XUANZANG IN CENTRAL ASIA

XUANZANG IN KYRGYZSTAN


Xuanzang

Sally Hovey Wriggins wrote: “Beyond Aksu, the next oasis, Xuanzang crossed the Tian Shan range to Kyrgyzstan. Heavy snows delayed his start and should have provided a warning; in his 40 mile crossing, he lost one third of his men and animals. On the other side of the mountains, Xuanzang and his sadly depleted caravan rested at Lake Issik Kul, “the warm lake”, so-called because it never freezes. At Tokmak in 628 C.E., Xuanzang met the Great Khan of the Western Turks who was at the height of his powers. Xuanzang gave him the letter and gifts from the Turfan king. Although he had achieved hegemony in part of the Tarim basin, the Great Khan’s relations with the Tang Emperor in Chang’an were friendly and he welcomed Xuanzang and his party. [Source: “Xuanzang on the Silk Road” by Sally Hovey Wriggins, author of books on Xuanzang, mongolianculture.com \~/]

“This nomad king in a manner reminiscent of Chirggis Khan “was covered with a robe of green satin, and his hair was loose, only it was bound round with a silken band some ten feet in length, which was twisted around his head and fell down behind. He was surrounded by about 200 officers, who were all clothed in brocade stuff, with their hair braided. On the right and left he was attended by independent troops, all clothed in fur and fine-spun garments; they carried lances and bows and standards, and were mounted on camels and horses. The eye could not estimate their numbers. ‘\~/

“The Great Khan served him a grand feast in a large pavilion adorned with golden flowers that dazzled the eye. The officials clad in shining garments of embroidered silk “sat on mats in two long rows in front of the khan to attend him while armed guards stood behind him. Although the khan was but a lord living in a camp, he had an air of elegance which commanded respect.”[iii] His thoughtful host provided him with a non-alcoholic drink, and instead of mutton and veal, he was offered rice cakes, cream, sugar candy, honey-sticks and raisins. The pilgrim was obliged to deliver a Buddhist sermon after this repast which so impressed the Khan that he, too, asked him to remain in his kingdom. The Great Khan did not insist, however, and gave him letters of introduction to the petty princes of the Gandharan regions (Afghanistan and Pakistan) who were his vassals. Like the rulers of Turfan and Kucha, the Khan and his officers accompanied him a few miles on his journey.” \~/

Good Websites and Sources on the Silk Road: Silk Road Seattle washington.edu/silkroad ; Silk Road Foundation silk-road.com ; Wikipedia Wikipedia ; Silk Road Atlas depts.washington.edu ; Old World Trade Routes ciolek.com ; Travel Photos studyrussian.com ; Yo Yo Ma’s Silk Road Project silkroadproject.org ; Silk Road Society travelthesilkroad.org ; Silk Road Travelers silk-road.com ; International Dunhuang Project idp.bl.uk ; Camel Trains in the Desert chinavista.com ; Ancient China Life Ancient China Life

Books: on the Silk Road The Silk Road (Odyssey Guides); Marco Polo: A Photographer's Journey by Mike Yamashita (White Star, 2002); “Life along the Silk Road” by Whitfield, Susan (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999); “The Silk Route: Trade, Travel, War and Faith” by Susan Whitfield, with Ursula Sims-Williams, eds. (London: British Library, 2004); “The Camel and the Wheel” by Richard Bulliet (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1975). You can help this site a little by ordering your Amazon books through this link: Amazon.com; Television show: Silk Road 2005, a 10-episode production by China's CCTV and Japan's NHK, with music by Yo Yo Ma and the Silk Road Ensemble. The original series was shown in 1980s.

Marco Polo: Wikipedia Marco Polo Wikipedia ; Marco Polo Odyssesy nationalgeographic.com ; Open Directory Project dmoz.org ; Works by Marco Polo gutenberg.org ; Internet Movie Database imdb.com ; Marco Polo and his Travels silk-road.com ; Zheng He and Early Chinese Exploration : Wikipedia Chinese Exploration Wikipedia ; Le Monde Diplomatique mondediplo.com ; Zheng He muslimheritage.com ; Zheng He Wikipedia Wikipedia ; Gavin Menzies’s 1421 1421.tv ; Asia Recipe asiarecipe.com ; First Europeans in Asia Wikipedia ; Matteo Ricci faculty.fairfield.edu

