ENVIRONMENTAL GROUPS AND ACTIVISTS IN CHINA

GREEN MOVEMENT IN CHINA

20080318-greenpeace in china.jpg
Greenpeace in China
China lacks sophisticated environmental movements like those found in the West, nonetheless groups of people have rallied together to save the home of the Yunnan golden monkey from being logged; shut down a thousand paper mills on the filthy Huai River; and closed a tire-recycling factories in Tangshan that produced toxic clouds that were blown towards an elementary school only 500 meters away from the factory.

In the mid 1990s there were only a handful of environmental groups now there are thousands. A number of small grassroots environmental groups have sprung up in urban areas and at universities. They have been allowed to develop while those promoting religious freedom and human rights have not because their goals are supported the government who also want to reduce pollution and improve the environment.

Faced with an ecological crisis, the Chinese government is slowly enacting new environmental regulations, but it is the country’s increasingly influential green movement that is enforcing them. “Environmental activism has led to more aggressive action on pollution control,” says Jennifer Turner of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. [Source: Andrew Grant, Discover magazine, March 18, 2011]

Andrew Grant wrote in Discover magazine, “The green movement is empowered by China’s bottom line. It is estimated that the country is losing some 8 percent of its wealth each year to pollution, with the toll including everything from crops destroyed by acid rain to spiraling health costs due to poor air and water quality. With the scale of the crisis clear, a government notorious for throwing activists in prison is allowing environmentalists an active role. [Ibid]

Websites and Resources

Environmental Policy: Paper on Environment and Government Policy findarticles.com ; Paper on Government Policy and Water Pollution unep.org ; Environmental Groups: Global Environmental Institute (a Chinese non-profit NGO) geichina.org ; Beijing Energy Network (a Chinese grassroots environmental group) greenleapforward.com ; Greenpeace China greenpeace.org/china/en ; Greenpeace China article on Environmental Awarness in China greenpeace.org ; Global Village Beijing gvbchina.org ; China’s Environmental Movement Council of Foreign Affairs ; List of Environmental Organizations findouter.com

Book: The River Runs Black by Elizabeth C. Economy (Cornell, 2004) is one of the best recently-written books on China’s environmental problems. In his book China on the Edge: the Crisis of Ecology and Development in China, the Chinese intellectual He Bochun argues that in many ways China's environmental problems have already reached catastrophic levels.

On the Environment: China Environmental News Blog china-environmental-news.blogspot.com ; China.Org (Chinese Government Environmental News china.org.cn/english/environment ; New York Times Multimedia Series on Pollution in China nytimes.com ; China’s Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) english.mep.gov.cn ; EIN News Service’s China Environment News einnews.com/china/newsfeed-china-environment Wikipedia article on Environment of China ; Wikipedia ; China Environmental Protection Foundation (a Chinese Government Organization) cepf.org.cn/cepf_english ;Global Environmental Institute (a Chinese non-profit NGO) geichina.org ; Beijing Energy Network (a Chinese grassroots environmental group) greenleapforward.com ; Greenpeace China greenpeace.org/china/en ; China Digital Times Collection of Articles chinadigitaltimes.net ; Brief History of Chinese Environment planetark.com ; Article on Wetlands Degradation library.utoronto.ca ; Useful But Dated Source List on te Environment and China newton.uor.edu ; China Environmental Forum at the Wilson Center wilsoncenter.org ; International Fund for China’s Environment ifce.org ; China Watch worldwatch.org ; China Environmental law Blog chinaenvironmentallaw.com ; World Resources Institute wri.org ; China Environmental Industry Network cein.net

Links in this Website: ENVIRONMENT IN CHINA Factsanddetails.com/China ; ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS IN CHINA Factsanddetails.com/China ; GLOBAL WARMING IN CHINA Factsanddetails.com/China ; AIR POLLUTION IN CHINA Factsanddetails.com/China ; WATER POLLUTION IN CHINA Factsanddetails.com/China ; WATER SHORTAGES IN CHINA Factsanddetails.com/China ; DEFORESTATION AND DESERTIFICATION IN CHINA Factsanddetails.com/China ; GARBAGE AND RECYCLING IN CHINA Factsanddetails.com/China ;ENVIRONMENT, GOVERNMENT POLICY AND FIGHTING POLLUTION IN CHINA Factsanddetails.com/China ; Factsanddetails.com/China ; ENVIRONMENTAL GROUPS AND PROTESTS IN CHINA Factsanddetails.com/China ; THE 2008 OLYMPICS IN BEIJING, POLLUTION WEATHER Factsanddetails.com/China ; LAND AND GEOGRAPHY OF CHINA Factsanddetails.com/China ; WEATHER IN CHINA Factsanddetails.com/China ; DAMS AND HYDRO POWER IN CHINA Factsanddetails.com/China ; THREE GORGES AND THREE GORGES DAM Factsanddetails.com/China ; COAL IN CHINA Factsanddetails.com/China ; NUCLEAR POWER AND ALTERNATIVE ENERGIES Factsanddetails.com/China ; WATER IN CHINA Factsanddetails.com/China ; RIOTS AND DEMONSTRATIONS IN CHINA Factsanddetails.com/China ;

