RAIN FORESTS IN SOUTHERN SUMATRA

WAY KAMBAS RESERVE

Way Kambas Reserve (110 kilometers or two hours by car from Bandar Lampung) is a 1,300-square-kilometer park and is regarded as the best place in Sumatra to see wild Sumatran elephants. About 250 live here. There are also some rhinos and tigers . Boats can be hired at Way Kanan for cruising around and up the river. There is a prepared two hour track in this park where one can listen to and occasionally view wild animals and bird watch. Way Kambas was established as a game reserve by the Dutch administration in 1937. Sadly, between 1954 and 1974 it was intensively logged. In 1978, it was proposed as a national park, with provisional declaration in 1989, and final declaration in 1997.

Located at the southern tip of Sumatra, the Way Kambas National Park (WKNP) is one of the oldest reserves in Indonesia. It occupies an area of coastal lowland forest around the Way Kambas River on the east coast of the province of Lampung. WKNP is closely associated with elephants, since aside from being a sanctuary for these gentle giants, the national park is also known as their training ground (See Below). Of the most remarkable species are the white-winged ducks and the Storm’s stork. Other mammals that also inhabit the national park include: the Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae), the tapir (Tapirus indicus), the jungle dogs (Cuon alpinus sumatrensis), and the siamang monkeys (Hylobates syndactylus syndactylus).

Also operating in the park is the Sumatra Rhino Sanctuary (SRS), where rhinos, formerly held in captivity are introduced to natural surroundings in the hope of successful breeding. The breeding center was established in 1995, and encompasses 100 hectares (247 acres) for propagation, research and education. The five Sumatran rhinos (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis ) living at the Sumatran Rhino Sanctuary - Rosa, Ratu, Bina, Torgamba, and Andalas - serve as ambassadors for their wild counterparts. They also act as specimens for education for local communities and the general public and play a vital part to ensure the continuous existence of their species.

The area around Way Kanan, a sub-district of the park is frequently visited by birdwatchers. Among the 406 species of birds are: the Jungle ducks (Cairina scutulata), sandang lawe Herons (Ciconia episcopus stormi), tong-tong Herons (Leptoptilos javanicus), blue sempidan (Lophura ignita), kuau (Argusianus argus argus), and pecuk ular (Anhinga melanogaster). There are also numerous reptiles, fish, and insects within the sanctuary of WKNP.

WKNP is also home for many exotic floras. Among them are: api-api (Avicennia marina), pidada (Sonneratia sp.), nipah (Nypa fruticans), gelam (Melaleuca leucadendron), salam (Syzygium polyanthum), rawang (Glochidion borneensis), ketapang (Terminalia cattapa), cemara laut (Casuarina equisetifolia), pandan (Pandanus sp.), puspa (Schima wallichii), meranti (Shorea sp.), minyak (Dipterocarpus gracilis), and ramin (Gonystylus bancanus).

Guided treks are available around Way Kanan. You should not attempt to enter the forest without a guard as it is dangerous and you can easily get lost. Out-board motorboats and driver can be hired for trips to the coast, with shorter journeys available and priced accordingly. If you want to putter around, a canoe-like sampan is available for hire. This quieter mode of transport may be more suitable for seeing wildlife.

Elephant Training Center at Way Kambas Reserve

Elephant Training Center (in Way Kambas Reserve, 9 kilometers from the park’s Plang Ijo entrance) was set up to train elephants to perform useful tasks. The program which is partly funded by the World Wildlife Fund helps elephants that had become pests to farmers, mainly because the elephant's natural habitat was being squeezed by the farmers. Problem elephants have been captured and placed in the center along with other elephants born in captivity. Visitors can ride on elephants and watch occasional shows that feature the elephants playing soccer, transporting lumber, plowing fields, and lifting logs.

Officially established in 1985, the Elephant Training Center (ETC), is an establishment aimed to protect the existence of the elephant and at the same time create mutual benefit for both the elephants and men. The training center is also a reminiscent of the time when kings or sultans ruled Sumatra, when elephants were trained and deployed in warfare and also for ceremonial purposes.

