LABOR IN CAMBODIA
Many Cambodians earn less than $1 a day. Factory workers in the Phnom Penh area, night guards at Angkor temples and hotel workers in Siem Reap got only between $20 and $30 a month in the early 2000s. Workers on rubber plantations and at fish paste processing facilities made about 50 cents to one dollar a day. Road building crews, often made up of women who dump baskets full of rocks on the dirt to create a road bed, got a similar wage.
Cambodia has lots of cheap labor but workers are generally less educated and less skilled than the workers in China or other Southeast Asian countries and therefore many investors prefer to invest there money in those countries. Plus the investment and financial infrastructures are better and more reliable there.
Many young people in their 20s are desperate for work but lack skills and even the most basic education. Some young people buy diplomas from dubious private colleges that have sprung all over the place. In many cases job seekers need an ID card to get a job. To get an ID card sometimes requires the payment of a $1,000 bribe.
In February 2013, Clothilde Le Coz wrote in Asian Correspondent: “Cambodia still portrays an “ethical” label to international brands. The country stands out among garment-exporting countries as one where working conditions for factory workers have improved. Since the 1990s, Cambodia has shaped a worker-friendly reputation to be able to compete internationally. In 1997, a labor law was adopted that recognized rights of Cambodian workers, such as ” the minimum wage must ensure every worker of a decent standard of living compatible with human dignity”. In 1999, the country also agreed to submit an extensive labor inspection program that would be coordinated by the International Labour Organization (ILO). In 2005, it became a full member of the World Trade Organization (WTO). [Source: Clothilde Le Coz, Asian Correspondent, February 1, 2013]
Work Under the Khmer Rouge
The population was organized into work teams and communes with collectivized ownership, production and distribution. A typical worker was given one bowl or rice gruel to eat a day and forced to work for 18 hours digging canals and making dikes.
Seath Teng, who was separated from her family at age four, wrote in Children of Cambodia's Killing Fields , "We worked seven days a week...The only time we got off work was to see someone get killed, which served as an example to us." Youk Chang work spent three years at a cooperative. "I worked in the fields, planting and harvesting rice and digging irrigations works,” he said. “I was sick and hungry most of the time...We were forced to sleep outside in the fields.”
In 1976, we were assigned to work in a garment factory at Orussei in Phnom Penh. The factory was called Office K-9. My grandmother was assigned to work as a cook, while my grandfather was assigned to work as a blacksmith and sometimes as a mechanic. My aunt was assigned to sew clothes, and I was assigned to repair sewing machines in the Children’s Unit at Office K-9. We were not allowed to stay together as a family. Since I was living near my grandmother, every three nights I would ask my unit chief if I could spend the night with her. [Source: Sin Sinet, Documentation Center of Cambodia, d.dccam.org/Survivors/ ]
The 2.5 kilometer runway and airport in Kampong Chang , 60 kilometers from Phnom Penh, was built by Khmer Rouge forced labor. The laborers there worked from 4:00am to 9:00pm everyday, with only brief breaks for lunch and dinner. At night they slept in primitive huts with palm leaf roofs. One survivor said, “Their goal was to kill everyone. They gave us a little bit of porridge, enough to survive and work until the project was finished.”
An estimated 10,000 to 50,000 workers died during the construction of the airport. Most of them were Cambodian soldiers accused of being disloyal to the Khmer Rouge. Some starved to death. Some were dispatched with a whack to the neck or the head with a bamboo pole. Most of the killing took place when the airport was almost finished. In some cases, a ditch was dug with a bulldozer and workers were pushed in by the bulldozer and buried alive.