Xuanzang on Aksu and Eastern Kyrgyzstan


Tian Shan mountains

Xuanzang reported: “The kingdom of Poh-luh-kia (Aksu, border of China and Kazakhstan, formerly called Che-meh or Kih-meh) is about 600 li from east to west, and 300 li or, so from north to south. The chief town is 5 or 6 li in circuit. With regard to the soil, climate, character of the people, the customs, and literature (laws of composition), these are the same as in the country of g'iu-chi. The language (spoken language) differs however a little. It produces a fine sort of cotton and hair-cloth, which are highly valued by neighboring (frontier) countries. [Source: “Xuanzang's Record of the Western Regions”, 646, translated by Samuel Beal (1884), Silk Road Seattle, depts.washington.edu/silkroad |:|]

“There are some ten sangharamas here; the number of priests (priests and followers) is about one thousand. These follow the teaching of the "Little Vehicle," and belong to the school of the Sarvastivadas (Shwo-yih-tsai-yu-po). [p.25] Going 300 li or so to the north-west of this country, crossing a stony desert, we come to Ling-shan (ice-mountain). This is, in fact, the northern plateau of the T'sung-ling range (Tian Shan mountains) and from this point the waters mostly have an eastern flow. Both hills and valleys are filled with snowpiles, and it freezes both in spring and summer; if it should thaw for a time, the ice soon forms again. The roads are steep and dangerous, the cold wind is extremely biting, and frequently fierce dragons impede and molest travellers with their inflictions. Those who travel this road should not wear red garments nor carry loud- sounding calabashes. The least forgetfulness of these precautions entails certain misfortune. A violent wind suddenly rises with storms of flying sand and gravel; those who encounter them, sinking through exhaustion, are almost sure to die. |::|

Going 400 li or so, we come to the great Tsing lake (Lake Issyk-kul in Kyrgyzstan). [p.26] This lake is about 1000 li in circuit, extended from east to west, and narrow from north to south. On all sides it is enclosed by mountains, and various streams empty themselves into it and are lost. The colour of the water is a bluish-black, its taste is bitter and salt. The waves of this lake roll along tumultuously as they expend themselves (on the shores). Dragons and fishes inhabit it together. At certain (portentous) occasions scaly monsters rise to the surface, on which travellers passing by put up their prayers for good fortune. Although the water animals are numerous, no one dares (or ventures) to catch them by fishing. Going 500 li or so to the north-west of the Tsing lake, we arrive at the town of the Su-yeh river. This town is about 6 or 7 li in circuit; here the merchants from surrounding countries congregate and dwell. The soil is favourable for red millet and for grapes; the woods are not thick, the climate is windy and cold; the people wear garments of twilled wool.” This area refers to Suyab, also known as Ordukent (modern-day Ak-Beshim), an ancient Silk Road city located some 50 kilometers east from Bishkek, and 8 kilometers west southwest from Tokmok, in the Chui River valley, present-day Kyrgyzstan.

Xuanzang’s Travels in Central Asia


Sayram, Kazakhstan

Xuanzang reported: “Passing on from Su-yeh westward, there are a great number of deserted towns; in each there is a chieftain (or over each there is established a chief); these are not dependent on one another, but all are in submission to the Tuh-kiueh [Huns, eastern Turks]. From the town of the Su-yeh river as-far as the Kishwang-na country (Kesh, Uzbekistan) the land is called Su-li, and the people are called by the same name. The literature (written characters) and the spoken language are likewise so called. The primary characters are few in the beginning [p.27] they were thirty or so in number: the words are composed by the combination of these; these combinations have produced a large and varied vocabulary. They have some literature, which the common sort read together; their mode of writing is handed down from one master to another without interruption, and is thus preserved. Their inner clothing is made of a fine hair-cloth (linen); their outer garments are of skin, their lower garments of linen, short and tight. They adjust their hair so as to leave the top of the head exposed (that is, they shave the top of their heads). Sometimes they shave their hair completely. They wear a silken band round their foreheads. They are tall of stature, but their wills are weak and pusillanimous. They are as a rule crafty and deceitful in their conduct and extremely covetous. Both parent and child plan how to get wealth; and the more they get the more they esteem each other; but the well-to-do and the poor are not distinguished; even when immensely rich, they feed and clothe themselves meanly. The strong bodied cultivate the land; the rest (half) engage in money-getting (business). [Source: “Xuanzang's Record of the Western Regions”, 646, translated by Samuel Beal (1884), Silk Road Seattle, depts.washington.edu/silkroad |:|]