Grassroots Environmental Activism in China

Harold Thibault of Le Monde wrote: “Li Wei, 18 (not her real name), doesn't seem like a dissident. She is more focused on her accounting studies, her friends on the social networks and chatting with her sister. Nevertheless, she took part in a demonstration last month in front of the Chinese Communist party offices that degenerated into violent clashes with police. The demonstrators gathered at dawn in Qidong, a small coastal town north of Shanghai. By noon, the local government headquarters were occupied and files were being thrown out of the windows. In the heat of the moment the party secretary's shirt was ripped off. "We have to get mobilised to protect the environment, it's our home town," explained Li, from her parents' restaurant. [Source: Harold Thibault, Le Monde via The Guardian, August 21 2013 //\\]

“Protests against pollution have multiplied in China as people become better informed and more concerned about the heavy ecological cost of economic development. Even state media now stresses the environment is a priority for China. Young people use micro-blogging to pass on the word. "People understand that the fight against pollution is a personal right, for there are very few places in the world where industrialisation has had such a massive and direct impact on such a large number of people," said environmental activist Ma Jun. //\\

“In Qidong, locals were protesting against plans by a Japanese-owned paper mill to build a wastewater pipeline close to a small port. "Many people earn a living from fishing here. That project jeopardised their livelihoods," said Li. She had learned about it on an internet forum and felt she had to do something. "Protecting the environment is our generation's responsibility, we have a better understanding about these issues." //\\

“Oji, the plant's owners, had stated that the waste would be treated before being discharged into the sea but the locals are sceptical, convinced that they are not being told the truth about the extent of the pollution – let alone the outcome of the demonstrations. The local hospital reported that a dozen people were treated for light wounds, but rumours say that three people were killed in the clashes. The government is concerned by these demonstrations. An editorial in the People's Daily the communist party organ, stated that "the public is rapidly becoming aware of environmental issues and its rights", and went on to accuse local governments of failing to consult the people in such cases, but without suggesting any real alternatives. //\\

“According to Yang Guobin, a sociologist at the University of Pennsylvania who researches environmental activism, the government's response was typical of the Chinese leadership in President Hu Jintao's era. "The government's response is typical of their 'wei wen' approach [the policy of maintaining stability at all costs] and stopping any widescale demonstrations, by force if necessary. But should state coercion fail, the government will immediately make some concessions to prevent the movement from escalating. In all cases, it acts fast," summed up Yang. //\\

Li Wei regrets that the protest degenerated. "It went too far, the local government offices suffered a great deal of damage. That's a waste, because the government's money is the people's money." But it was difficult for people to co-ordinate better. Official requests to hold the protest were turned down and the only environmental NGOs countenanced by the government are tolerated precisely because they steer clear of any confrontation. "In future we will have to find a mechanism for consultation between the various parties concerned prior to any new industrial project," said Ma, the environmental activist. //\\

“At the crossroads in the centre of Qidong, news of the people's victory was splashed across a massive advertising screen, where the government statement announced that the wastewater project was to be abandoned. Nevertheless, the government bussed in anti-riot police from around the province, just in case. Thousands of blue-uniformed police were stationed in the city while the khaki-clad armed police units in helmets and wielding truncheons, blocked all the streets in the centre. For Li, who had never taken part in a demonstration before, this was a reality check. Not because of the local police intervention – she heard Qidong police slipping in the occasional "jia you!" (go on!), an expression more commonly used to encourage athletes – but the ensuing state repression. "They pulled us by the hair. They slapped one girl in the face," she exclaimed, before switching to English: "I really wanted to say to them, 'Fuck you!'" //\\

