Jodhpur (340 kilometers from Jaipur) is one of the most distinctive of Rajasthan's many princely settlements. Founded by Rao Jodha, the chief of Rathore clan, in the Thar Desert in 1459, the city was the center of the Rathore Rajputs, famous for their tales of bravery and daring. Jodhpur is famous today for its impressive fortified bastions, especially those of Mehrangarh Fort, which over the years have been the sites of many battles. Most of the palaces were built during times of peace, and thus they are laid out on open grounds and spread out in a European style.
Jodhpur is known as the “Blue City.” Many buildings have been painted blue to help keep them cool in temperatures that often near 49 degrees C (120 degrees F). National Geographic photographer Steve McCurry wrote: Jodhour “feels like a vast movie set. Camels and cows stroll the alleyways, men play chess in courtyards, and it’s all set against the backdrop of iridescent blue...I guess when you are surrounded by drab, brown desert, you create your own color!”
The second-largest city in Rajasthan, Jodhpur is an architectural marvel. A labyrinth of medieval lanes, interspersed with vibrant markets, criss-cross the city, which enjoys a languid pace of life. As you explore the city, Jodhpur charms you with its rich royal legacy that is evident in notable landmarks like the opulent Umaid Bhawan Palace, the majestic Jaswant Thada and the scenic Mandore Gardens, all of which were built by the city's Rajput rulers. Jaswant Thada is a palace constructed with thin sheets of marble that allow the sun to filter in. Mahamandir (three kilometers away) features exquisite wall paintings and 84 pillars. A 10-kilometer-long wall with eight huge gates divides the old and the new parts of the city, giving tourists an opportunity to experience the unique features of Jodhpur's ancient past rubbing shoulders with its cosmopolitan present
Getting There: By Air: Jodhpur Domestic Airport is 5 kilometers away from the city center. The city being a prime tourist spot is connected by all private and national air carriers. By Road: Jodhpur is well-connected to major cities of India by road. The highway has good connectivity from Jaipur, Delhi, Jaisalmer, Bikaner and Agra. By Train: The city is well connected by the railway lines and trains are available from all metro cities.
Shopping in Jodhpur
Jodhpur is a bustling trading center known for its carpets and handicrafts. Its vibrant bazaars are lined with big and tiny shops where you can buy exquisite Rajasthani textiles, clay figurines, miniature camels and elephants, marble inlay work and classic silver jewelry. To experience the soul of the city, head to its bustling bazaars that offer a fine selection of the spiritual Pichwai paintings, Jodhpuri pants or breeches, exquisite bandini or bandhej (tie and dye) saris, beautiful badla embroidered lehengas and morchang, a popular Rajasthani folk music instrument. Carpet makers offer tours of their carpet-making facilities before going into their sales pitch.
Stroll through the colorful markets as you bargain good-naturedly with the shopkeepers for their numerous wares; explore the narrow gullies that hold some of the best spoils in Jodhpur; pick up lovely dupattas with exquisite mirror work, jutis with intricate embroidery and embellished with bells and tassels. Head to Ghanta Ghar, also known as clock tower market, and ranked number 1 by the residents for its wide array of spices, pretty handicrafts, fabrics with intricate embroidery done by hand, flavored teas and rare antiques. Next, make your way to Nai Sarak for Jodhpur s famous tie-and-dye fabrics, saris, bandhej suit pieces, turbans and dupattas. For souvenirs, Sojati Gate Market is a good bet, offering jewelry and handicrafts. You can also get beautiful designs of mehendi (henna) applied on your hand.
Mochi Bazaar is the best place for jutis, available in a host of colors and designs, while Umaid Bhawan Palace market is known for antique furniture, copper ware and paintings. If you want to upgrade your wedding season wardrobe, head straight to Kapraa Bazaar to pick up leheriya , the traditional Rajasthani attire.Jodhpur is also very famous for its silver work, and Sarafa Bazaar is a one-stop shop for all things silver. Pick up a heavy silver bracelet or a delicate anklet set with semi-precious stones you ll be spoilt for choice. Finally, if you re looking to make your parties fancier, head to Tripolia Bazaar for colorful, rich crockery in an array of designs and motifs.