“Going west from the town Su-yeh 400 li or so, we come to the "Thousand springs." This territory is about 200 li square. On the south are the Snowy Mountains, on the other sides (three boundaries) is level tableland. The soil is well watered; the trees afford a grateful shade, and the flowers in the spring months are varied and like [p.28] tapestry. There are a thousand springs of water and lakes here, and hence the name. The Khan of the Tuh-kiueh comes to this place every (year) to avoid the heat. There are a number of deer here, many of which are ornamented with bells and rings; they are tame and not afraid of the people, nor do they run away. The Khan is very fond of them, and has forbidden them to be killed on pain of death without remission; hence they are preserved and live out their days. |:|

“Going from the Thousand springs westward 140 or 150 li, we come to the town of Ta-lo-sse (Taras, Kyrgyzstan . This town is 8 or 9 li in circuit; merchants from all parts assemble and live here with the natives (Tartars). The products and the climate are about the same as Su-yeh. |Going 10 li or so to the south, there is a little deserted town. It had once about 300 houses, occupied by people of China. Some time ago the inhabitants were violently carried off by the Tuh-kiueh, but afterwards assembling a number of their countrymen, they occupied this place in common. Their clothes being worn out, they adopted the Turkish mode of dress, but they have preserved their own native language and customs.” |:|

Xuanzang in Southern Kazakhstan

Xuanzang reported: “ Going 200 li or so south-west from this, we come to the town called Peh-shwui ("White Water"). This town is 6 or 7 li in circuit. The products of the earth and the climate are very superior to those of Ta-to-sse. |Going 200 li or so to the south-west, we arrive at the town of Kong-yu, which is about 5 or 6 li in circuit. The plain on which it stands is well watered and fertile, and the verdure of the trees grateful and pleasing. From this going south 40 or 50 li, we come to the country of Nu-chih-kien (Nujkend, modern Shymkent, Kazakhstan). The country of Nu-chih-kien is about 1000 li in circuit; the land is fertile, the harvests are abundant, the plants and trees are rich in vegetation, the flowers and [p.30] fruit plentiful and agreeable in character. This country is famous for its grapes: There are some hundred towns which are governed by their own separate rulers. They are independent in all their movements. But though they are so distinctly divided one from the other, they are all called by the general name of Nu-chih-kien. [Source: “Xuanzang's Record of the Western Regions”, 646, translated by Samuel Beal (1884), Silk Road Seattle, depts.washington.edu/silkroad |:|]

“Going hence about 200 li west, we come to the country of Che-shi (stony country). The country of Che-shi is 1000 or so li in circuit. On the west it borders on the river Yeh. It is contracted towards the east and west, and extended towards the north and south. The products and climate are like those of Nu-chih-kien. There are some ten towns in the country, each governed by its own chief; as there is no common sovereign over them, they are all under the yoke of the Tuh-kiueh. From this in a south-easterly direction some 1000 li or so, there is a country called Fei-han. |:|

Xuanzang in the Fergana Valley


Osh in the Fergana Valley

Xuanzang reported: ““Fei-han [Ferghânah, the Fergana Valley in Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan]: This kingdom is about 4000 li in circuit. It is enclosed by mountains on every side. The soil is rich and fertile, it produces many harvests, and abundance of flowers and fruits. It is favourable for breeding sheep and horses. The climate is windy and cold. The character of the people is one of firmness and courage. Their language differs from that of the neighbouring countries. Their form is rather poor and mean. For ten years or so the country has had no supreme ruler. The strongest rule by force, and are independent one of another. They divide their separate possessions according to the run of the valleys and mountain barriers. Going from this country westward for 1000 li or so, we come to the kingdom of Su-tu-li-sse-na. |[Source: “Xuanzang's Record of the Western Regions”, 646, translated by Samuel Beal (1884), Silk Road Seattle, depts.washington.edu/silkroad |:|]