Environmental Groups in China


pollution in China
Andrew Grant wrote in Discover magazine, “More than 3,500 environmental organizations now have legal status in China. While activists there are not as vocal as their counterparts in Europe or the United States, they have made an impact by encouraging transparency and pressuring local governments and industries to adhere to new national regulations. Through a program called the Green Choice Alliance, environmental groups publish lists of companies in violation of environmental regulations and offer to conduct a third-party audit if a company chooses to clean up its act. Last year, under the supervision of environmental groups, independent auditors found that Fuguo’s Shanghai leather factory had rectified its major violations and reduced gas emissions. [Source: Andrew Grant, Discover magazine, March 18, 2011]

From 2005 to 2009, China cut its sulfur dioxide emissions by between 22 million and 25.5 million tons. Clearly there is still a long way to go, but Turner says these groups will force the government to keep its foot on the pedal. “The challenges China faces are just mind-boggling,” she says, “but these groups are pushing the government in the right direction.”

The environmental group Beijing Rainbow Peace Environment Research Center filed an application with Beijing’s Industry and Commerce Bureau to be registered as a private company. Greenpeace hopes to gain a foothold in China through the organization. The Nature Conservancy is active in the Khampa region of western Yunnan and Sichuan. The Green Earth Volunteers is a movement founded by Wang Yongchen, a reporter with China National Radio. The group has been very active in fighting the Nu River dam project.

Greenpeace has offices and run programs in China and is widely quoted in the Chinese press. It is running an aggressive campaign to persuade consumers not to buy furniture made with rain-forest wood, refrain from eating shark-fin soup and not waste energy.

The Global Environmental Institute (GEI) is a home-grown, locally-run environmental NGO that acts sort of like a think tank and has been working with the central government and party schools to teach and develop environmental courses. It is also involved in supporting wildlife preserves and promoting energy-saving technology like “biogas converters’ that are used by Tibetan villagers to produce fuel for heating and cooking from yak and cattle dung.

China’s Citizen Environmental Enforcers

Andrew Grant wrote in Discover magazine, “In September 2009, a leather factory in Shanghai owned by the Fuguo company hosted an unlikely gathering: an open house for residents, journalists, and environmental groups to discuss the company’s air pollution violations. In a country long known for secrecy and environmental disregard, such an event would have been unheard of just a few years before. But the company’s hand had been forced by newly assertive Chinese environmental groups, which reported the factory’s violations and brought them to the attention of Timberland, the U.S. shoe and clothing seller that is one of Fuguo’s biggest customers. [Source: Andrew Grant, Discover magazine, March 18, 2011]

Bill McKibben wrote in National Geographic, in Baotou, a steelmaking center whose mines also supply half the planet's rare earth minerals, “I found Ding Yaoxian ensconced in the headquarters of the nonprofit Baotou City Environment Federation....Director Ding is one of the most cheerful and engaging Chinese I've ever met; he's needed every bit of charisma to build his association into a real force, numbering by his account a million area citizens. Issued little green identity cards, they serve as a kind of volunteer police force. "If people from the association see someone spilling trash, they go and sit on their doorstep," Ding said. "The government can't have eyes everywhere. A voluntary organization can put more pressure on. It can shame." [Source: Bill McKibben, National Geographic, June 2011]

“But the campaigns the group focuses on most of the time make clear how nascent environmental concern in China still is. They've handed out a million reusable shopping bags---but also hundreds of thousands of small folding paper cups, so that people will stop spitting on the street. One minor victory: When showing those hundreds of thousands of new condo units, real estate agents used to hand customers plastic booties to go over their dirty shoes; now they supply washable cloth socks. The association has tried to introduce the concept of garage sales, in a country where secondhand goods carry a stigma. And members have launched a big effort to teach Inner Mongolians to smile. "In the West people are happy and smiling, and that makes people feel positive," Ding said. His deputy, Feng Jingdong, added, "We tell them, Use your personality to get people to enjoy themselves instead of using resources." The three of us were eating a delicious lunch at a nearby restaurant (lamb is the staple here), and when we were finished, Ding made sure to ask for a doggie bag. "That's one of our campaigns," he said. "Before, it felt like you lost face if you did that." [Ibid]

Environmentalists and the Chinese Press

The local and national Chinese press has been very aggressive in uncovering environmental problems and mobilizing forces to go after polluters. Local newspapers have broken stories about cancer villages, which have been picked up by television networks and broadcast nationwide. In some cases the revelations have been praised by government officials. In other cases the revelations have been embarrassing or hurt investments by officials, and the sources of the stories have been harassed or jailed.