Food And Cuisine from Jodhpur
Jodhpur boasts a busy culinary scene with delicacies like the savoury pyaz-ki-kachori, the spicy mirchi bada and the thick and sweet makhaniya lassi. The deliciously thick makhaniya lassi can be the highlight of a foodie's trip to Jodhpur. It is sweet and is topped with malai, a dollop of white butter and grated dry fruits. First, kesar or saffron is soaked in hot milk; then, curd, sugar and cardamom are blended together, and the kesar infusion is added to this mixture. The liquid is finally poured into a tall glass, and topped off with cream, nuts and unsalted butter. This cooling and delicious drink is a welcome respite during your travels in the desert state.
Mirchi bada is a popular Jodhpuri street food. It is prepared with thick and less spicy green chillies that are stuffed with a little spicy-tangy potato stuffing, and dipped in gram flour batter, then deep fried until golden and crispy. It tastes best when served with zingy coriander chutney or tomato sauce, and pairs well with another street food, mawa kachori. During monsoon season, when the temperatures dip and a cool breeze flows through town, a hot cup of tea accompanied by a plate of steaming mirchi bada is unbeatable, with the locals thronging the stalls and shops selling this delicacy. Now, it has made its way to other parts of the country, known in South India as menasinakayi (chilli) bajji, and mirch pakora in north India.
Ker sangri is a traditional Rajasthani dish made with dried ker berry and sangri beans, and is extremely popular among vegetarians. A typical desert vegetable, ker is found in the more arid parts of Rajasthan. It was discovered during a long period of famine – when every other vegetable had died, these long beans and berries grew in abundance, allowing the villagers to survive the famine, while also inventing a dish that would become a must at every Marwari wedding. It has a tangy flavor and goes down well with bajra roti. In its raw form, ker is very sour, and is therefore soaked in salt water, washed and dried in the sun before being cooked. Sangri beans are plucked while they are still raw, boiled, and then sun-dried. They can be preserved for up to a year.
Pyaz-ki-kachori is a savoury snack that is stuffed with a mixture of onion, potato and dry fruits, along with red chilli powder, green chillies, and a host of Indian masalas. The mixture is then deep fried until golden, and is best-consumed hot. This kachori is an explosion of flavors in the mouth and is generally a Sunday special breakfast in many households of Jodhpur. Light on the stomach but rich in taste, pyaz-ki-kachori is the ultimate appetiser for any occasion. It is served with a generous helping of mint or tamarind chutney, and is sometimes paired with aloo jeera or aloo methi. Tea usually accompanies a plate of pyaz-ki-kachori.
Mehrangarh Fort (Jodhpur) is considered to be best preserved desert fortress in Rajasthan. Described by Kipling as the creation of "angels fairies and giants," it is a huge, sprawling complex with several palaces established by. Maharajah Rao Jodhu on a 400-foot hill in the 16th century at a time when Jodhpur’s main clan, the Rathores, were involved in tribal warfare. The Rathores maintained their kingdom and the fortress until 1941.
Mehrangarh Fort offers wonderful views of Jodhpur, one can trek to the top to see the city spread like a blue ocean at the foot of a hill. The palaces in the fort — Moti Mahal, Phool Mahal and Sheesh Mahal — feature exquisite latticed windows, carved panels, and intricately decorated windows and walls.
The rooms are decorated with gold ceilings, lacquered walls, and jewel-encrusted furniture. There is a room containing palanquins used by palace women. Near the main entrance to the fort are sati handprints, made with red dye. By one account they were made by captives who chose death over imprisonment, In another story they were painted by widows before immolating themselves after the death of their husband. After one Jodhpur ruler died, six queens and 58 of his mistress reportedly threw themselves on his funeral pyre.
The Elephant Howdah gallery on the southern side of Shringar Chowk displays the elephant seats used by the royals of Jodhpur. The most striking of these is the silver howdah presented to Maharaja Jaswant Singh I (1629-1678), the ruler of Marwar, by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, as a symbol of honour. Check out the Daulat Khana, literally translating to wealth store, where the royal treasury was kept; the painting gallery, showcasing a marvellous collection of miniature paintings of the Marwar School; cloth gallery, where the plush carpets, rich brocades and heavy velvets of the royals of Jodhpur have been preserved; the Sileh Khana, which was the royal armoury; and galleries where exquisite wooden crafts, cradles and turbans of the princely families can be viewed.