“Su-tu-li-sse-na [Sutrishna]: The country of Su-tu-li-sse-na " is some 1400 or 1500 li in circuit. - On the east it borders on the Y e h river (Jaxartes). This river has its source in the northern plateau of the Tsung-ling range, and flows 'to the northwest ; sometimes it rolls its muddy waters along in quiet, at other times with turbulence. The products and customs [p.32] of the people are like those of Che-shi. Since it has had a king, it has been under the rule of the Turks. |:|

“North-west 100 from this we enter on a great sandy desert, where there is neither water nor grass. The road is lost in the waste, which appears boundless, and only by looking in the direction of some great mountain, and following the guidance of the bones which lie scattered about, can we know the way in which we ought to go.” |:|

Xuanzang in Samarkand

Sally Hovey Wriggins wrote: “Xuanzang set out once more going west to Tashkent and thence on to Samarkand in modern-day Uzbekistan. This was the farthest point west on his journey. Being the terminus of caravan routes between Iran and China,it was an important trading entrepot on the Silk Road. Convoys of merchants coming from the north and travelers going south also met there. Xuanzang relates that the capital is 20 li or so in circuit. It is completely enclosed by rugged land and very populous. The precious merchandise of many foreign countries is stored up here. The soil is rich and productive and yields abundant harvests. The forest trees afford a thick vegetation and flowers and fruits are plentiful. The shen horses are bread here. The inhabitants are skillful in the arts and trades beyond those of other countries. [Source: “Xuanzang on the Silk Road” by Sally Hovey Wriggins, author of books on Xuanzang, mongolianculture.com \~/]

“Very early on Sogdians from the region of Samarkand specialized as caravaners, so much so that their languages became the lingua franca of the Silk Road east of Dunhuang. These camel drivers also became unofficial emissaries of Buddhism. Although the king of Samarkand was a vassal of the Great Khan of the Western Turks, the local culture was that of Sassanian (226-629 C.E.) Persia. The religion of the king - Zoroastrianism - was Persian and the Sogdian language was related to Persian. \~/

“At first the king of Samarkand was pointedly unfriendly, but then after hearing Xuanzang preach, the king allowed Xuanzang to convene an assembly where he ordained a number of monks. Shortly after Xuanzang’s visit the king sent an embassy to China asking to be received as a vassal state. The Emperor Taizong declined to accede to this request; instead thetwo countries established diplomatic and commercial relations.” \~/

Xuanzang on the Samarkand Area


Xuan Zang

Xuanzang reported: “Sâ-mo-kien [Samarkand in present-day Uzbekistan]: The country of Sa-mo-kien is about 1600 or 1700 li in circuit. From east to west it is extended, from north to south it is contracted. The capital of the country is 20 li or so in circuit. It is completely enclosed by rugged land and very populous. The precious merchandise of many foreign countries is stored up here. The soil is rich and productive, and yields abundant harvests. The forest trees afford a thick vegetation, and flowers and fruits are plentiful. The Shen horses are bred here. The inhabitants are skilful in the arts and trades beyond those of other countries. The climate is agreeable and temperate. The people are brave and energetic. [Source: “Xuanzang's Record of the Western Regions”, 646, translated by Samuel Beal (1884), Silk Road Seattle, depts.washington.edu/silkroad |:|]

“This country is in the middle of the Hu people (or this is the middle [p.33] of the Hu). They are copied by all surrounding people in point of politeness and propriety. The king is full of courage, and the neighbouring countries obey his commands. The soldiers and the horses (cavalry) are strong and numerous, and principally men of Chih-kia. These men of Chih-kia are naturally brave and fierce, and meet death as a refuge (escape or salvation). When they attack, no enemy can stand before them. From this going south-east, there is a country called Mi-mo-h o. |:|

“Mi-mo-ho [Maghian]: The country Mi-mo-ho is about 400 or 500 li in circuit. It lies in the midst of a valley. From east to west it is narrow, and broad from north to south. It is like Sa-mo-kien in point of the customs of the people and products. From this going north, we arrive at the country K'ie-po-ta- na. |:|

“K'ie-po-ta-na [Kebûd]: The country of K'i e-po-to-na is about 1400 or 1500 li in circuit. It is broad from east to west, and narrow [p.34] from north to south. It is like Sa-mo-kien in point of customs and products. Going about 300 li to the west (of Samarkand), we arrive at K'iuh-shwang- ni-kia.” |:|