The China Environment News reports totally on environment issues and has been active in forming environmental groups.

Well-Known Environmentalists in China

Ma Jun is one of China’s best known environmental activists. He is the author of China’s Water Crisis and founder of an NGO called Environmental Affairs. In 2006, Ma was selected by Time magazine as one of the “100 people who shape our world.” A tribute was written by actor Edward Norton.

Tan Kai, a computer technician who tried register the environmental group Green Watch, was put on trial for stealing state secrets.

Wu Lihong is a salesman-turned activist that was hailed as an environmental hero for his efforts to publicize the polluting of Tai Lake, China’s third largest lake, from pollution by chemical factories. In April 2007, he was detained on trumped up charges of extortion and blackmail.

Wang Canfa, a professor at the China University of Political Science and Law, runs the leading environmental law practice in China, the Center for Legal Assistance for Pollution Victims. He has helped hundreds of ordinary citizens fight polluting factories and unresponsive local officials. He has won a third of his cases, an extraordinarily record in China. The cases he wins often set a precedent for other cases.

In July 2009, Chinese environmental activist Sun Xiaodi and his daughter were jailed for leaking information about a uranium mine. Sun had worked at the mine and has campaigned against nuclear contamination and for labor rights

Friends of Nature in China

The Beijing-based Friends of Nature (FON) is China's only true environmental group. Founded in 1993 by Professor Liang Congjie to resurrect the Taoist respect and love of nature, it has around 500 members, many of them with connections to the Chinese press. Friends of Nature It has been involved in saving chirus in Qinghai, protecting golden monkeys in Yunnan, preventing deforestation in Sichuan, and promoting environmental education in schools. Most of their funding comes from Western sources. Liang needed a government agency to support his group. After being turned down by National Environmental Protection Agency he was approval by the Ministry of Culture by explaining to them he wanted to establish an Academy of Green Culture.

Liang Congjie (1932-2010) founded the country's first legally recognized environmental protection organization, Friends of Nature, in 1994. Congjie's grandfather was philosopher and reformer Liang Qichao (1873-1929), who was exiled to Japan for 14 years after the short-lived Hundred Days' Reform in 1898. The campaign aimed to reinvent China as a constitutional monarchy and set it on the path to modernization. [Source: Yang Guang, China Daily, May 19, 2011]

Qichao's son, Liang Sicheng (1901-72) founded the architecture department at Tsinghua University in 1946 and wrote the country's first modern architectural history book. Hailed as the "father of modern Chinese architecture", he was persecuted and denounced during the Cultural Revolution" (1966-76) for his unsuccessful campaign to preserve Beijing's ancient city walls.

Liang Congjie, who was persecuted during the Cultural Revolution" believed "social commitment" was the thread that bound the generations of his family. Qichao emphasized the term in a speech he delivered at Tsinghua University in 1914 and it was later incorporated into the university's motto.

Wu Lihong, Lake Tai Activist

Wu Lihong, a peasant who worked for a while as a salesman, had been trying to draw attention to the condition of Lake Tai for more than a decade. William Wan wrote in Washington Post, “The story of Tai Lake is a story of high-level promises and lower-level reneging, of economic interests superceding environmental ones. And it is an illustration of China's awkward relationship with environmental activists, who challenge the government's authority but are often the loudest force pushing its new environmental priorities on the local level.No one knows this story better than Wu Lihong. For almost two decades, Wu - a peasant living along the lake,- waged a one-man campaign to clean it up. He kept track of the thousands of factories springing up along its shores and took pictures of the untreated waste they discharged into the lake. He mailed water samples to inspectors, called TV stations and spoke out in the face of threats from factory bosses and local leaders. [Source: William Wan, Washington Post, October 29, 2010]

“His actions cost him his job, threatened his marriage and landed him in prison for three years. He returned home this spring to find the lake virtually unchanged. Now, with no job prospects and few friends willing to risk a visit, he spends much of his time alone at home, mulling over what he has sacrificed - whether it was worth it, and whether he should continue.” [Ibid]

“To hear Wu's story firsthand is to witness the paranoia he now lives in. A short, baby-faced man, Wu, 42, assumes his cellphone is tapped and prefers meeting strangers in obscure spots outside town. After agreeing to take a reporter to his home, Wu pulls up his shorts to reveal a two-inch scar on his inner thigh. He said he got it a few weeks ago by the lake when two thugs attacked him with a knife. He points to rounder scars along his arm and his hands - cigarette burns, he said, from police interrogations.” [Ibid]

"At first, there were other villagers reporting the pollution, too," said Han Yaobing, 60, who was one of them. "But everyone gave up under the pressure of authorities. He was the only one left." After Chinese and foreign media picked up his story, Wu became a national hero and by 2005 was being praised by Chinese and international organizations. That year, China's highest-ranking legislative body, the National People's Congress, declared him one of China's top 10 environmental activists and flew him to a ceremony at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing.”