At the Elephant Training center (ETC), there are elephant attractions every afternoon with the special elephant football exhibition match held every weekend. Elephant rides are great fun with longer 'safari' rides available, where with a little bit of luck you may come across wild elephants. The ETC visitor center deals with aspects of elephant training.

The Sumatran elephant is one of three recognized subspecies of the Asian Elephant, and native to Sumatra Island. In general, Asian elephants are smaller than those of Africa and have the highest body point on the head. Among the Asian elephants, the Sumatran elephants are the smallest, with a shoulder height ranging between 2 meters and 3.2 meters (6.6 ft. to 10.5 ft). Wild Sumatran elephants were formerly found in eight provinces of Sumatra. However, the dense and tangled vegetation of the tropical rainforests there makes it difficult to estimate their exact number.

There are several wooden lodges at the elephant Training Center for researchers and Ecotourists. Located pleasantly near the Elephant Bathing pool, the lodges can accommodate up to 4 persons per rooms and charges IDR 200,000 per rooms. For more information, you can also contact Mr.Slamet Riyadi : +62 853 7780 5517

Accommodation at Way Kambas Reserve

1) Satwa Sumatra Elephant Ecolodge: The main facilities found near the national park are located 500 meters from the entrance at a place called Satwa Sumatra Elephant Eco Lodge. Set in an extensive walled garden full of tropical fruit trees, it offers four cottages each with spacious rooms that can accommodate up to four people with spring beds, ceiling fans, hot water showers and western-style toilets. All guest cottages, facilities, some perimeter lighting and office are powered by renewable solar energy. In a delightful open — air restaurant, original Indonesian meals are served, with a full western breakfast to start the day. If you are traveling with children, the local village kids will love to have a game of soccer in the afternoon in the eco lodge grounds. Address: Satwa Sumatra Elephant Eco Lodge, Way Kambas, Jl. Taman Nasional Way Kambas. Ecolodges Indonesia Booking Centre: Phone — Indonesia:+62 725 764 5290 Phone — International: +62 361 701098, E mail: reservation@ecolodgesindonesia.com or ecosafari@ecolodgesindonesia.com, Website: ecolodgesindonesia.com/satwa/

2) Way Kanan Resort: About 13 kilometers from the entrance to the park is Way Kanan. Here you can find a collection of simple guesthouses, with price ranging from IDR 75,000 to IDR 200,000. The accommodation is simple but adequate with clean linen provided, and mosquito coils or nets are advisable. There is no food available at Way Kanan so it is necessary to bring your own. There is a warung at the Elephant Training Center but it is only open during the day so it is advisable to bring your own evening meal. There is a good market at Rajabasa Lama and it is possible to buy essentials such as coffee, noodles, and sardines at the park’s gate shop at Plang Ijo. For more information, you can contact Mr. Slamet Riyadi: +62 853 7780 5517.

3) Way Kambas National Park Camping Ground: For the ultimate outdoor experience, you can set up tents at the Plang Ijo Watch post, please check in to the officer in charge and get the entry permit or SIMAKSI if you wish to camp at the National Park.

5). Yestoya Club House Hotel: If you wish to venture to Way Kambas National Park, but still looking for the convenience of modern facilities, you can check yourself in at the Yestoya Club House Hotel at the small town of Way Jepara just 15-20 minutes from the main entrance to Way Kambas National park. The Yestoya Club House Hotel provides Air Conditioner, water heater, Television, and refrigerator on each room. There are also a swimming pool and fitness center facility for the guests. The room rate ranging from IDR 220,000 to IDR330,000. Adress :Jl Cempaka Way Jepara 34196, Lampung Timur. Telephone.: +62 725 640 222, fax: : +62 725 640152

Permits. Information and Getting to Way Kambas Reserve

A permit to enter WKNP can be obtained at the gate. They can also be obtained from the conservation HQ in Bandar Lampung (Balai Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam 11). These offices are half a kilometer up the hill from Rajabasa Lama bus station on the left hand side — look for another elephant stone statue. Everyone at the office is very friendly and helpful and will be able to give you further details about Way Kambas.

