LAMPUNG PROVINCE: SUMATRA'S GATEWAY TO KRAKATAU AND JAVA

LAMPUNG PROVINCE

Lampung Province is Sumatra’s southernmost province. It includes the southern tip of Sumatra and the islands off shore, which include Krakatau. Bandar Lampung is the capital of Lampung. It is home to around 1 million people. Found here also is the Museum and Monument of the Krakatau Eruption, a huge steel buoy that had been washed ashore. by the tsunami. The town was devastated by the tsunami created by Krakatau.

The province is generally flat with the highest mountains of Gunung Pesagi, Tanggamas, Seminiung, Sekincau and Raya all being dormant volcanoes. Bandar Lampung, the Provincial capital, was formerly two separate towns, Tanjungkarang and the port of Teluk Betung, which after the infamous eruption of Krakatau were both completely covered in volcanic ash. In the course of development, however this town have merged together to become one single city.

Ancient Chinese travel chronicles refer to a place in the most southerly part of Sumatra called “Lampung” or “place of southerly winds”. This shows that Lampung has been there for quite a while. Some relics show that Lampung was once a part of Sriwijaya kingdom until 11th century. After that, Lampung became a part of Melayu kingdom. Some megalithic remains in Pugungraharjo are believed to be more than 1,000 years old. This shows some influences of Hinduism and Buddhism.

The fertile land of Lampung is famous for yielding pepper. No wonder the sultanate of Banten was anxious to get ahold of this area. Dutch East India Company managed to claim it until late 17th century. Dutch began transmigration to this area to overcome densely populated areas in Java. Most of the migrants.

Lampung has become a melting pot because of the people who have migrated there over the years. Some originated from Java, most have never ever set foot to Javanese land, content to be in Lampung. Influenced by neighboring provinces, Lampung people enjoy cuisine of all sorts. Most notably West Sumatran spicy food, that can be found almost anywhere. Palembang style food are also served in many places. Try sayur asam--sour vegetable soup, one of the specialties here.

Domestic airlines have daily flights from Jakarta. Rajabasa bus terminal is one of the busiest in Sumatra, with a constant flow of departures. The trip from Jakarta takes eight hours, which includes crossing Sunda Strait between Merak in java and Bakaheuni Lampung by ferry. Three trains run from Palembang daily..Tourism Office: Jl. Jend. Sudirman No. 2, Bandar Lampung, Tel. (62-721) 26430, fax: (62-721) 266184

Bandar Lampung

Bandar Lampung (165 kilometers northwest of Jakarta, near the southernmost point of Sumatra) is the capital and largest city of Lampung Province. Perched on the hills overlooking Lampung Bay, the city acts as an inter-island hub and main gateway to Sumatra from Java. The fourth largest city in Sumatra, Bandar Lampung is the starting point for visitors making their way to Way Kambas National Park and the Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park. The remants of Mount Krakatau can be approached from Lampung Province although most do it from Java.

Bandar Lampung is an amalgamation of two separate towns; Tanjungkarang on the hilly areas and Teluk Betung on the coast of Lampung Bay. In 1990, the two towns, along with the Panjang area converged into a single integrated city. Calling this the gateway to Sumatra is not an exaggeration. Its proximity to the Bakauheni Seaport and the international Airport of Radin Inten II in South Lampung makes it a central point, accessible both by air and sea. From the south end, Bandar Lampung is also the first major city on the inter-province highway called the Trans Sumatra. This highway leads all the way to the northern -most end of Sumatra as well as this large island’s western parts, covering a total distance of no less than 2,200 Kms. An overland journey on this road offers its own pleasures, as you will discover some of the best scenic views on Sumatra.

The catastrophic eruption of Mount Karaktau in 1883 had a profound effect on the area. The town of Teluk Betung suffered the heaviest blow. From a total of 36,000 million who died as a result of the eruption and ensuing tsunami, almost half were residents of Teluk Betung. As a reminder of this disaster, a huge steel buoy that was washed up from the sea has been made as monument commemorating the event. tsunami. Set in a small park on Veteran Street, the Krakatau Monument shows the sheer power of the eruption, and tsunami when a half-ton steel material could end up so far away from shore.