Wu Lihong Harassed, Arrested and Imprisoned

Around the time of the algae bloom Wu Lihong was sentenced to three years in jail on trumped charges. At the time of his arrest he was preparing to go to Beijing with photographs and other documentation of dumping by chemical factories in the lake. Wu had been particularly outraged by the designation of Yixing, the home of many chemical factories, as a “Model City for Environmental Protection.” Wu's conviction was based on a confession that Wu said was coerced with torture and five straight days of sleep deprivation.

William Wan wrote in Washington Post, “All that changed in 2007, when - just two years after Beijing lauded him for his work trying to protect the lake - Wu learned that the central government planned to award his city the title of "National Model City for Environmental Protection," praising the very local officials Wu had fought for years. Wu was furious. He started gathering more evidence, telling friends he planned to sue the central government over the title. Within weeks, he was arrested.” [Source: William Wan, Washington Post, October 29, 2010]

“The exact charges changed several times, and most were ultimately dropped. In the end, Wu's conviction on two charges of blackmail and fraud relied heavily on his confession, which Wu says he signed after being hung by the arms for five days and beaten with branches. While he was in prison, authorities put his wife and daughter under 24-hour surveillance. Shortly before Wu's release, the guards in front of his house were replaced by three traffic cameras erected on the single-lane road leading to his farmhouse.” [Ibid]

In the face of this bleak future, Wu now questions whether he sacrificed everything for nothing. "Maybe I should have just focused on making a living, raising my family," he says in his living room, holding his wife's string of carved monkeys. "But this is where I live. A man cannot just run away to Shangri-La while his home is ruined." Across the room, Wu's wife says little. Because Wu can't find a job, she now works two - one at a wool factory and the second, ironically, at a chemical plant on Tai Lake.” [Ibid]

Environmental Law Suits in China

Lawyers have filed suits and sometimes won on behalf of people that have become sick or had their farms fouled by pollution.

National pollution laws are rarely enforced and when they are polluters find it is often more cost effective for to pay fines than make improvements. Things are improving. A number of victims of pollution are taking advantage of new laws and suing polluters. Offering assistance is the Beijing-based legal aid office, the Center for Legal Assistance to Pollution Victims.

In May, 1995 a Jiangsu provincial court ordered a brewery to pay local peasant $85,000 for producing pollution that killed peasant's fish and ducks. In a similar case a duck farmer, whose ducks entered the Huai River and emerged with singed feathers and burned feet and then died, sued a nearby pig farm upstream for dumping toxic chemicals upstream.

In July 2009---in what was described as the first ever green lawsuit against government in China---a member of the All-China Environmental Federation---which is backed by the central government---said a judge in Guizhou province had accepted its claim on behalf of residents who complain they have suffered from pollution. Residents allege that the Qingzhen land resources bureau leased land to a drinks factory in 1994, but construction of the factory has not been completed and they believe the site is damaging two adjacent lakes from which they draw drinking water. They want the government to take back the land and remove construction materials.[Source: Tania Branigan, The Guardian, July 31, 2009]

Ma Yong, director of the legal service center at the federation, told the Associated Press. “The case will serve as a warning for government departments and companies that damage the environment, as we're stepping up efforts to play a supervisory role.” He added that he hoped it would pave the way for other organizations to file public-interest lawsuits. [Ibid]

Environmental activists complain that courts usually turn away such cases. “If this leads to more non-governmental organizations bringing public interest litigation I think this is a very important breakthrough. It means China is going to open the door to more public involvement in environmental enforcement,” said Alex Wang, a senior lawyer with the Natural Resources Defense Council, a US environmental group. [Ibid]

Apple Criticized for China Supply Chain Pollution

In August 2011, Reuters reported: “Chinese environmental groups accused Apple Inc of turning a blind eye as its suppliers pollute the country, the latest criticism of the technology company's environmental record. Toxic discharges from "suspected Apple suppliers" have been encroaching on local communities and environments, a coalition of environmental organizations said on Wednesday in a 46-page report alleging efforts to conceal pollution. [Source: Reuters, Michael Martina, August 31, 2011]

"The large volume of discharge in Apple's supply chain greatly endangers the public's health and safety," said the report, issued on the website of the Beijing-based Institute of Public and Environmental Affairs. The report alleges that 27 suspected Apple suppliers had severe pollution problems, from toxic gases to heavy metal sludge. In one case, the report said, a nearby village experienced a "phenomenal rise in cases of cancer."