The main the entrance to the park is at Plang Ijo. There is a small center at Plang Ijo designed to provide information about the park, its wildlife, and conservations issues. Office of the National Park: Balai Taman Nasional Way Kambas, Jl. Raya Labuhan Ratu Lama, Labuhan Ratu, Sukadana — Lampung Timur - 34196 Tel. +62 (0) 725 7645024 Fax .+62 (0) 725 7645090, E mail: program@waykambas.or.id, kabalai@waykambas.or.id

If you are using public transport, the simplest route is taking a bus from Rajabasa Terminal in Bandar Lampung in the direction of Way Jepara. Get off at the stone elephant at Rajabasa Lama Village, Way Jepara, and resume by an “Ojek” or motorbike taxi ride to the Way Kanan or the Elephant Training center (ETC), which is the entrance to WKNP. Keep in mind that the last direct bus back to Rajabasa Lama returns at 15.00 hrs Western Indonesia Time, and it is best if you arrive before dusk, since the “Ojek” driver won’t drive you there after this time. The whole trip would take approximately around 2-3 hours. Alternatively, from Bandar Lampung, you can catch a bus to Metro and subsequently another bus to Rajabasa Lama which also last around 2-3 hours.

If you are in a car, from Bandar Lampung take the Kota Bumi Road northward and just follow the serial elephant signs that will easily take you to WKNP. It is possible to hire a taxi from Bandar Lampung to Way Kambas but it is considerably more expensive. From Bandar Lampung to east Lampung district, the roads are relatively in good condition. However, as you enter Sukadana area the trip will get a little bumpy since some parts of the road are in poor condition. From Way Jepara market to the entrance of WKNP the poorly condition road last for about 5 Km.

Bukit Barisan Seletan National Park

Bukit Barisan Seletan National Park (10 hours by bus and boat from Bandar Lampung) is difficult to reach but is the last large track of coastal rain forest in Indonesia and is home to tigers, tapirs and around 700 elephants. Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park (BBSNP) — or the South Bukit Barisan National Park - spans over three of Sumatra’s provinces: Lampung, South Sumatra and Bengkulu. Along with Mount Leuser and Kerinci Seblat, the combined national parks make up the Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra inscribed in the UNESCO’s World Heritage List, which runs along the entire western spine of the island. The main objective of the national park is to protect the existence of Sumatra’s tropical rainforests along with all their biodiversity. Sumatran Elephants (Elephas maximus sumatranus), Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae) and Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) are among some of the rare and exotic fauna found in the area.

Starting as a Wildlife Sanctuary in 1935, the area became a National Park in 1982. Initially, South Bukit Barisan Park covered a total area of 356,800 hectares, but recent measurements using GIS recorded that the latest total area is in fact 324,000 hectares. The park is located at the southwestly end of Sumatra. Seventy percent of the park lies within the administrative areas of West Lampung and Tanggamus in the Lampung Province, while 74,822 hectares (about 23 percent) is located within the boundaries of Kaur district, in the province of Bengkulu. While the remainder of the park lies within the province of South Sumatra.

The South Bukit Barisan Park is included in the Global 200 Ecoregions, WWF's ranking of the Earth's most biologically outstanding terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats. The park is also highlighted as a priority area for the Sumatran rhino conservation through WWF's Asian Rhino and Elephant Action Strategy (AREAS). In addition, IUCN, WCS and WWF have identified the South Bukit Barisan as "Tiger Conservation Unit I", the most important forest area for the conservation of tigers in the world. Other endemic fauna that also inhabit the area are: honey bears (Helarctos malayanus malayanus), tapirs (Tapirus indicus), ungko (Hylobates agilis), siamang (H. syndactylus syndactylus), simpai (Presbytis melalophos fuscamurina), kancil (Tragulus javanicus kanchil), and the scaled sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata).