Labor Situation in Cambodia After the Khmer Rouge
In 1987 observers estimated that about 34.5 percent of the population was under 15 years of age and that 3 percent was 62.5 or older. An estimated 63 percent of the population (or about 4 million people) were between the ages of 15 and 64. The economically active segment of the population, the work force, was probably around 3 million people, or 46 percent of the total population. This estimated percentage of the labor force remained relatively constant from 1962--when the census showed a work force of 2.5 million people out of a total population of 5.73 million--until the 1980s. [Source: Library of Congress, December 1987 *]
In 1983 all public-sector employees, including state employees, armed forces personnel, industrial workers, artisans, teachers, and party cadres, accounted for approximately 8 percent of an economically active population of between 2.5 million and 3 million. Approximately 80 percent of the work force was engaged in agriculture, in forestry, and in fishing. *
A critical shortage of qualified and professional personnel emerged as technicians, engineers, skilled workers, and trained managers either fled the country or fell victim to executions under the Pol Pot regime. In 1980 the Ministry of Agriculture had only 200 technicians, down from a total of 1,600 in 1975. *
Moreover, the continuing conflict diverted part of the work force to combat zones or to security-related projects. In March 1984, the government initiated a forced-labor program, employing civilians in "national defense work" to seal the 830 kilometers of frontier with Thailand. This project, code-named K-5, diverted from the labor force a number of conscripts (aged 18 to 45) ranging from 25,000 to 30,000 for each province, or as high as 3,000 for each district of Cambodia. The labor shortage constituted a major impediment to economic progress, a point stressed by Heng Samrin at the Fifth Party Congress when he said that "Labor...is scattered at present in order to face the needs of the struggle," adding that the "lack of qualified labor and specialized cadres...has prevented us from ensuring that current works satisfy the requirements for development." *
Workers in the Textile Industry
There are over 500,000 garment workers in Cambodia and 90 percent of them are women. As a garment worker for Kingsland, a Wal-Mart supplier, Yon Sok Lein was working on 1,000 pieces of underwear per day from 7:00a, to 4:00pm for $120 to $130 per month.
Reuters reported: “Garment manufacturing is Cambodia's biggest foreign currency earner, a major employer and a vital source of income for many rural families who complain they can barely survive on the wages that are lower than neighboring Thailand and Vietnam. Strikes over pay and poor working conditions are common in the sector in Cambodia, Many western brands outsource footwear and apparel to Cambodian factories, in part because labor is cheaper than China. [Source: Prak Chan Thul, Reuters, January 3, 2014]
Workers who earned $45 to $60 a month in the early 2000s making clothes for The Gap, J.C. Penney, and Montgomery Ward had to work 12 hour days, six days a week. A worker at a contractor for Adidas got over time for that much work and earned $85 a month. These wages at the time were higher than in Burma, Laos and China and equal to those in Bangladesh, Vietnam and Indonesia.
In the 1990s textile workers were regarded as among the most ambitious people in Cambodia. Many of them saw their jobs as a stepping stone to something better. One of the main complaints by workers was is that their job ate into the time they could be spending taking English classes.
Under a trade agreement with the United States, efforts have been made to eliminate child labor and forced labor. Unions have been allowed to form, and workers have been given breaks to go to the bathroom and eat meals. There is little evidence of child labor or forced labor in Cambodia textile factories.
Three Killed as Roof Collapse in Cambodian Shoe Plant
In May, 2013, Reuters reported: “Three people were killed when the ceiling of a warehouse fell in at a shoe factory in Cambodia, a government minister said on Thursday, adding to concern about safety standards at Asian factories producing clothes cheaply for Western consumers. Ith Sam Heng, minister of social affairs, told Reuters another six people had been injured in the incident at the plant in the Kong Pisei district of Kampong Speu province, 50 km (30 miles) west of the capital, Phnom Penh."We will investigate the case and we will take measures against those involved," he said, meaning anyone who might be held responsible for poor safety standards. He said no one remained trapped inside the building. [Source: Prak Chan Thul, Reuters, May 16, 2013]
Earlier, a trade union member at the factory had said six people had died in the collapse, which happened at around 7 a.m. The shoe factory, owned by Wing Star Shoes Co Ltd, a Taiwan company, employed about 7,000 people but only about 100 worked in the single-storey warehouse, according to staff.
Work at the plant stopped after the accident. A Reuters reporter saw footwear bearing the name "Asics" scattered around the damaged warehouse, where a bulldozer was clearing away rubble. A spokeswoman for Japanese sportswear maker Asics Corp said the factory made running shoes for it. "Our prayers go out to the families of those who have died," she said. Asics relies on sports shoes for about two-thirds of its sales, which amounted to 57.33 billion yen ($560 million) company-wide in the year to March 31, 2013.
Ngeth Phat, 29, who was among those rescued on Thursday, said Wing Star had been open for little more than a year but there had already been two strikes by workers over poor working conditions and low wages she put at $80 a month. "After I got into work, bits of brick dropped on me, and about 10 minutes later the whole ceiling collapsed. It was completely dark and I was under other people," she told Reuters from a hospital bed in Phnom Penh. Ou Sam Oun, the governor of Kampong Speu province, said the factory would provide compensation of $5,000 to the families of the people who had died and $1,000 each to workers who were injured.