There are seven gates that need to be crossed in order to reach the fort. The gates still bear the marks of the battles fought in the past. One of the seven gates has been named Jaya Pol, meaning victory. It was built by Maharaja Man Singh, the ruler of Jaipur, to commemorate his victories over Jaipur and Bikaner armies. Fateh Pol was built by Maharaja Ajit Singh (1861-1901), the ruler of Marwar, to celebrate the defeat of the Mughals.
Jaswant Thada (Mehrangarh Fort) is a 19th century royal cenotaph built by Maharaja Sardar Singh to commemorate his father Maharaja Jaswant Singh II, the 33rd Rathore ruler of Jodhpur. A beau ideal of architectural excellence, it is a white marble memorial built out of intricately carved thin sheets of marble that allow the sun to filter in and shine when hit by sunlight. Today, Jaswant Thada serves as a museum and gallery of sorts, displaying memorabilia, including paintings and portraits of the rulers of Jodhpur, to the public. The grounds of the thada serve as a venue for morning concerts during music festivals such as the Rajasthan International Folk Festival and the World Sacred Spirit Festival, prompting thousands of tourists to flock to the city in search of recreation and musical enlightenment.
Umaid Bhawan Palace
Umaid Bhawan Palace is an extraordinary 347-room palace. Regarded as the world largest home, was completed in 1942 after taking 3,000 workers 14 years t build. Now a luxury hotel, it looks more like something you'd find in the English countryside not the desert of Rajasthan. The maharajah and his family still live in part of the palace. Part of it is a museum. The hotel there was named the World's best hotel by TripAdvisor’s Traveler's Choice Award.
Originally conceived as public works project to employ the maharajah's subjects during a prolonged period of drought and famine, the palace is 710 feet long and 340 feet wide. Made from a kind of sandstones that doesn't deteriorate in the rain, "it has the look and feel of a monolithic government building — cold and impersonal. But what it lacks in old-world charm and character is compensated for by the ostentatious." Balsamand and Kalyana lakes, located in near Umaid Bhawan Palace, are favorite places to watch sunset.
The palace boasts a grand staircase lined with stuffed leopards, a stuffed bear holding a sherry bottle near the bar, a billiard room, a whispering gallery in the 105-foot-high cupola, a circular indoor swimming pool tiled with an astrological calendar, an art-deco bathroom in the Mharani suite and 15 aces of gardens. The palace museum contains a collection of clocks, solid silver palanquins and an armory of medieval sword and spears. It is not difficult to understand why several of the Maharajahs of Jodhpur died early deaths from "living life to the hilt."
John Ward Anderson and Molly Moore wrote in the Washington Post: "Designed by an English architect and rigidly symmetrical, with two wings built around massive courtyards flanking a 185-foot-high dome in the center, Umaid Bhawan is a curious synthesis of imperial British Raj, Hindu prince and art deco...The two bedroom suites of the maharajah and his wife — each measuring about 7,000 feet — are considered by art historians to be among the finest examples of art deco style anywhere in the world. The four-room Maharajah's Suite — with a massive bed sporting a floor-to-ceiling mirror as a headboard and a sitting room with leopard-skin chairs and murals of warriors in battle — is available for $725 per night. [Source: John Ward Anderson and Molly Moore, Washington Post, November 6, 1994
“Built by and named after Maharaja Umaid Singh, the ruler of Jodhpur (1918-1947), Umaid Bhawan Palace is considered as one of the most opulent and largest homes ever built. Showcasing a lovely blend of eastern and western architectural influences, it boasts large viewing balconies, tall ceilings and sturdy stone pillars. The palace sits on Chittar Hill, the highest point in Jodhpur, and gives a fascinating view of the blue city. From here, one can capture stunning pictures.
“The palace is surrounded by splendid gardens and houses over three hundred and fifty rooms. It was converted into a heritage hotel in 1977, and is now segmented into a museum, the Royal residence, and a Heritage Hotel. The Taj Hotel Group owns and maintains one wing of the palace. It has suites that are categorised as the Maharani Suite, Maharaja Suite, Royal Suite, Regal Suite and Deluxe rooms, allowing guests to get the essence of royal life, given that Maharani Badan Kanwar of Jodhpur actually lived here for some time. The hotel ingratiates itself to guests with elegant dining, a spa and a yoga studio. The grand property also houses a museum that is open to all. The museum has exhibits of glass, porcelain wares, memorabilia, and information on the building of the palace.