Krakatau Eruption

Krakatau, an island volcano west of Java, exploded on August 23, 1883. The blast was equal to 3,000 Hiroshima-size atom bombs, 26 times more powerful than the strongest hydrogen bomb, and 18 times more powerful than the Mt. St. Helens blast. Tsunamis as high as 100 feet were created. Eleven cubic miles of debris was sent flying into the atmosphere.

The most powerful explosion was twice as strong as the largest nuclear blast. It hurled pumice 34 miles into the air that fell 3,313 miles away 10 days later. Winds from the blast circled the earth seven times before they died down and waves escaped from the Indian Ocean below Cape Horn in the Atlantic and radiated into the English Channel, 11,500 miles away.

The noise was the loudest in recorded history. It was heard distinctly in central Australia 3000 kilometers away. Five thousand kilometers on the small island of Rodiguez "the roar of heavy guns" was heard and a captain ordered his ship out to sea. By some estimated the blast could be heard over one thirtieth of earth's surface. Some people in Texas claim they heard the sound.

Five cubic miles of ash was thrust into the air. Ash fell as far away as New York, and humans bones were carried 4,500 miles across the Indian ocean to Zanzibar. So much ash was thrust into the stratosphere the color of the sun turned green and temperatures around the globe dropped several degrees, producing blizzards in the midwestern United States in July. On the positive side, brilliant sunsets lingered for years all around the world.

Anak Krakatau

Anak Krakatau (50 kilometers west of West Java) is a small, extremely active volcano that rose from the ocean and disappeared five times before it established itself as a permanent island in 1930. Situated in the middle of a huge submerged caldera and approximately 100 meters high, the island was created after Krakatau collapsed during the famous cataclysmic eruption of 1883 that killed over 36,000 people and sent eleven cubic miles of debris flying into the atmosphere.

Anak Krakatau means “Child of Krakatau.” It has been very active since 1972 but tourist boats will take you there. In the late 1980s I talked to a group of travelers who went there and walked up to the crater which, at the time, was quiet. While they were standing there the mountain started to erupt and the they had to dash for their boats while fist-size volcanic bombs plummeted around them.

In the 1980s, most trips to Anak Krakatau were arranged from Carita and sometimes from Bandar Lampung or the small port of Kalianda. The advantage of Carita was that more travelers went there and you were more likely to rustle up enough people to charter a boat at a reasonable price. There were organized tours from Carita but often they didn’t get enough people so travelers had to charter a boat. Boats of all kinds could be charters but it was in your self interest to get one that was seaworthy. The seas off Krakatau can be quite rough and many travelers have got stuck in boats whose engines conked out at sea.

Now things are stricter and more organized. Anak Krakatau lies in a nature reserve., which permission is needed to enter. Visits to Krakatau Anak are generally put together by resorts, hotels or tour agencies. Some time may be needed to process the paperwork, which may mean you need to start making arrangements before you arrive in Indonesia.

The crater areas is generally regarded as too dangerous to visit. Travelers to Anak Krakatau generally climb a few hundred meters up the mountain but not ascend all the way to the crater and then visit some nearby islands. Setting foot on an active volcano is certainly a one of a kind sensation, and if fortunate or enough, visitors can watch as the Anak Krakatau volcano presents its active side. “Born” in 1927, the young volcano still frequently ejects smoke, lava and other volcanic materials as it continues to grow higher. The marine environment around the island offers its own attraction as it holds no less than 50 species of fish that live among its unspoilt coral reefs.

Visitors who set foot on the beach of Anak Krakaau say black volcanic sands is hot. Along the slopes and even around the crater of the new volcano you can now find fresh vegetation that has started to grow on this once barren land. The unique collection of flora found within Anak Krakatau Nature Reserve consists of: 206 kinds of Fungi, 13 kinds of Lichenes, 61 Pteridophyta and about 257 kinds of Spermatophyta. You may also come across some of the animals that inhabit the harsh terrain of the volcanic islands including various snakes, lizards, sea turtles, bats and others.

On nearby Sertung Island, visitors can swim, dive, and surf on its water. On Rakata (Krakatau Besar) Island visitors can enjoy rock climbing as an addition to the varying water activities. On the southwest side of Panjang (Krakatau Kecil) Island you can find an unspoiled coral reef along with its beautiful collection of fishes and other marine life.

