RULERS OF JAPAN

EARLY LEGENDARY RULERS OF JAPAN


Jimmu from 1902 book

Jimmu (660-585 B.C. in the Nihon Shoki, mythological).

Suizei (581-549 B.C. in the Nihon Shoki, largely fiction).

Annei (549-511 B.C. in the Nihon Shoki, largely fiction).

Itoku (510-477 B.C. in the Nihon Shoki, largely fiction).

Kosho (475-393 B.C. in the Nihon Shoki, largely fiction).

Koan (392-291 B.C. in the Nihon Shoki, largely fiction).

Korei (290-215 B.C. in the Nihon Shoki, largely fiction).

Kogen (214-158 B.C. in the Nihon Shoki, largely fiction).

Kaika (158-98 B.C. in the Nihon Shoki, largely fiction).

Sujin (97-30 B.C.in the Nihon Shoki, largely fiction).

Suinin (29 B.C.-A.D.70 in the Nihon Shoki, largely fiction).

Keiko (71-130 in the Nihon Shoki,might be real, possibly in the 4th century).

Seimu (A.D. 131-190 in the Nihon Shoki, might be real, possibly in the 4th century).

Chuai (A.D. 192-200 in the Nihon Shoki, might be real, possibly in the 4th century).

Jingu Regent for Empress Himeko (A.D. 201-269 in the Nihon Shoki, might be real, mid 3rd century, female ruler).

[Source: Charles T. Keally, Professor of Archaeology and Anthropology (retired), Sophia University, Tokyo, t-net.ne.jp/~keally/kofun , The Nihon Shoki is an ancient history record finished in A.D. 720]

Good Early Japanese History Websites: Aileen Kawagoe, Heritage of Japan website, heritageofjapan.wordpress.com; Essay on Early Japan aboutjapan.japansociety.org ; Japanese Archeology www.t-net.ne.jp/~keally/index.htm ; Ancient Japan Links on Archeolink archaeolink.com ;Essay on Rice and History aboutjapan.japansociety.org

Good Japanese History Websites: ; Wikipedia article on History of Japan Wikipedia ; Samurai Archives samurai-archives.com ; National Museum of Japanese History rekihaku.ac.jp ; Japanese History Documentation Project openhistory.org/jhdp ; Cambridge University Bibliography of Japanese History to 1912 ames.cam.ac.uk ; Sengoku Daimyo sengokudaimyo.co ; English Translations of Important Historical Documents hi.u-tokyo.ac.jp/iriki ; WWW-VL: History: Japan (semi good but dated source ) vlib.iue.it/history/asia/Japan ; Forums Delphi Forums, Good Discussion Group on Japanese History forums.delphiforums.com/samuraihistory ; Tousando tousando.proboards.com

Kofun Period Imperial Rulers (ca. 3rd century–538 A.D.)

Ojin (A.D. 270-310 in the Nihon Shoki, probably real, ca. 370-390 or early 5th century).


Emperor Nintoku

Nintoku (A.D. 313-399 in the Nihon Shoki,actual early 5th century).

Ritchu (A.D. 400-405 in the Nihon Shoki, actual early 5th century).

Hanzei (A.D. 406-410 in the Nihon Shoki, actual early 5th century).

Ingyo (A.D. 412-453 in the Nihon Shoki, actual early 5th century).

Anko (A.D. 453-456 in the Nihon Shoki, actual mid 5th century) .

Yuryaku (456-479 in the Nihon Shoki, probably correct).

Seinei (480-484 in the Nihon Shoki, probably correct).

Kenzo (485-487 in the Nihon Shoki, probably correct).

Ninken (488-498 in the Nihon Shoki, probably correct).

Buretsu (498-506 in the Nihon Shoki, probably correct).

Keitai (507-531 in the Nihon Shoki, probably correct).

Ankan (531-535 in the Nihon Shoki, probably correct).

Senka (535-539 in the Nihon Shoki, probably correct).

[Source: Charles T. Keally, Professor of Archaeology and Anthropology (retired), Sophia University, Tokyo, t-net.ne.jp/~keally/kofun , The Nihon Shoki is an ancient history record finished in A.D. 720]

Asuka Period Imperial Rulers (A.D. 538–710)

Kimmei (539-571 in the Nihon Shoki, probably correct).


Empress Jito

Bidatsu (572-585 in the Nihon Shoki, probably correct).

Yomei (585-587 in the Nihon Shoki, probably correct).

Sushun (587-592 in the Nihon Shoki, probably correct).

Suiko (592-628 in the Nihon Shoki, probably correct, female/empress).

Jomei (629-641 in the Nihon Shoki, probably correct).

Kogyoku (642-645 in the Nihon Shoki, probably correct, female/empress).

Kotoku (645-654 in the Nihon Shoki, probably correct).

Saimei (655-661 in the Nihon Shoki, probably correct, female/empress).

Tenji (662-671 in the Nihon Shoki, probably correct).

Kobun (671-672 in the Nihon Shoki, probably correct).

Temmu (673-686 in the Nihon Shoki, probably correct).

Jito (690-697 in the Nihon Shoki, probably correct, female/empress).

Mommu (697-707 in the Nihon Shoki, probably correct).

Gemmei (707-715 in the Nihon Shoki, probably correct, female/empress).

