossils can be dated using volcanic material that fell on the sediments and using basalt east of the Awash River can be used to date sediments underneath them based on periodic changes in the Earth’s magnetic polarity.
Scientists from around the world, assisted by Afar tribesmen, are searching through the dirt and sediment layers. The main excavations are led by Tim White, a paleoanthropologist at the University of California, Berkeley, and his Ethiopian colleagues Berhame Asfaee and Giday WoldeGabriel.
Ardipithecus ramidus —“Ardi”— was discovered in the Aramis area. The sediment in which she was found is part of a 10-kilometer-long arc that has yielded more than 6,000 vertebrate fossils, including 35 other Ardipithecus ramidus individuals. Fossils of Australopithecus garhi, Australopithecus afarensis and Australopithecus anemensis and 5.8-million-year-old Ardipithecus ramidus kabbada have been found here too. The fossils of 160,000-year-old Herto Man were found a little to the south near Lake Yardi. See Herto Man, Early Modern Man.
Image Sources: Wikimedia Commons
Text Sources: Mostly from National Geographic articles. I’ve gone through them all since around 1963 or so. Also the New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Smithsonian magazine, Times of London, Natural History magazine, Archaeology magazine, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, AFP, Lonely Planet Guides, World Religions edited by Geoffrey Parrinder (Facts on File Publications, New York); History of Warfare by John Keegan (Vintage Books); History of Art by H.W. Janson (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.), Compton’s Encyclopedia and various books and other publications.
© 2009 Jeffrey Hays
Last updated March 2011