Unions and Efforts to Prove Working Conditions in Cambodia
The International Labour Organization (ILO) established the “Better Factories Cambodia” program (ILO-BFC) to monitor the compliance to the 1999 US – Cambodia bilateral trade agreement, generating reports about working conditions in Cambodian factories. According to the latest one, there is a need for a new industry-wide agreement as “the number of strikes over the reporting period is twice as many for the same reporting period [a year before]“. The reports records 27 strikes and 16 mass faintings between November 2011 and June 2012. This represents more than 2,000 women fainting.[Source: Clothilde Le Coz, Asian Correspondent, February 1, 2013]
Major concerns by unions are arbitrary dismissal, not paying on time and paying less than the minium wage. Garment industry unions were able to win salary increase of $27 a month to $40 a month in 1997. After going on strike in May 2000 workers won an increase to $45 per month.
According to Associated Press: “Cambodia hosts a unique program of the International Labor Organization called "Better Factories Cambodia" that assesses and reports on working conditions in all the country's export garment factories. The impetus for the program was an agreement under which Cambodia pledged to improve labor conditions in exchange for better trade privileges with the United States. Because the industry is Cambodia's economic locomotive, garment workers also carry some political clout, a special concern for Prime Minister Hun Sen's government because it is an election year and some unions have long-standing ties with the political opposition. [Source: Associated Press, June 3, 2013]
Labor Protests and Violence in Cambodia
In June 2003, riot police broke up a demonstration by workers calling for higher wages in Phnom Penh by firing shots. One protestor and one policeman were killed; 17 were injured. Police opened fire on hundreds of stone-throwing factory workers that were demanding higher wages and the rehiring of a worker fired for his involvement in union activities.
In 2009, AFP reported: “More than 1,000 Cambodian workers on Friday marched through Phnom Penh to demand better wages and conditions and a halt to violence against unionists as they marked international labour day. The group of mostly textile and hotel workers, carrying colourful banners and Cambodian flags, marched from a park near the royal palace to the parliament, where they handed a petition to political opposition leaders. 'The government has to listen to our requests,' said Chea Mony, head of Cambodia's largest workers' group, the Cambodian Free Trade Union. 'It has to take care of the workers because they help bring billions of dollars to the government,' he said. [Source: AFP, May 1, 2009]
The workers later marched to the place where Chea Vichea, who headed the country's largest labour union and was a vocal critic of Prime Minister Hun Sen's government, was gunned down in January 2004. Demonstrators shouted their demands through loudspeakers - the establishment of a labour court, a monthly 120-dollar minimum wage, fair treatment and a reduction in working hours from 48 hours to 44 hours per week. Garment exports have dropped sharply amid the global economic downturn and tens of thousands of workers have lost their jobs this year. Hotel workers are also suffering from lower tourism revenues after foreign tourist arrivals in Cambodia dropped by 2.19 per cent in January compared with the same period last year.
Disputes over wages and safety conditions are common in Cambodia's multi-billion-dollar garment industry, which has brought economic growth to Cambodia. The sector employs about 650,000 people and is a key source of foreign income. November 2011, Reuters reported: “Cambodian garment workers went on strike at a factory producing clothing for global brands Gap, J.C. Penney (JCP.N) and Old Navy, demanding that the plant reinstates suspended trade union representatives.
In December 2012, the Cambodian Daily reported: “Union leaders are planning a demonstration in January to protest the Svay Rieng Provincial Court’s decision last week to drop charges against the former Bavet City governor, Chhouk Bundith, who was the chief suspect in the shooting of three garment factory workers during a violent strike earlier this year. [Source: The Cambodia Daily, December 24th, 2012]
In September 2013, AFP reported: “Cambodia's highest court acquitted two men -- seen by rights groups as scapegoats -- sentenced to 20 years in prison for the 2004 murder of a prominent labour leader.Chea Vichea, a vocal critic of Prime Minister Hun Sen's government, was gunned down in broad daylight at a newsstand in the capital Phnom Penh -- a killing decried by activists as an attempt to silence his labour union. Days later Born Samnang and Sok Sam Oeun were arrested and quickly jailed for 20 years each in a verdict which rights watchdogs said was based on insufficient evidence. [Source: AFP, September 25, 2013]
The pair say they were framed by a group of police. In 2008 the Supreme Court provisionally released the pair and ordered a retrial. But the Appeal Court last December ruled that there was enough proof of their guilt and confirmed the 20-year sentences. After an appeal hearing on Wednesday, Judge Kim Pon at the Supreme Court said the charges against the men were dropped due to insufficient evidence, and ordered them released from jail. "I am happy that the Supreme Court has rendered justice for me," Sok Sam Oeun told reporters.