Aside from its fauna, the park also presents splendors in leaves and flowers. The exotic Giant Carrion Flowers or Titan Arum (Amorphophallus titanium) and the Tall Carrion Flowers (Amorphophallus decus-silvae) are among the largest flowers existing on earth. The height of the Amorphophallus decus-silvae has been recorded to reach over 2 meters tall. Generally confused with the Carrion Flowers, the Rafflesia flowers (Rafflesia arnoldii) are also found in certain areas of the park. The Rafflesia flower is noted for producing the largest individual flower on earth, while the Titan Arum and Talipolt Palm are technically clusters of many flowers. The national park is also home of the largest orchid known to the planet, locally popular as “Anggrek Tebu” or Sugarcane Orchid (Grammatophyllum speciosum).

Other flora in this South Bukit Barisan Park include: pidada (Sonneratia sp.), nipah (Nypa fruticans), Sea Pines (Casuarina equisetifolia), pandan (Pandanus sp.), cempaka (Michelia champaka), meranti (Shorea sp.), mersawa (Anisoptera curtisii), ramin (Gonystylus bancanus), keruing (Dipterocarpus sp.), damar (Agathis sp.), and rattan (Calamus sp.)

Visiting Bukit Barisan Seletan National Park

While you are within the Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, you may want to visit these spots: Tampang, Blubuk, Menjukut Lake, Way Sleman, Blimbing. In these areas, visitors can experience the true adventure of being in a real tropical forest by camping, jungle trekking, river cruising, swimming, canoeing, as well as other marine activities. Visitors can also observe the rare and exotic Rafflesia and Carrion Flowers, when in bloom.

1) Sukaraja Atas (Upper Sukaraja): The area is known to be the perfect spot to observe the tall Carrion Flowers(Amorphophallus decus-silvae). 2) Suwoh: Aside from forest exploring, camping, boating, and swimming, here visitors can also enjoy relaxing thermal springs. 3) Kubu Perahu: Here visitors can discover an enchanting waterfall, as they explore the forest.

To obtain an entry license, and information on the Park, visit:
Balai Besar Taman Nasional Bukit Barisan Selatan
Office: Jl. Ir. H. Juanda No. 19 kilometers 1
Tanggamus, Kota Agung 35751
Tel. (0722) 21064, South Lampung
Official Website: tnbbs.or.id/

If you are looking for accommodation, there are several modest inns at Liwa and Kota Agung. You can also stay at the Forest Protection and Natural Conservation (PHPA) office lodging, or with the locals. If you wish to experience a true adventure, comfortable beds and pillows are certainly not on the menu. Camping is the only way to be one with nature. Consult with the officers for designated camping areas.

Here are some regulations issued by the management regarding visits to BBSNP Based on government legislation no.59 year 1998, every visitor/vehicles entering BBNSP areas must pay an entrance and other fees accordingly. The maximum length of stay of tourists is seven days. Researchers must submit research application letters completed with proposals and reference letters from related institutions. During the research, they will be accompanied by BBNSP officers. Researcher must submit a copy of the research report. For researchers who wish to take samples of a protected organism specimen must obtain a special permit from the Directorate General of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation (PHKA) Visitors with purpose of imaging or taking films/videos must submit a written application addressing the head of BBSNP completed with the synopsis. During the production, BBSNP will escort the process, and a copy of the video/film must be submitted.

The main entry point to the Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park is from the town of Bandar Lampung. From Bandar Lampung you can take a bus from the Rajabasa Terminal to Kota Agung, the trip takes approximately two to three hours. Once you are at Kota Agung, don’t forget to get a permit at the Forest Protection and Natural Conservation (PHPA) office. From Kota Agung you can go straight to the BBSNP entrance at Tampang using a boat ride provided in the harbor. The boat trip along the coast will last between 5 to 7 hours, depending on the condition of the boat.