Xuanzang in the Bukhara Area

Xuanzang reported: “K'iuh-shwang-ni-kia [Kashania]: The kingdom of K'iuh-shwang-ni-kia is 1400 or 1500 li in circuit; narrow from east to west, broad from north to south. It resembles Sa-mo-kien in point of customs and products. Going 200 li or so west from this country, we arrive at the Ho-han [Kuan] country. This country is about 1000 li in circuit; in point of customs and products it resembles Sa-mo-kien. Going west from here, we come, after 400 li or so, to the country of Pu-ho. | [Source: “Xuanzang's Record of the Western Regions”, 646, translated by Samuel Beal (1884), Silk Road Seattle, depts.washington.edu/silkroad |:|]

“Pu-ho [Bokhâra, Bukhara in present-day southern Uzbekistan]: The Pu-ho country is 1600 or 1700 li in circuit; it is broad from east to west, and narrow from north to south. In point of climate and products it is like Sa-mo-kien, Going west from this 400 li or so, we come to the country Fa-ti. Fa-ti [Betik]: This country is 400 li or so in circuit. In point of customs and produce it resembles Sa-mo-kien. From this going south-west 500 li or so, we come to the country Holi-sih-mi-kia. Ho-li-sih-mi-kia [Khwârazm]: This country lies parallel with 115 the banks of the river Po-tsu (Oxus). From east to west it is 20 or 30 li, from north to south 500 li or so. In point of customs and produce it resembles the country of Fa-ti; the language, however, is a little different. From the country of Sa-mo-kien lie going south-west 300 li or so, we come to Ki-shwang-na. [p.36]” |:|


Xuanzang's Route


Xuanzang in Kesh

Xuanzang reported: “Ki-shwang-na [Kesh, Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan]: This kingdom is about 1400 or 1500 li in circuit; in customs and produce it resembles the kingdom of Samo-keen. From this place going south-west 200 li or so, we enter the mountains; the mountain road is steep and precipitous, and the passage along the defiles dangerous and difficult. There are no people or villa;es, and little water or vegetation. Going along the mountains 300 li or so south-east, we enter the Iron Gates. The pass so called is bordered on the right and left by mountains. These mountains are of prodigious height. The road, is narrow, which adds to the difficulty and danger. On both sides there is a rocky wall of an iron colour. Here there are set up double wooden doors, strengthened with iron and furnished with many bells hung up. Because of the protection afforded to the pass by these doors, when closed, the name of iron gales is given. [Source: “Xuanzang's Record of the Western Regions”, 646, translated by Samuel Beal (1884), Silk Road Seattle, depts.washington.edu/silkroad |:|]

“Passing through the Iron Gates we arrive at the country [p.37] of the Tu-ho-lo. This country, from north to south, is about 1000 li or so in extent, from east to west 3000 li or so. On the east it is bounded by the T'sung-ling mountains, on the west it touches on Po-li-sse (Persia), on the south are the great Snowy Mountains, on the north the Iron Gates. The great river Oxus flows through the midst of this country in a westerly direction. For many centuries past the royal race has been extinct. The several chieftains have by force contended for their possessions, and each held their own independently, only relying upon the natural divisions of the country. Thus they have constituted twenty-seven states, divided by natural boundaries, yet as a whole dependent on the Tuh-kiueh [p.38] tribes (Turks). The climate of this country is warm and damp, and consequently epidemics prevail. |:|

“At the end of winter and the beginning of spring rain falls without intermission; therefore from the south of this country, and to the north of Lamghan (Lan-po), diseases from moisture (moist-heat) are common. Hence the priests retire to their rest (rain-rest) on the sixteenth day of the twelfth month, and give up their retirement on the fifteenth day of the third month. This is in consequence of the quantity of rain, and they arrange their instructions accordingly. With regard to the character of the people, it is mean and cowardly; their appearance is low and rustic. Their knowledge of good faith and rectitude extends so far as relates to their dealings one with another. Their language differs somewhat from that of other countries. The number of radical letters in their language is twenty-five; by combining these they express all objects (things) around them. Their writing is across the page, and they read from left to right. Their literary records have increased gradually, and exceed those of the people of Su-li. Most of the people use fine cotton for their dress; some use wool. In commercial transactions they use gold and silver alike. The coins are different in pattern from those of other countries. |:|