Rights activists immediately applauded the court's ruling. "We welcome the court's decision. They were just artificial killers," Am Sam Ath, of local rights groups Licadho, told AFP. No other suspects have been arrested for the murder.
Chea Vichea founded the Free Trade Union of Workers of the Kingdom of Cambodia along with opposition leader Sam Rainsy, and organised many protests for the rights of garment workers. A statue of him was unveiled in May in a rare public tribute to a champion of worker rights in the impoverished kingdom.
Campaigners say his murder is a symbol of the kingdom's culture of impunity for powerful interest groups determined to muzzle dissent. "Although today's decision represents a victory of sorts for the two accused, justice for Chea Vichea remains elusive," the Cambodian Center for Human Rights and other local campaign groups said in a joint statement. "His real killers remain at large and the Cambodian authorities must reinvestigate the case in order to demonstrate that impunity does not reign in Cambodia," they added. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights also welcomed the acquittal and called for a "full investigation" into the murder.
Murder of Labor Activist Chea Vichea
On January 2004, Chea Vichea, a prominent labor leader with close ties to the opposition, was gunned down on the streets of Phnom Penh in what appeared to be a political assassination. Chea was head of th Cambodia Free Trade Union of Workers, Cambodia’s largest union. He was gunned down at a newsstand while reading a newspaper by a gunman who fled on a motorcycle. Vichea had worked trying to improve the condition of women working in the garment industry. It is not clear who ordered his killing. He had many enemies in the government and the business community. The daylight murder was condemned by rights groups as a brutal attempt to silence opposition-linked unions and two men jailed over the killing were later released. Chea Vichea’s death fractured the nascent labor movement in Cambodia. In 2009 hundreds showed up to mark the forth anniversary of his death,
Wal-Mart Supplier Skips Town Owing Thousands to Cambodia’s Garment Workers
In February 2013, Clothilde Le Coz wrote in Asian Correspondent: “Garment workers gathered outside the US Embassy in Phnom Penh to follow up with the petition they submitted asking the US government to pressure Wal-Mart. They are owed $200,000 by Kingsland, a Hong Kong-based company that started to operate in Cambodia 10 years ago and worked with Wal-Mart and H&M suppliers. Yon Sok Lein, one of the Kingsland’s workers, said that there was no feedback from the US Embassy. “We would like Wal-Mart to be held accountable for this situation. It is a big and powerful company. We would also like the owner of the factory to be held accountable but he left the country”. A video published on January 20th by the independent Cambodian media Voice of Democracy, shows garment workers outside Kingsland factory protesting for not having been paid and blaming H&M and Wal-Mart. They have been striking since January 3rd, 2013. [Source: Clothilde Le Coz, Asian Correspondent, February 1, 2013 ><]
“The workers have been told since September that they did not have to come to work anymore due to the lack of orders but that they would be paid 50 percent of they salary until work would resume in January. But they never received the money before the owners declared bankruptcy and left the country. According to Wal-Mart, it stopped Kingsland’s products in 2011. H&M in June 2012. However, the Community Legal Education Center (CLEC) gathered testimonies from worker stating that H&M alterations and quality checks continued until the first week of September, 2012 and that Walmart production continued until the same week. According to CLEC, the H&M representative admitted it. ><
“Kingsland is famous for violating legislation and it is not the first time such protests have occurred. In 2008, 16 workers were fired for belonging to a union that was not recognized by the company. Despite attempts to negociate their reintegration, none of them were able to go back to work, suggesting that belonging to an independent union was still problematic at Kingsland. This is in violation of the 1997 labor law. ><
“Interviewed earlier this month by The Cambodia Daily, Nick Rudikoff, global affairs coordinator of Warehouse Workers United (WWU), a U.S.-based union representing 5.5 million workers in different sectors, said that “Kingsland’s failure to inform the workers’ of their situation is an example of Wal-Mart not making sure members of its supply chain treat workers in a fair manner”. ><
“Legally the factory owners are responsible for the workers’ severance pay and working conditions. But as Dave Welsh, the head of the American Centre for International Labor Solidarity, told Voice of Democracy last August “it really is the brands putting the squeeze around the world on the industry. But the industry doesn’t mind, because the people who suffer are not the owners, the people who suffer are the workers.” ><