You can also take the Sedaya-Suwoh route although the trip will be a bit rough, since the roads are not fully asphalted. From Kota Agung take a Minibus headed to Sedaya. From Sedaya the only transportations available to Suwoh are motorbike taxies or “ojek”. Bear in mind that you can take this route during the dry season only. Alternately, from Sedaya you can also take an “Ojek” to Sukaraja Atas, which is another entrance.

Tropical Rainforest Parks of Sumatra

Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra is UNESCO World Heritage Site According to UNESCO: “The Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (TRHS), Indonesia comprises three widely separated National Parks; Gunung Leuser (GLNP), Kerinci Seblat (KSNP) and Bukit Barisan Selatan (BBSNP), and covers a total area of 2,595,124hectares, constituting one of the biggest conservation areas in Southeast Asia. The site is located on Bukit Barisan range and holds the greatest potential for long-term conservation of the diverse biota of Sumatra, including many endangered species. The protected area is home to an estimated 10,000 plant species, including 17 endemic genera; more than 200 mammal species; and some 580 bird species of which 465 are resident and 21 are endemic. Of the mammal species, 22 are Asian, not found elsewhere in the archipelago and 15 are confined to the Indonesian region, including the endemic Sumatran orang-utan. The site also provides biogeographic evidence of the evolution of the island. [Source: UNESCO]

“This serial World Heritage site comprises three widely separated nationally protected areas along the Bukit Barisan mountain range, which runs along the western side of the island of Sumatra. The sites are Gunung Leuser National Park in the northern provinces of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam and Sumatra Utara; Kerinci Sablat National Park in the south-central provinces of Sumatra Barat, Jambi, Sumatra Selatan and Benkulu; and Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park in the far southern provinces of Sumatra Selatan, Bengkulu and Lampung, partly bordering the south-west coast. The composite site, straddles the equator along the Bukit Barisan mountain range. This runs 1,650 kilometers down the western side of the island studded with active volcanoes. The eastern side of Sumatra is predominantly lowland and in the past has periodically been linked to the Asian mainland.

The TRHS includes the highest volcano in Indonesia, Gunung Kerinci (3,805 meters) along with many other physical features of exceptional natural beauty, including; Lake Gunung Tujuh the highest lake in Southeast Asia, numerous other volcanic and glacial high-altitude lakes, fumaroles, waterfalls, cave systems and steep rocky backdrops. Both Gunung Leuser National Park and Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park contain frontages to the Indian Ocean, making the altitudinal range of the TRHS extend from the highest mountains on Sumatra to sea level. All three protected areas in the TRHS exhibit wide altitudinal zonation of vegetation, from lowland rainforest to montane forest, extending to sub-alpine low forest, scrub and shrub thickets and covering an astounding diversity of ecosystems.

“Gunung Leuser National Park in the north is 150 kilometers long, over 100 kilometers wide and is predominantly mountainous. It covers most of the West Barisan, West Alas and East Barisan ranges and is almost divided by the Alas valley graben. Kerinci Sablat National Park in the center extends 350 kilometers down the spine of the Bukit Barisan. Three-quarters of the park is steep. Its highest point is the magnificent Gunung Kerinci - at 3,805 meters, the highest peak in Sumatra and highest volcano in Indonesia. It is active. Nearby Gunung Tujuh is an outstandingly beautiful crater lake at 1,996 meters. Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park is also 350 kilometers long but only 45 kilometers wide on average. The northern two-thirds are mountainous, averaging 1,500 meters with a high point at Gunung Pulung of 1,964 meters.The southern half is lower; 90 kilometers of it is a peninsula and the park borders the sea for half its length. Dozens of rivers originate in the park and there are several lakes and hot springs.