[Source: Charles T. Keally, Professor of Archaeology and Anthropology (retired), Sophia University, Tokyo, t-net.ne.jp/~keally/kofun , The Nihon Shoki is an ancient history record finished in A.D. 720]


Shotoku

Nara Period Imperial Rulers (710–794)

Genmei (707–715).

Gensho (715–724).

Shomu (724–749).

Koken (749–758).

Junnin (758–764).

Shotoku (764–770).

Konin (770–781).

Kanmu (781–806).

[Source: Yoshinori Munemura, Independent Scholar, Metropolitan Museum of Art metmuseum.org]

Heian Period Imperial Rulers (794–1185)

Kanmu (781–806).

Heizei (806–809).

Saga (809–823).


Kanmu

Junna (823–833).

Ninmyo (833–850).

Montoku (850–858).

Seiwa (858–876).

Yozei (876–884).

Koko (884–887).

Uda (887–897).

Daigo (897–930).

Suzaku (930–946).

Murakami (946–967).

Reizei (967–969).

Enyu (969–984).

Kazan (984–986).

Ichijo (986–1011).

Sanjo (1011–1016).


Ichijo

Go-Ichijo (1016–1036).

Go-Suzaku (1036–1045).

Go-Reizei (1045–1068).

Go-Sanjo (1068–1072).

Shirakawa (1072–1086).

Horikawa (1086–1107).

Toba (1107–1123).

Sutoku (1123–1141).

Konoe (1141–1155).

Go-Shirakawa (1155–1158).

Nijo (1158–1165).

Rokujo (1165–1168).

Takakura (1168–1180).

Antoku (1180–1185).

[Source: Yoshinori Munemura, Independent Scholar, Metropolitan Museum of Art metmuseum.org]

Kamakura Period Imperial Rulers (1185–1333)


Go Toba

Go-Toba (1183–1198).

Tsuchimikado (1198–1210).

Juntoku (1210–1221).

Chukyo (1221).

Go-Horikawa (1221–1232).

Shijo (1232–1242).

Go-Saga (1242–1246).

Go-Fukakusa (1246–1259).

Kameyama (1259–1274).

Go-Uda (1274–1287).

Fushimi (1287–1298).

Go-Fushimi (1298–1301).

Go-Nijo (1301–1308).

Hanazono (1308–1318).

[Source: Yoshinori Munemura, Independent Scholar, Metropolitan Museum of Art metmuseum.org]

Nanbokucho Period Imperial Rulers (1336–1392)


Go-Kogon

Go-Daigo (1318–1339).

Kogen (Hokucho) (1331–1333).

Komyo (Hokucho) (1336–1348).

Go-Murakami (Nancho) (1339–1368).

Suko (Hokucho) (1348–1351).

Go-Kogon (Hokucho) (1352–1371).

Chokei (Nancho) (1368–1383).

Go-Enyu (Hokucho) (1371–1382).

Go-Kameyama (Nancho) (1383–1392).

[Source: Yoshinori Munemura, Independent Scholar, Metropolitan Museum of Art metmuseum.org]

Muromachi Period Imperial Rulers (1392–1573)

Go-Komatsu (1382–1412).

Shoko (1412–1428).

Go-Hanazono (1428–1464).

Go-Tsuchimikado (1464–1500).

Go-Kashiwabara (1500–1526).

Go-Nara (1526–1557).

Oogimachi (1557–1586).

[Source: Yoshinori Munemura, Independent Scholar, Metropolitan Museum of Art metmuseum.org]

Momoyama Period Imperial Rulers (1573–1615)

Oogimachi (1557–1586).

Go-Yozei (1586–1611).

Go-Mizuo (1611–1629).

[Source: Yoshinori Munemura, Independent Scholar, Metropolitan Museum of Art metmuseum.org]

Edo Period Imperial Rulers (1615–1868)

Go-Mizuo (1611–1629).

Meisho (1629–1643).

Go-Komyo (1643–1654).

Go-Sai (1654–1663).

Reigen (1663–1687).

Higashiyama (1687–1709).

Nakamikado (1709–1735).

Sakuramachi (1735–1747).

Momozono (1747–1762).

Go-Sakuramachi (1752–1770).

Go-Momozono (1770–1779).

Kokaku (1779–1817).

Ninko (1817–1846).

Komei (1846–1867).

[Source: Yoshinori Munemura, Independent Scholar, Metropolitan Museum of Art metmuseum.org]

Meiji Period Imperial Rulers (1868–1912) and After

Meiji (1868-1912).

Taisho (1912–1926).

Showa (1926–1989).

Heisei 1989–present).

Kinjo (1989–present).

[Source: Yoshinori Munemura, Independent Scholar, Metropolitan Museum of Art metmuseum.org]

Image Sources: Wikimedia Commons

Text Sources: Aileen Kawagoe, Heritage of Japan website, heritageofjapan.wordpress.com <^>; Charles T. Keally, Professor of Archaeology and Anthropology (retired), Sophia University, Tokyo, figal-sensei.org *~*; Asia for Educators Columbia University, Primary Sources with DBQs, afe.easia.columbia.edu ; New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Daily Yomiuri, Times of London, Japan National Tourist Organization (JNTO), National Geographic, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, Lonely Planet Guides, Compton’s Encyclopedia and various books and other publications.

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© 2009 Jeffrey Hays

Last updated September 2016

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