Khichan Village is a stopover for migratory birds. The evenings here are nice, when the temperatures of the desert dip and birds glide over the smooth water of the Khichan Bird Sanctuary.
Osian (60 kilometers from Jodhpur) was an important caravan stop, trading center, and Jain learning center. Today its 16 temples Jain and Hindu temples are the city's main attraction. these temples date back to the eighth and eleventh century.
Pali (70 kilometers from Jodhpur) is home to beautiful Jain temples and historical monuments. Tourists can visit the well-manicured Lakhotia Gardens, which are surrounded by the tranquil Lakhotia Lake. Parshuram Mahadev Temple, dedicated to Lord Parshuram, is situated amongst the Aravalli mountain ranges and great views. Bangur Museum and Jawai Dam are worth a visit too. The latter is built over River Jawai, a tributary of River Luni. At Jawai Dam Crocodile Sanctuar you can see migratory birds, and various species of mammals like leopards and observe crocodiles basking in the mid-day sun on the banks of the dam’s reservoir.
Pali shares boundary with eight other districts in Rajasthan, namely Sirohi and Jalore in the south and southwest, Ajmer in the northeast, Rajmasand and Udaipur in the southeast, Barmer in the west and finally, Nagaur and Jodhpur in the north. You can make a day-visit to any of these towns to delve deeper into the culture of Rajasthan, which flourishes in its beautiful and less touristy smaller towns.
Mandore (10 kilometers from Jodhpur) was once the capital of ancient Marwar. The ancient city is most famous for the cenotaphs built in honor of Maharajah Jaswant Singh and Maharajah Ajit Singh. These structures are crowned with soaring spires and embellished with sculptured reliefs reflecting the glories of ancient Marwar. The 16 Hindu and folk deities in the Hall of Heroes are carved from a single piece of stone.
Mandore Gardens are lush, verdant gardens are well-planned, with leafy trees that foster a pleasant and peaceful environment. You can spend a leisurely afternoon in the shade of these trees, while brushing up on the history of Mandore, which is steeped in royal occupation. Tourists can admire the dewals or cenotaphs, dating back to the 17th and 18th centuries, of Jodhpur's former rulers that are set in the landscaped lawns.
The most striking dewal by far is that of Maharaja Ajit Singh, the ruler of Marwar (1861-1901). The cenotaphs of the Maharani are set on a rocky outcrop over the hill. The dewals are made from red sandstone, with intricately carved pillars, wide corridors, tall spires and sculptures.
Near the cenotaphs is the hall of heroes that is dedicated to various deities and Rajput folk heroes. The statues of the deities and heroes have been carved out of rock and painted in bright colors. While here, don t forget to explore the temple, known as the temple of 33 crore gods, with images of Hindu gods adorning the complex. You can also check out the Government Museum, which houses relics and artefacts significant to the area.
Ranakpur Jain Temple
Ranakpur Temple (between Udaipur and Jodhpur) is located in Ranakpur village and is surrounded by Aravalli Hills. The main temple of Ranakpur, Chaumukha Mandir (four-faced temple), is dedicated to Adinath, the first Jain tirthankar (saint), and is therefore an important shrine for the Jain community in India.
Made entirely out of white marble, the temple comprises 29 halls, 80 domes, 400 columns and 1,444 individually engraved pillars. The pillars themselves are a thing of utmost beauty, adorned with peach and beige hues. They display intricate carvings of elephants, flowers, and people. Interestingly, no two pillars are the same!
Ranakpur Temple features high, domed ceilings and wide corridors. The ceilings are ornamented with intricate carvings of nymphs and celestial maidens playing musical instruments. There are five spires, and you can find a 6-ft-high statue of Adinath under the largest spire at the entrance.
The interior has been designed in a way that allows for a cool breeze to blow through the hallways and courtyards constantly. The best time to visit the temple is between October and February, when the weather remains pleasant.
Ranakpur Temple is surrounded by two other Jain temples, dedicated to Neminath (the 22nd tirthankar) and Parshvanath (the 23rd tirthankar), both within the complex. All three temples are carved out marvellously and provide a sense of tranquility to the visitors. One should not fail to visit the nearby Sun Temple and Amba Mata Temple while in Ranakpur, which are just as lovely.