Sights in Bandar Lampung

The Museum Sang Bumi Ruwa Jurai and the provincial Museum of Lampung have displays and collections related to the province. The Museum Sang Bumi Ruwa Jurai museum houses collections ranging from artworks, ceramics from China and ancient Siam, ancient currencies and many other. The museum is open daily, except Mondays and national holidays.

The Krakatau Monument records the sheer monumental power of Mount Krakatau when it erupted in 1883 right in the heart of Bandar Lampung. The eruption tossed this 500-kg steel buoy, attached to the bottom of the sea, to the then Dutch colonial resident’s office. The view of the remnants of Krakatau in South Lampung is worth a look.

At Kampung Ulok Gading and Kampung Kedamaian you can see the traditional houses of Lampung with traditional housewares, heirlooms and other traditional accessories. At Kampung Ulok Gading and Kampung Kedamaian you can observe the authenticity and originality of Lampung’s traditional houses. The architecture of the houses, their furniture and decoration maintain the authenticity of Lampung’s culture. On Lampung Bay, 20 kilometers south of the city center, visitors can enjoy the calm beach and the soft pearly white sand at the White sand Beach.

Accommodation in Bandar Lampung

Bandar Lampung has a wide selection of accommodation ranging from modest inns to starred hotels. Here is a list of some of places to stay in Bandar Lampung:
Hotel Marcopolo, Jl. Dr. Susilo No. 4 Bandar Lampung Telepon: +62 721 262511, fax: +62 721 254419
Hotel Kartika, Jl. KH. A. Dahlan No. 96 Bandar Lampung Telepon: +62 721 487994, fax: +62 721 485413
Hotel Hartono, Jl. Kesehatan No. 7 Bandar Lampung Telepon: +62 721 262525, fax: +62 721 267929
Hotel Nusa Indah, Jl. Raden Intan No. 132 Bandar Lampung Telepon: +62 0721 265242, fax: +62 721 264820
Hotel Hanum, Jl. Raden Intan No. 110 Bandar Lampung
Hotel Andalas, Jl. Raden Intan No.89 - Bandar Lampung 35118, Tel. 0721 261494|0721 263432, fax: 0721 261481

Citra Gemini Hotel 1 Kom L Yos Sudarso - Bandar Lampung 35225, Tel. 0721 483663|0721 485891
Dwipa Wisata Hotel, Jl. Ikan Tembakang No. 2B - Bandar Lampung, Tel. 0721 485306 Gading Hotel, Jl. Kartini No. 72 - Bandar Lampung 35116, Tel. 0721 - 255512, fax: 0721 - 255513
Kartini Jaya Hotel, Jl. RA Kartini No. 36-41 - Bandar Lampung, Tel. 0721 - 253939 Kemala Hotel, Jl. Gatot Subroto 73 - 75 - Bandar Lampung, Tel. 0721 - 262548, 254833, fax: 0721 - 254676
Kurnia Perdana Hotel, Jl. Raden Intan 14 - Bandar Lampung, Tel. 0721 - 26 2030, fax: 0721 - 26 2924
Lampung Indah Hotel, Jl. Kom L Yos Sudarso No.1 - Bandar Lampung, Tel. 0721 - 31917, 31099
Mahligai Puri, Jl. HOS Cokroaminoto - Bandar Lampung, Tel. 0721 - 253698
Mini I Hotel, Jl. Kartini No. 71/84 - Bandar Lampung, Tel. 0721 - 264052
Nirwana Hotel, Jl. Sukarno-Hatta No.88 - Bandar lampung, Tel. 0721 - 789248, 789249
Parahyangan Hotel, Jl. Teuku Umar - Bandar Lampung, Tel. 0721 - 25 5339
Pasific Hotel, Jl. Yos Sudarso No.3 - Bandar Lampung 35225, Tel. 0721 - 486874
Pondok indah, Jl. Gatot Subroto No.7 - Bandar Lampung, Tel. 0721 - 255998
Purnama Hotel, Jl. Raden Intan No.77 - 79 - Bandar Lampung, Tel. 0721 - 259288
Rarem Hotel, Jl. Way Rarem No. 23 - Bandar Lampung, Tel. 0721 - 261392, fax: 0721 - 252972