“The Indonesian archipelago contains 10 percent of the world's flowering plants and Sumatra, the third largest island, is the location of the Sumatran Islands Lowland and Montane Forests Ecoregion and part of the WWF's Sundaland hotspot. Its forests are among the largest tropical rainforests in South-East Asia, comparable with those of Borneo and Papua New Guinea...The Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra represent the most important blocks of forest on the island of Sumatra for the conservation of the biodiversity of both lowland and mountain forests. This once vast island of tropical rainforest, in the space of only 50 years, has been reduced to isolated remnants including those centered on the three components of the property. The Leuser Ecosystem, including the Gunung Leuser National Park, is by far the largest and most significant forest remnant remaining in Sumatra. All three parks would undoubtedly have been important climatic refuge for species over evolutionary time and have now become critically important refuge for future evolutionary processes.

Animals in Sumatran Rain Forest Parks

According to UNESCO: The biodiversity of the rain forest parks in Sumatra “is exceptional in terms of both species numbers and uniqueness. There are an estimated 10,000 species of plants, including 17 endemic genera. Animal diversity in TRHS is also impressive, with 201 mammal species and some 580 species of birds, of which 465 are resident and 21 are endemics. Of the mammal species, 22 are endemic to the Sundaland hotspot and 15 are confined to the Indonesian region, including the endemic Sumatran orang-utan. Key mammal species also include the Sumatran tiger, rhino, elephant and Malayan sun-bear. [Source: UNESCO]

“Sumatra has a high level of endemism, which is well represented in the nominated sites. It is evidence of the land bridge/barrier between the Sumatran biota and that of mainland Asia due to changes in sea level. Some of the animal distributions may also be evidence of the effect of the Mount Toba tuff eruptions 75,000 years ago. The Sumatran orangutan for example, is not found south of Lake Toba nor the Asian tapir north of it. The altitudinal range and connections between the diverse habitats in these areas must have facilitated the ongoing ecological and biological evolution. Key mammals of the parks are the Sumatran tiger, Sumatran rhino, orangutan, Sumatran elephant; also Malayan sun-bear and the endemics Sumatran grizzled langur, Hoogerwerf's rat. Rare birds noted in the site's nomination are Sumatran ground cuckoo, Rueck's blue flycatcher, Storm's stork and white-winged duck.

The species listed below represent a small sample of iconic and/or IUCN Red Listed animals and plants found in the property.
Asarcornis scutulata / White-winged Wood Duck
Carpococcyx viridis / Sumatran Ground-cuckoo
Chelonia mydas / Green Turtle
Ciconia stormi / Storm's Stork
Cynogale bennettii / Sunda Otter Civet
Cyornis ruckii / Rueck's Blue-flycatcher
Dicerhinos sumatrensis / Sumatran Rhinoceros
Elephas maximus sumatranus / Sumatran Elephant
Lutrogale perspicillata / Smooth-coated Otter
Macaca nemestrina / Southern Pig-tailed Macaque

All three parks that comprise the Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra are areas of very diverse habitat and exceptional biodiversity. Collectively, the three sites include more than 50 percent of the total plant diversity of Sumatra. At least 92 local endemic species have been identified in Gunung Leuser National Park. The property contains populations of both the world’s largest flower (Rafflesia arnoldi) and the tallest flower (Amorphophallustitanium). The relict lowland forests in the sites are very important for conservation of the plant and animal biodiversity of the rapidly disappearing lowland forests of Southeast Asia. Similarly, the montane forests, although less threatened, are very important for conservation of the distinctive montane vegetation of the property.

Threats to the Rainforest Parks of Sumatra

According to UNESCO: The three Sumtran rainforest parks straddle “the equator and comprises three widely separated nationally protected areas along the Bukit Barisan Mountain Range, running from Aceh in the north-west to Bandar Lampung in the south-east and representing whole or part of the three most significant remnant “islands” of the once vast Sumatran forests. Biological and ecological processes are preserved within the property because it contains a sufficiently large number of ecosystems, forest types, ranges of altitudes and topographies. The exceptionally beautiful features of Sumatra such as Gunung Tujuh and Gunung Kerinci are contained within the site in their entirety. [Source: UNESCO]

“The unique shape and size of the property provide significant habitat for in-situ conservation of thousands of Sumatran species, in particular species that require larger home ranges like Sumatran tiger, Sumatran orang-utan, Sumatran elephant, Sumatran rhino and Sumatran ground cuckoo. The property is a living laboratory for science and contains some of the most distinguished research centres in Indonesia (Way Canguk, Ketambe and Suaq Belimbing) and hosts international high-level collaborations from world renowned institutions.