Bikaner (270 kilometers from Jodhpur) is a modern desert city known for its beautiful sandstone architecture and mirror-work fabric. Established by a desert chief in the 15th century, this parched city is most famous for its palaces decorated with images of huge monsoon clouds and sheets of rain. Worth checking out her are the camel breeding farm, the exquisite red sandstone palaces of Anup Mahal, Bdal Mahal and Lallgarth. The marble-fronted Deshnoke temple provides a sanctuary for thousands of sacred rats, who are believed to be incarnations of the god Durga. Bikaner is also a jumping off point for camel safaris in the Thar Desert
Bikaner is situated in an area of golden undulating sand dunes. Nestled in the Thar desert, this city has its share of gigantic and spectacular forts and palaces. The old part of the city has a rich history. From it the region was ruled by Rao Bika, the prince of the Rathore clan, beginning in 1488. Surrounded by high stone walls, the older part of the city is full of culture and tradition. Five gigantic gates lead you into a labyrinth of lanes that are dotted with quaint bright red and yellow sandstone houses. The bustling bazaars offer exquisite handicrafts and delicious cuisine. Bikaneri shawls, blankets, carpets, candy and famous lacquerware handicrafts. From beautiful glass work and attractive mojris (traditional shoes) to pottery, you will be spoilt for choice. While in Bikaner, don't forget to buy the Geographical Indicator (GI) tag, bhujiya, which is a delightful snack.
Getting There: By Air: The nearest airport is Civil Airport at Jodhpur, which is 253 kilometers away. By Road: The bus stand is north of the city center. There are frequent express buses to Agra, Ahmedabad, Ajmer, Barmer, Delhi, Jaipur, Jaisalmer, Jhunjhunu, Jodhpur, Kota and Udaipur. By Train: Bikaner has railway connections to several destinations in India including Jaipur, Jaisalmer, Churu, Jodhpur, Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Guwahati etc.
Sights in Bikaner
Lalgarh Palace is an architectural gem with an interesting blend of Rajputana, European and Mughal architecture. The exterior of this palace, built with sandstone, has an Indian influence, while the interior, replete with drawing rooms, smoking rooms, grand halls, lounges, pavilions and cards rooms, boast a quintessential British style. The complex of the palace features magnificent pillars, elaborate fireplaces, Italian colonnades, a museum and a library. Two wings of the palace serve as luxury hotels while one of them houses the royal family of Bikaner. Tourists must visit the museum at the palace to gain insight into the princely lives of the rulers of Bikaner. The best time to visit is from November to February when the weather is pleasant.
Junagarh Fort is one of the most decorated forts in India and houses opulent palaces that give you a peek into the lives and times of the maharajas of Bikaner. Unlike most forts in Rajasthan, this one has not been built on a high rock and has lower ramparts and towers. This is indicative of the fact that it was built more for luxury than defense. The fortified complex houses many beautiful palaces, which are reflective of the various rulers who once lived here. Historians say that the Junagarh Fort is a living museum of arts that features an Indo-Mughal architecture. The red sandstone used in the fort is said to have been brought from Jaisalmer.
Palaces within the fort are built around courtyards that are conceived as public squares. These palaces include the Badal Mahal Palace, the Gaj Mandir Palace, the Phool Mahal Palace, the Anup Mahal Palace, the Hawa Mahal Palace and the Vikram Vilas Palace. The famous Anup Mahal is renowned for the exquisite usta work in Mughal style that is seldom encountered anywhere else. It is said that the Badal Mahal was built to please Maharaja Sardar Singh (1895-1911), who was a great lover of music. The blue walls of this palace are beautifully painted with white clouds (badal).
The Hawa Mahal Palace at the top floor was built to enjoy cool winds in the summer season while the Gaj Mandir Palace presents a wonderful display of marble inlay work. Inspired from the palaces in Europe, the Vikram Vilas Palace was built by Maharaja Ganga Singh (1888-1943) and became the Darbar Hall, where the rulers held court. Don't miss the DH9 De Haviland war plane, which was presented to Maharaja Ganga Singh by the British government to recognise the contribution of the Bikaner State Forces during the First World War.