Apple has decided to "take advantage of loopholes" in developing countries' environmental management systems to "grab super profits," it said. Apple does not disclose who its suppliers are. The environmental groups said public documents and five months of research and field investigation led to the findings in the report. "A large number of IT supplier violation records have already been publicized; however, Apple chooses not to face such information and continues to use these companies as suppliers. This can only be seen as a deliberate refusal of responsibility," the report said.

This is not the first time Apple has been targeted for environmental infractions and its secretive supply chain management in Chinese factories, where it assembles most of its products.In January, several of the same non-governmental organizations issued a report alleging woeful environmental records for the iPad and iPhone maker's China-based contract manufacturers.In February, workers at a Taiwanese-owned factory in eastern China making touch screens on contract for Apple aired their grievances over a chemical poisoning after using N-Hexane, a toxic solvent.

Apple says it maintains a rigorous auditing regime and all its suppliers are monitored and investigated regularly. "Apple is committed to driving the highest standards of social responsibility throughout our supply base," Apple spokeswoman Carolyn Wu told Reuters."We require that our suppliers provide safe working conditions, treat workers with dignity and respect, and use environmentally responsible manufacturing processes wherever Apple products are made," she said.

Apple is not alone in drawing criticism from environmental groups. Some of the world's leading brands rely on Chinese suppliers that pollute the country's environment with chemicals banned in Europe and elsewhere. Many Western multinationals -- including toymaker Mattel Inc, which suffered a toxic lead paint scandal in 2007 -- have struggled to regulate product quality across scores of suppliers in knotted Chinese supply chains.

Parks and Reserves in China

China has nearly 2,000 parks, reserves and other places that have various levels of protection, including 89 international-recognized sites. There is no equivalent of a National Park Service. National agencies don’t have the funds to oversee them. Many are provincially administered or managed by local government with spotty results. Conservation to some local authorities is cutting down the trees and building a gondola and concrete dragon to attract tourists.

Most reserves have a protected “core area” and an “outer area,” where local people are permitted to live and work. In some reserves the outer are is quite developed with fish farms, rice paddies, and various kinds of developments. Some wetlands areas have “wetland golf” and “vacation villa zones” and allow reeds to be harvested by trucks, leaving behind grass that birds don’t like and, according to legend, was introduced by Zhou Enlai, who asked expert to find a plant that increased the size of China.

In recent years China has established more nature reserves than any other country but the reserves are poorly policed and poaching and illegal logging remains a problem. In 2004, the State Forestry Administration announced it was going to establish 225 new wetlands reserves by 2010. Many of the wetlands would not only provide a much needed habitat for birds and wildlife they would also provide land for flood run off. The “wetland parks” set up in a former areas of reeds and swamps of the Yangtze Delta and largely devoid of bird life. They consist of dredged ponds, wooden promenades, painted flower patches, colored lights and fake boulders. One near Shanghai features Chinese pop music shows and has a military base nearby with a heavily used firing range.

Some parks have been privatized. Huangshan Mountain is listed on the Shanghai stock exchange and is 51.5 percent owned by Chinese and foreign shareholders. Qufu, the birthplace of Confucius is managed by the Shenzhen Overseas Chinese Town Economic Development Co., known mainly for running Disney-like theme parks in southern China. Part of the Great Wall is run by Beijing Enterprises Holding Ltd., which also makes wine and runs water treatment plants.

Supporters of privatization of parks point out the government doesn't have the money to properly run parks and their maintenance track record in the past has been spotty at best. When the government managed Huangshan, logging companies harvested trees in the park, the steams were polluted and according to one count 6,000 tons of trash was piled up on the 44 miles of paths through the park. Since the park has been privatized forests cover has increased from 60 to 86 percent. A staff of 525 attendants picks up trash.

Image Sources: Greenepeace, YouTube

Text Sources: New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Times of London, National Geographic, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, Lonely Planet Guides, Compton’s Encyclopedia and various books and other publications.

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© 2008 Jeffrey Hays

Last updated January 2014

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