Tajikistan


Xuanzang Along Oxus River (Amu Dayra) in Southern Uzbekistan and Tajikistan

Sally Hovey Wriggins wrote: Xuanzang “turned his face to the south to pass through Shar-i Sabz (Kesh) and an eastern spur of the Pamir Mountains. He entered the famous pass called The Iron Gates, 8 miles west of modern Derbent on the regular trade route from Samarkand to the Oxus and beyond to India. On the Oxus River lay Termez where he found Buddhism flourishing. He notes that there were some 1,100 brethren. As he passed through lands south of the Oxus (Amu Darya), which nowadays divides Uzbekistan and Afghanistan, he would learn more about Buddhism’s chief form of architecture, the stupa, more about the great Buddhist Kings Asoka and Kanishka, and come to know some of the well-known images of the Buddha, such as the giant Buddhas of Bamiyan. [Source: “Xuanzang on the Silk Road” by Sally Hovey Wriggins mongolianculture.com \~/]

Xuanzang reported: “Following the coarse of the Oxus as it flows down from the north, there is the country of Ta-mi [Termed, Termez, Uzbekistan on the border of Afghanistan]. This country is 600 li or so from east to west, and 400 li or so from north to south. The capital, of the country [p.39] is about 20 li in circuit, extended from east to west, and narrow from north to south. There are about ten sangharamas with about one thousand monks. The stupas and the images of the honoured Buddha are noted for various spiritual manifestations. Going east we arrive at Ch'i-ngoh-yen-na. [Source: “Xuanzang's Record of the Western Regions”, 646, translated by Samuel Beal (1884), Silk Road Seattle, depts.washington.edu/silkroad |:|] |

“Ch'i-ngoh-yen-na [Chaghâniân, north of the Oxus River (Amu Dayra)]: This country extends about 400 li from east to west and about 500 li from north to south. The capital is about 10 li in circuit. There are some five sangharamas, which contain a few monks. Going east we reach Hwuhlo-mo. Hwuh-lo-mo [Garma]: This country is some 100 li in extent from east to west, [p.40] and 300 li from north to south. The capital is about 10 li in circuit. The king is a Turk of the Hi-su tribe. There are two convents and about one hundred monks. Going east we arrive at the Su-man country. |:|

“Su-man [Sumân and Kulâb in Tajikistan]: This country extends 400 li or so from east to west, and 100 li from north to south. The capital of the country is 16 or 17 li in circuit; its king is a Hi-su Turk. There are two convents and a few monks. On the south-west this country borders on the Oxus, and extends to the Kio-ho- yen-na country. Kio-ho-yen-na [Zubadian]: From east to west it is 200 li or so in extent; from north to south 300 li or so. The capital is 10 li or so in circuit. There are three convents and about one hundred monks. Still eastward is the country of Hu-sha. |:|

“Hu-sha [Wakhsh, Vakhsh in southeastern Tajikistan]: “This country is about 300 li from east to west, and 500 li or so from north to south. The capital is 16 or 17 li in circuit. Going eastwards we arrive at Kho-to-lo. Kho-to-lo [Khotl]: This kingdom is 1000 li or so from east to west, and [p.41] the same from north to south. The capital is 20 li or so in circuit. On the east it borders on the T'sun-ling mountains, and extends to the country of Kiu-mi-to. |:|

Image Sources: Wikimedia Commons

Text Sources: Robert Eno, Indiana University indiana.edu /+/ ; Asia for Educators, Columbia University afe.easia.columbia.edu <|>; University of Washington’s Visual Sourcebook of Chinese Civilization, depts.washington.edu/chinaciv /=\; National Palace Museum, Taipei npm.gov.tw \=/ Library of Congress; New York Times; Washington Post; Los Angeles Times; China National Tourist Office (CNTO); Xinhua; China.org; China Daily; Japan News; Times of London; National Geographic; The New Yorker; Time; Newsweek; Reuters; Associated Press; Lonely Planet Guides; Compton’s Encyclopedia; Smithsonian magazine; The Guardian; Yomiuri Shimbun; AFP; Wikipedia; BBC. Many sources are cited at the end of the facts for which they are used.

Last updated November 2016

This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been authorized by the copyright owner. Such material is made available in an effort to advance understanding of country or topic discussed in the article. This constitutes 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. If you are the copyright owner and would like this content removed from factsanddetails.com, please contact me.