Arrests and Violence at a Nike Contractor in Cambodia
In June 2013, Associated Press reported: “Cambodian police clashed Monday with workers at a factory that makes clothing for the U.S. sportswear company Nike, arresting seven, in the latest violence linked to a strike over salaries, union organizers and rights activists said. The protest at the Taiwanese-owned Sabrina (Cambodia) Garment Manufacturing plant in Kompong Speu, just west of Phnom Penh, began May 21 when workers demanded that their salaries be raised to the equivalent of $88 per month from $74. Their net pay is calculated to include overtime and various allowances, and there is a dispute over whether they are receiving the legal minimum wage. [Source: Associated Press, June 3, 2013]
Free Trade Union of Workers of the Kingdom of Cambodia organizer Son Vanny said its members exchanged barrages of sticks and stones with members of a rival union opposing the strike, after which riot police arrived to break up the crowd. He did not identify the other union, though there are several in Cambodia and those aligned with the government are less militant. The strike has seen violence before. Police allegedly used force when workers blocked the main road outside the factory on May 27, reportedly causing two pregnant workers to miscarry. Nike, for whom the factory is a contractor, expressed concern after that incident. The factory employs more than 3,000 workers, mostly females.
Heng Sophors, an activist with the local human rights group Licadho who monitored the strike Monday, said more than 1,000 riot police with batons and shields were deployed around the factory. He said some police were the targets of sticks and stones thrown by the protesters as they moved in to break up the crowd. He added that some strikers were slightly injured by police.
Son Vanny accused police of beating and detaining only workers from his union. He said police alleged the workers had incited violence, a charge he denied. Son Vanny and another union official, Thorn Thon, said seven workers were arrested. Police at the scene and at the Interior Ministry declined to comment on any arrests or injuries.
Four Killed as Police Open Fire on Striking Cambodian Garment Workers
In early January 2014, five striking garment workers were shot dead while peacefully demanding a reasonable minimum wage in the outskirts of Phnom Penh. Prak Chan Thul of Reuters reported: “Cambodian military police opened fire with assault rifles on Friday to quell a protest by stone-throwing garment factory workers demanding higher pay in a crackdown a human rights group said killed four people. Chaos during nationwide strikes erupted for a second day as security forces were deployed to halt a demonstration by thousands of workers, who refused to move and threw bottles, stones and petrol bombs at an industrial zone in Phnom Penh. The clash represents an escalation of a political crisis in Cambodia, where striking workers and anti-government protesters have come together in a loose movement led by the opposition Cambodia National Rescue Party (CNRP). [Source: Prak Chan Thul, Reuters, January 3, 2014]
Unions representing disgruntled garment workers have joined opposition supporters protesting against the government of Prime Minister Hun Sen to demand a re-run of an election in July that the opposition says was rigged. Military police confronting the protesters fired live ammunition, Reuters journalists said, and bullet casings were later seen scattered across the ground at the scene.
The clashes took place at Canadia Industrial Park in Phnom Penh, home to dozens of factories that make clothing for western brands that include Adidas, Puma and H&M Hennes & Mauritz. Human rights group LICADHO described the incident as "horrific" and lambasted military police, adding that their own investigation and surveys of hospitals had found four people were killed and 21 wounded. "We condemn this appalling use of extreme lethal force by security forces", the group's director, Naly Pilorge, said in a statement. "Security forces must now put an immediate end to the use of live ammunition against civilians."
Spokesmen for the national police and military police said they could not verify the number of casualties. It followed a crackdown on Thursday outside a Yakjin (Cambodia) Inc factory in another part of the city, when armed troops struck demonstrators with batons, wounding 20 people. Yakjin is a maker of clothing for Gap and Walmart . The CNRP, led by former finance minister Sam Rainsy, has courted some 350,000 garment workers from nearly 500 factories across the country by promising to nearly double the monthly minimum wage to $160 if it wins a re-run of the July election, which Hun Sen is refusing to hold.