“Threats to the integrity of the property include road development plans as well as agricultural encroachment. The main fundamental threatening processes are directly linked to the access provided by roads and failure to effectively enforce existing laws. Road access facilitates illegal logging, encroachment and poaching which all pose significant threats to the integrity of the component parks of the property. Collaboration with stakeholders, including Rhino Protection Unit (RPU), WWF Elephant Patrol, FFI Tiger Protection and Conservation, Zoological Society of London — Tiger Conservation has significantly reduced poaching incidents. Joint patrols with related parties including police officers and local government officers, and rangers recruited from local communities, support the Ministry of Forestry to enforce existing laws.

Conservation at the Rainforest Parks of Sumatra

According to UNESCO: “The TRHS is comprised of three national parks, and as such benefits from the highest protected area status under Indonesian law. All three parks are public lands designated as national parks by the Government of Indonesia and are managed by the Directorate General of Forest Protection and Forest Conservation (PHKA) within the Ministry of Forestry. The boundaries of the three component parts of the property require clear demarcation to indicate their location in the field. This is particularly important with regards to effective management of the property and the inclusion of important habitat national resources, but only a limited proportion of the property’s perimeter can be marked per year. For Kerinci Seblat National Park, the inclusion of 14,160 hectares former production forest of the Sipurak Hook area in 2004, delayed the recent boundary demarcation process due to the negative response from the inhabitants of the area.

“The property has strong and clearly explained management plans and each is included in the Indonesian Biodiversity National Strategy and Action Plan. Stakeholder forums have been established in each park and include bi-annual dialogue with local governments, national and international NGOs, local people and private sectors. However, there is variation in the involvement and contribution of these stakeholders in the three parks, which needs to be addressed. Intensive coordination among park management remains a priority with acknowledgement that coherent and coordinated protection measures among the three parks are paramount in the effective protection of flora and fauna, and particularly for threatened species.

“A Presidential decree on illegal logging and saw-mill eradication issued in 2005 was followed-up by an integrated effort from the provincial and district governments, as well as from the Departments of Justice, Police and Forestry. As a result these threats have been virtually eradicated from the property. Mining, which occurs exclusively outside the boundaries of the property, remains a potential threat to the property. Within the property anti-poaching units are active, while site-specific human-wildlife conflict mitigation and anti-encroachment efforts are in place. Encroachment remains the most complex and difficult issue affecting the property and attempts to address it at a national level through the “Kelompok Kerja Penanganan Perambahan”, an Indonesian-wide Anti Encroachment Task Force are required. The threat to the integrity of the property from road development requires effective planning, environmental assessment and regulatory measures to protect the property from damage to its Outstanding Universal Value.

“Routine forest patrols take place in every park, along with site-specific law enforcement actions and encroachment eradication programmes. The State Party has made financial support for the TRHS a priority, with the aim to improve ground level management, particularly concerning building staff capacity to combat illegal wildlife trade and encroachment. The size of the property, while providing a degree of protection, requires adequate and increased patrolling efforts and human resources to adequately cover the property, and establishment of an effective GIS based monitoring system would assist with this. The recruitment of local rangers is also encouraged. Invasive species also provide an additional emerging management issue in certain components of the property.”

Image Sources: Wikimedia Commons

Text Sources: Indonesia Tourism website ( indonesia.travel ), Indonesia government websites, UNESCO, Wikipedia, Lonely Planet guides, New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, National Geographic, The New Yorker, Bloomberg, Reuters, Associated Press, AFP, Japan News, Yomiuri Shimbun, Compton's Encyclopedia and various books and other publications.

Updated in August 2020

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