Ria Hotel, Jl. Kartini No. 179 - Bandar Lampung, Tel. 0721 - 2539743
Sampurna Jaya Hotel, Jl. Yusuf Kahar No. 15 Tanjung Pinang - Lampung, Tel. 0771 - 21555, fax: 0771 - 21269
Sari Damai Hotel, Jl. Teuku Umar No. 1 Kedaton - B.Lampung, Tel. 0721 - 701935, fax: 0721 - 7817963
Sriwijaya Hotel, Jl. Kalimantan No. 30 - Bandar Lampung, Tel. 0721 - 481046, 481284
Wijaya Kusuma Hotel, Jl. Dr. Susilo No. 26 Way Besar, Tel. 0721 - 25163

Shopping and Restaurants in Bandar Lampung

Bandar Lampung is famous for a special fabric known as the Kain Tapis. It is woven from silks, cottons or pineapple fiber, combined with gold or silver thread, Although Batik is mainly associated with Java, Lampung also has its share with the internationally acclaimed textiles. The Lampung Batik has its own unique patterns that distinguishes itself from others. Aside from Kain Tapis, the Lampung’s Batik patterns are also found in the Palepai, Tampan and Tabitin textiles.

Pasar Seni or Art Market is located at the Enggal Field within the Saburai Sports complex. It is the place where art lovers and art performers gather. There is an open air stage used to perform musicals and other art shows. There are also art shops selling various kinds of artworks and souvenirs.

Sharing almost similar taste with Palembang, most of Lampung’s culinary specialties are based on fish or seafood. If you happen to be in Bandar Lampung, you may want to try some of the variety of pindangs. Pindang is fish or seafood cooked in certain ways with a sour and a little bit of sweet taste almost similar to Thailand’s Tom Yam. The most distinctive delicacies of Lampung are the fish served with a durian sauce called Seruit. These and more of Lampung’s authentic culinary can be found throughout the many restaurants in the city. Here are a few restaurants you can find in Lampung as a reference. For snacks and light meals, you can try banana crackers, lempok, kemplang and many others. These snacks and souvenir can be found in many souvenir shops scattered around the city.

RESTORAN BUKIT RANDU ( Taman Kencana), Jl. Kamboja No. 1 — 2A — Bandar Lampung Telp +62 721 2566680- 81 Fax. +62 721 252838
RESTORAN GARUDA ( Talam Gangsa ), Jl. Kartini No. 31 — Bandar Lampung
RESTORAN NAGA MAS ( Talam Gangsa ), Jl. Yos Sudarso No. 272 Teluk Betung — Bandar Lampung Telp +62 721 483992, 470701
RESTORAN MORO SENENG, Jl. P. Diponegoro 164 — Bandar Lampung Telp +62 721 484386
RM. BEGADANG II, Jl. Diponegoro — Bandar Lampung Telp +62 721 253201

Getting Around and to Bandar Lampung

Getting around in Bandar Lampung is easy and relatively inexpensive because it is a small city. Traveling between the two main areas (Tanjungkarang to Teluk Betung) will only take about 30-40 minutes by car. If you to travel like locals do, you can try to take a ride in the angkutan kota or angkot, that run along different designated routes for different areas and are distinguished by different colors. When you are near your destination, don’t forget to shout “Stop Kiri”, asking the driver to stop at the left side, so you can get off. For more personal comforts, you can use taxis or Ojek (Motorbike taxies)

Bandar Lampung is accessible by air via the Radin Inten II international airport located at Branti Raya, South Lampung district. The airport was initially built for domestic flights, but since 2008 the airport was officially declared as an international airport and can accommodate large airplanes such as Boeing 737-200, to Boeing 737-500, Airbus A320. Flights to and from Lampung are served by the following airlines from Jakarta and Batam: Garuda Indonesia (from Jakarta), Merpati Nusantara Airlines (from Jakarta), Sriwijaya Air (from Jakarta), Batavia Air (from Jakarta and Batam) and Saudi Arabian Airlines (Jeddah) for hajj embarkation

Trains: Bandar Lampung is fortunate to be one of only two major cities in Sumatra to have fully operating railway systems. The single route train connects Bandar Lampung with Palembang in South Sumatra, charging IDR 28,000 for economy class, and IDR 80,000 for executive class. The train leaves daily at 08.30am and 09.00pm from the Tanjung Karang Station.