The government is refusing to raise the wage beyond $100 dollars a month and has ordered factories to reopen to prevent damage and job losses in an industry worth $5 billion a year to what is one of the world's poorest countries. Cheath Khemera, a senior labor officer at the Garment Manufacturers Association in Cambodia (GMAC) told Reuters it was too soon to assess the cost of the strikes, but he estimated each factory could be losing $20,000-$30,000 a day. "This really impacts the industry seriously," he said.
Until this week, security forces had exercised restraint to try to cool tempers as pressure mounted on a government facing some of the biggest protests ever seen in Cambodia. The strikes and rallies represent a rare challenge to the 28-year rule of Hun Sen, who has been credited with attracting investment and creating jobs. He has also earned a reputation for being intolerant of opposition and rights groups say abuses are common. Hun Sen's rule was tested last year when a once weak opposition of various parties amalgamated and won votes from Cambodians upset by low wages, graft and a substantial number of forced evictions from farmland and city slums.
Woman Shot Dead in Police Crackdown on Cambodian Labor Protest
In November 2013, Prak Chan Thul of Reuters wrote: “Cambodian riot police used sticks, tear gas and guns to break up a garment workers' strike on Tuesday, killing one woman and wounding eight people in one of the most violent crackdowns on labor unrest in years. More than 30 people were arrested after protests erupted when police tried to break up a strike by garment workers from a factory supplying global brands protesting against low pay and demanding better working conditions, Reuters witnesses and police said. Hundreds of police in riot gear, some carrying AK47s, tried to stop an estimated 1,000 workers from the Singapore-owned SL Garment Processing (Cambodia) Ltd. from marching to the home of Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen. Company officials could not be immediately reached for comment. [Source: Prak Chan Thul, Reuters, November 12, 2013]
Demonstrators set a police car and motorbikes alight. Some protesters were kicked and beaten by police who used teargas to disperse the crowd, witnesses said. "Protesters threw rocks at authorities and they responded with tear gas and firearms," Chheng Sophors, a worker at local rights group Licadho, told Reuters. Police arrested 37 people, among them Buddhist monks who had joined the workers' protest, he added, while eight people were wounded by gunfire.
Cambodia's national military police spokesman, Kheng Tito, said four officers were seriously injured during the clash and up to three protesters sustained injuries. "We are not sure whether the woman died from police gunfire because we have not done an investigation," said Kheng Tito.
Workers at SL factory have been demonstrating periodically since early August, with no sign of a resolution. International brands H&M and Gap Inc have reduced their orders, while United States denim giant Levi Strauss & Co have stopped buying from the factory, local media reported.
Migrant Workers, Slave Labor and Child Labor in Cambodia
According to Human Rights Watch Cambodia Report 2013: A 2011 government moratorium on temporary migration of Cambodians as domestic workers to Malaysia, announced after revelations of grave abuses during recruitment in Cambodia and work in Malaysia, remained in place. Officials made statements about lifting the ban, despite uncertain prospects for a Cambodian-Malaysian agreement to establish minimum protections for these migrants, and new media reports of ill-treatment of Cambodian domestic workers in Malaysia. Available statistics pointed to a general increase in the international trafficking of Cambodian workers, many of whom worked in conditions amounting to forced labor.[Source: Human Rights Watch]
Poor Cambodians desperate for work sometimes pay $30 to human traffickers, who promise them good jobs and then load them on to boats bound for Thailand, where they work under slave-like conditions for next to nothing on fishing boats or in construction crews Those that complain are threatened with being turned into authorities. Some are fed amphetamines to keep them working. The human traffickers are paid $30 to $70 by Thai businesses for every person that produce.
Child labor is another problem in Cambodia. Many of the children are recruited by agents who pay parents for the services of their children. In some extreme cases, parents that can't afford to take care of their children sell them into to perfect strangers for $15 a piece. Child laborers are sometimes worked to death or have to forage for food to survive.
See Drugs, Human Trafficking, Prostitution. Thailand
Text Sources: New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Times of London, Lonely Planet Guides, Library of Congress, Tourism of Cambodia, Compton’s Encyclopedia, The Guardian, National Geographic, Smithsonian magazine, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, AFP, Wall Street Journal, The Atlantic Monthly, The Economist, Global Viewpoint (Christian Science Monitor), Foreign Policy, Wikipedia, BBC, CNN, NBC News, Fox News and various books and other publications.
© 2008 Jeffrey Hays
Last updated May 2014