Gajner Wildlife Sanctuary (32 kilometers from Bikaner) contains nilgai, chinkara, black buck, wild boar, flocks of imperial sand grouse and many other species of migratory birds. Primarily created to serve as a lodge for the royal family, it was converted into a luxury hotel in 1976. It is nestled atop a small hill, Gajner Palace (32 kilometers from Bikaner) sprawls over an area of 6,000 acres. Situated on the banks of the serene Gajner Lake, its architectural beauty is delightful. It is an ideal spot to engage in boat rides, sanctuary dinners, desert safaris and pleasant nature-walks. Gajner Palace was founded by Maharaja Gaj Singh (1746-1787) of Bikaner in 1784 and then completed by the great Maharaja Ganga Singh (1888-1943). Naguar (50 kilometers south of Bikaner) hosts a large camel fair and is known too for its Jain temples.
Kolayat (50 kilometers from Bikaner) is one of the most visited religious sites in Rajasthan that is famed for the holy Kolayat Lake. There are several temples near the lake but the most famous of them is the Kapil Muni Temple. According to legend Kapil Muni, the advocate of Shankya Yoga, was smitten with Kolayat's peaceful vibe and carried out a penance for the improvement of the world. The place even finds a mention in the holy scriptures of Hindus as Kapilayatan. After visiting the temple, tourists can relax at the peaceful ghats of the tranquil lake and catch a beautiful sunset or visit the nearby bustling market and shop for local handicrafts of Bikaner. The town is also famous for hosting the annual Kolayat Fair during Kartik Purnima, which draws devotees and tourists from all parts of the country. The best experience one can take during the fair is attending the evening event, Deep Malika, when devotees float earthen lamps in the sacred lake as a ritual. Kolayat can be easily reached using private and public transport.
Kalibangan (210 kilometers from Bikaner, between the towns of Hanumangarh and Suratgarh) holds immense archaeological significance and introduces tourists to the culture and town-planning finesse of the 5,000-year old Indus Valley civilisation. Famed for excavations from the Pre-Harappan and Haraapan period, Kalibangan makes for an intriguing excursion, especially for archaeology enthusiasts and history lovers. It was Dr Amlanand Ghosh of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) who first identified the Kalibangan Archaeological Site as Harappan following which excavations were carried out. Visiting the site is truly a lot of fun as one comes across the relics of the Harappan and the Pre-Harappan settlements. The excavations include Harappan seals, scripts, bangles, coins, toys, terracotta and many other structures including a fort and streets. The most startling discovery, however, was that of the world's earliest known ploughed agricultural field. The Kalibangan Archaeological Museum was established in 1983 and displays Pre-Harappan materials and Harappan artefacts. According to archaeological findings, the first recorded earthquake took place at this site in 2600 B.C., which marked the end of the Pre- Harappan civilisation.
Rat Temple in Deshnok
Deshnok (30 kilometers from Bikaner) is the home of the famous rat temple of Karni Mata, who is believed to be an incarnation of Goddess Durga. The temple houses as many as 25,000 rats who are known as Kaabas. You are supposed to take your shoes off before you enter this temple. It is considered highly auspicious to have a white Kaaba run across your feet as they are believed to be the sons of Karni Mata. Around 600 families of the Charan clan claim to be the descendants of Karni Mata and believe that they will be reincarnated as rats.
Karni Mata is also the Kul Devi of Bikaner's royal family. She lived in the 14th century and performed many miracles. One of the popular legends associated with the temple is that when Laxmana, the stepson of Karni Mata drowned in the Kapil Sarovar while attempting to drink water, Karni Mata prayed to Yama Raj (the God Of Death) so ardently that he not only brought back Laxmana to life but reincarnated all her sons in the form of rats.
It's interesting to note that these rats don't spread any kind of stink like rats usually do and they have never been the cause for spreading any disease either. Eating food that has been nibbled on by the rats, is in fact considered auspicious. In front of the temple is a beautiful marble facade, which has solid silver doors. The building was completed in its current form in the early 20th century by Maharaja Ganga Singh of Bikaner (1888-1943). Don't forget to make a wish in the lion's ears at the main gate before you leave the temple complex. Tourists can also visit the recently built Karni Mata Panorama located on the way back to Bikaner from Deshnok. The museum depicts the stories of Karni Mata through beautiful sculptures, paintings and tableaus
Image Sources: Wikimedia Commons
Text Sources: India tourism website ( incredibleindia.org), India’s Ministry of Tourism and other government websites, UNESCO, Wikipedia, Lonely Planet guides, New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, National Geographic, The New Yorker, Bloomberg, Reuters, Associated Press, AFP, Yomiuri Shimbun and various books and other publications.
Updated in August 2020