Buses: The Rajabasa bus terminal is the main public transportation center of the city. As one of the busiest terminals in Sumatra, the Rajabasa terminal is the destination of inter-provincial buses from Jakarta and other cities in Java. The terminal also connects Bandar Lampung with other major cities on the island, such as Palembang, Medan, Pekanbaru and more. Other terminals that can get you through some of the destinations in Bandar Lampung are: Sukaraja Terminal, Kemling Terminal, Panjang Terminal and Pasar Bawah Terminal

Here are the list of some of the travel agents available at Bandar Lampung:

Krakatau Lampung Tour and Travel, Jl. Kartini 19-25 Bandar Lampung 351167, Tel. 0721263625
Elendra Tour and Travel, Jl. Sultan Agung 32 Way Halim Bandar Lampung 35141, Tel. 0721704737
333 Tour and Travel, Jl. Ikan Banyung 2 Sukaraja Teluk Betung, Bandar Lampung, Tel. 0721485579
Wayka Bahari Villa Citra Blok RD 10, Jl. Antasari Bandar Lampung, Tel. 0721706123 Wita Sejahtera Permai, Jl. Ikan Lumba-lumba 39 Bandar Lampung 3522307, Tel. 0721481889
Eleste Tour and Travel, Jl. Ikan Simba 23 Teluk Betung, Bandar Lampung, Tel. 0721482325
Megah Express International Tour and Travel, Jl. Yos Sudarso 32-34 Bandar Lampung, Tel. 0721081181
Femmy Tour and Travel, Jl. W. Mongonsidi 134 Bandar Lampung 35215, Tel. 0721482593

Places in Lampung Province

White Sand Beach (20 kilometers from Lampung) is known in Bahasa Indonesian as Pantai Pasir Putih. You can ride a motorboat to circle the beach and visit Condong and Bule island. Bule Island has reasonably good snorkeling with many varieties of fish and coral reefs. You can hire a boat and view the marine life through the wooden boxes that have a glass on them in one side. If you put the box in the sea water using the glassy side on the bottom, you'll be able to view the life in the sea. You can also have a picnic in this beach. Should you wish to spend the night in the middle of the island, you can stay at an inn in Condong Island. The furnishing is simple yet comfortable. A luxurious villa is available in Bule Island. If you don't want like crowded beach, visit this site on weekdays. To can reach the beach by hiring a car or take public transportation from Lampung to Pantai Pasir Putih.

Lake Ranau (150 kilometers northwest of Bandar Lampung) is the second largest lake on Sumatra after Lake Toba. It was formed by a major earthquake and volcanic eruption. A big river which previously flowed at the foot of the volcanic mountain was blocked and water filled the ravine. Various types of plants incuding bushes locally known as ranau, then grew by the lake and while the remains of the mountain became Mount Seminung, which currently stands tall beside the clean lake water. Marisa Island is located in the middle of the lake. It has a natural hot water spring.

Ferry Between Java and Sumatra: The ferry between the Javanese port of Merak and Bakuheni in souther Sumatra operates 24 hours a day.

Tanjung Setia Beach: Southern Sumatra’s Surfers Paradise

Tanjung Setia Village ( 273 kilometers or 6-7 hours driving from Bandar Lampung) lies directly in the path of large Indian Ocean currents that bless it with constant surfable waves. It has yet to attain the kind of fame that other surf spots in Java, Sumatra and Bali have achieved but that may be a good thing as it means fewer tourists and more surf to go round. Secluded along the western coast of Lampung, beyond the thick forests of the Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, Tanjung Setia Village is located in West Lampung district. Although obscured from spotlights, the waves at Tanjung Setia are touted as among the world's best by surfers from all over the globe, and at par with the world famous surf of Hawaii.

During the peak surfing months, which last from June to August, waves can reach up to six and even spectacular seven meters in height and stretch for as long as 200 meters, making them a prime playground for surfers. Sticking to a true surfer's lifestyle, these tides’ riders often stay up to two weeks during a single visit, craving for ever bigger and better waves. Tanjung Setia also boasts a near virgin condition and some stunning natural beauty. Its soft white sandy beaches that stretch from shore to shore and breathtaking sunsets offer their own fascinating attractions next to the challenging waves. The shores of Tanjung Setia Beach are also decorated with lush palm trees that give it a picturesque landscape and relaxing ambience as one waits for the perfect waves.

Far from the shorelines and raging waves, the seas off the coast of Tanjung Setia Beach await fishing enthusiasts to discover their rich treasures. From all the various collection of fish, the legendary Blue Marlin giant fish obviously outshines other catch. Locally known as Iwa Tuhuk, Blue Marlins here can weigh roughly between 50 to 70 Kilograms and measure up to 170 centimeters in length. The sensation of heaving in the reel in a fight against one of these deep sea beasts is an experience unmatched by any other. The diving sites here are also legendary among dive aficionados, although nowhere near as popular as their counterparts in Manado or, again, in Bali.

Surfing Spots at Tanjung Setia Beach

Some of the best surfing spots of the area: Ujung Bocur: Often incorrectly referred to as Karang Nyimbor, and often compared to Uluwatu in Bali, Ujung Bocur is a long, consistent lefthander with alternating barrel and turn sections. On its day, it can provide fun barrels and long, fast 200m+ rides.

Way Jambu: Often referred to as 'The Sumatran Pipeline' by visiting surfers, or dubbed 'absolute evil’ by local fishermen, Way Jambu offer experienced surfers the barrel of their lives.

Krui Reefs: The waves by the town of Krui require a pretty huge swell to get going, but once they do, be on them. The left is often compared to Bingin on Bali with a less consequential reef, while the right offers long rippable walls and the odd barrel. Whenever Ujung Bocur’s wares come in huge or the swell direction is just right, these waves are some of the best ever.

Jimmy’s is one of the areas premiere waves. If the wind is on or at side shore along Ujung or in Krui, cruise to Jimmy’s and enjoy either a long, hollow challenging left or a sucking, slightly less hollow right. Both break off at the headland facing an amazing stretch of white sand beach.

The Peak is a short right tube that fizzles out into deep water. Drop in, get barreled, and repeat. Like the other Krui waves, one needs a big swell to get going. This is also popular with the body board crowd.

Accommodation and Getting to Tanjung Setia Beach:

There are several hotels and modest inns you can find within the vicinity of West Lampung. Most of them are located in the district’s capital Liwa, and some are within the area of Tanjung Setia Beach. There are also several surf camps within the Tanjung Setia. Here are a number of the accommodations you can find: 1) Hotel Jembar Manah, address : Jalan Raya Pasar Liwa, Tel. +62-728-21012; 2) Hotel Karang Nyimbor, Address: Jalan Raya Tanjung Setia, Pesisir Selatan,Biha; 3) Hotel Permata, address : Jalan Raya Way Mengaku,Liwa, Tel. +62-728-21022; 4) Hotel Pesagi, Address: Jalan Raya Sebarus,Liwa, Tel. +62-728-21252; 5) Wisma Sindalapai Address: Jalan Raden Intan No.1 Liwa, Tel. +62-728-21750; 6) Kepalas Losmen, Address: Krui, Tel. +62 828 721 1215.

Tanjung Setia Village, Pesisir Selatan of the West Lampung district, is situated some 52 kilometers away from the district’s Capital Liwa in the direction of Krui, and 273 kilometers or some 6-7 hours drive from the province’s capital Bandar lampung. If you wish to take public transportation you can take the Krui Putra bus from Rajabasa Terminal at Bandar Lampung that passes through the Trans Sumatra Highway, and stops directly at Tanjung Setia Beach. The bus will charge around IDR 40,000 to IDR 50,000. Along the way, you will be presented with some of the stunning sceneries of Bukit Barisan Mountain ridge with slopes and winding turns on relatively smooth roads.

Image Sources: Wikimedia Commons

Text Sources: Indonesia Tourism website ( indonesia.travel ), Indonesia government websites, UNESCO, Wikipedia, Lonely Planet guides, New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, National Geographic, The New Yorker, Bloomberg, Reuters, Associated Press, AFP, Japan News, Yomiuri Shimbun, Compton's Encyclopedia and various books and other publications.

Updated in August 2020

This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been authorized by the copyright owner. Such material is made available in an effort to advance understanding of country or topic discussed in the article. This constitutes 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. If you are the copyright owner and would like this content removed from factsanddetails.com, please contact me.