PLACES IN THE GOBI DESERT IN MONGOLIA

PLACES IN THE GOBI DESERT IN MONGOLIA

Mandalgov (260 kilometers south of Ulaan Baatar) is the jumping off point for the northern Gobi Desert. It only is only a few hectares in size and home to about 12,000 people and didn’t even exist until 1942. It has a handful of places eat and stay, none of them particularly good or bad by Mongolian standards

Baga Gazriin Chuluu (60 kilometers northeast of Mandalgov) is a sacred 1660-meter-high mountain with unusual rock formations. There is also a forest on one slope and a 20-meter-deep cave with a cave inside. The scenery around this granite mountains in the territory of Adaatsag soum, Dundgobi aimag in Middle Gobi province has been described as a lunar landscape. The mountain contains remains of old temples.

Sangin Dalai Lake (near Baga Gazrin Chuluu) is a small lake at a oasis. The ruins of Sum Khukh Burd, a 16th century fortress with 1.5-meter-thick built is found here. There is a monastery, on the small island of Lake Burd. It is said that Prince Danzanravjaa had performed his famous play “Saran Khukhuu” in this monastery.

Gimpil Darjaakan Khiid (near Erdenedail, 114 kilometers northwest of Mandalgov) is one of the few Tibetan Muslim monastery-temple complexes that survived the Communist purges in the 1930s. The temple was built in the 19th century to commemorate the Dalai Lama’s first visit to Mongolia. More than 20 temples were in the original complex and they housed 200 lamas. The present buildings have been built without nails.

Dalanzadgad (550 kilometers south of Ulaan Baatar and 290 kilometers south of Mandalov) is the best place to begin journeys into the southern Gobi. It is a windy, desolate place with 12,000 people. In the town you can find the South Gobi Museum, which contains prehistoric remains and an interesting collection of costumes and artwork. The best dinosaur bones are in Ulaan Baatar. Sights near the town include sand dunes; the South Gobi Tourist Camp, a ger-resort with camel and horse rides and wrestling and traditional dance demonstrations. To get to Dalanzadgad: MIAT flights cost about US$2000, the 24-hour bus ride costs US$25. Jeep rides cost US$25 per passengers. The first part of the 350 mile journey is on paved road. Most of the rest is on tracks.

Ongi Temple refers to the ruin of a big monastery on the bank of the Ongiin River. This monastery has 28 temples and other buildings and is located on the south slope of the a rocky mountain in Balsa country. The stupas are still intact. The monastery had about 1,000 lamas and was destroyed during the Stalinist purges in 1930s.

Escarpment of Tsagaan Suvarga (in Ulziit soum) has a sheer slope, facing east, which from a distance seems to be the ruins of the ancient city. The cliff is 30 meters high and 100 meters wide. Over thousands of years the wind has created this amazing structure. It sometimes called the White Stupa.

Gobi Gurvansaikhan National Park and Its Singing Sand Dunes`

Gobi Gurvansaikhan National Park (near Dalanzadgad in South Gobi Province ) covers 20,000 million square kilometers and includes grasslands, dinosaur fossil beds, weird red sandstone rock formations, lunar landscapes and white sand dunes. It has reasonably good roads and ger camps and camping areas. Burkhant is a little visited oasis with peach-colored granite rock formation, coal-colored hills and scrub bushes.

Khongorin Els Sand Dunes (within Gobi Gurvansaikhan National Park) is the home of 800-meter-high sand dunes. The sand dunes extend over a 925 square kilometer area that is 180 kilometers long and 15 kilometers to 20 kilometers wide in an area in the northern part of the Sevree and Zuulun mountains, The sound made by blowing sand can sometimes can be heard at a great distance away. For this reason the dunes are sometimes called the Duut Manhan (“the Singing Sands”). Sand skiing is offered on the dunes. At the northern end of the sand dunes is an oasis near the Khongor River.

The singing dunes make sounds like plane engines on a windy day. Why do dunes sing? Some say the sound is produced when very small grains of sand rub against one another with gusts of wind gives making audible squeaks and strong gusts, generating more intense and expressive sounds, which some claim resembles the sounds of an organ. But if this is true how do you explain that in calm weather one can hear sound from the Dune.

“Singing” sand dunes are found various location around the globe. Sand dunes can “sing” at a level up to 115 decibels and generate sounds in different notes. The dunes at Sand Mountain in Nevada usually sing in a low C but can also sing in B and C sharp. The La Mar de Dunas in Chile hum in F while those at the Ghord Lahmar in Morocco howl in G sharp. [Source: New York Times]

The sounds are produced by avalanches of sand generated by blowing winds. For a while it was thought that the avalanches caused the entire dune to resonate like a flute or violin but if that were true then different size dunes would produce different notes.

In the mid 2000s, American, French and Moroccan scientists visiting sand dunes in Morocco, Chile, China and Oman published a paper in the Physical Review Letters that determined the sounds were produced by collisions between grains of sand that caused the motions of the grains to become synchronized, causing the outer layer of a dune to vibrate like the cone of a loudspeaker, producing sound. The tone of the sounds depended primarily on the size of the grains. The scientists said that the dunes in Oman produced a “very pure sound” and were “really singing” while those in China hardly sang at all.

Yol Valley: Valley of the Eagles

Yol Valley (within Gobi Gurvansaikhan National Park, 62 kilometers north-west of Dalanzadgad) is known for its unique landscape, icy year-round climate and abundant wildlife, including ibex, argali sheep and snow leopards. The heart of the valley is a narrow canyon that winds through 2,816-meter-high Zuun Saikhan Mountain. In the central part of the canyon are 200-meter-high rock walls, with a ribbon of meter-think, year-round ice, called the Gobi Glacier, at the bottom. The ice is able to survive because the winters and nights are cold and so little light penetrates the bottom of the gorge. The gorge is so narrow only two people can pass through at one time. Above is only a ribbon of sky.

The Yol Valley, also known as Valley of the Eagles or Vultures Mouth, is situated in an area of rolling hills. The numerous eagles and vultures found here feed on the large population of ground squirrels that reside in the area. The hikes in the area often involve numerous stream crossing. One trail descends along a canyon wall to the bottom of a valley with a small glacier protected from the summer sun by tall canyon walls. The valley is sometime shrouded in clouds. During the rainy season rains falls on the summit of the mountains and form streams and waterfalls that cascade down the rock walls. There is small museum at the entrance of the valley.

The Yol Valley (Yoliin am) has been protected since 1965. The valley’s remnant streams create ice formations which you may find in the mouth of the valley as late as July. The mountains surrounding the valley also provide habitat for Argali wild sheep (one of the last wild great horned sheep) and ibex, which may be spotted in the early morning as they walk along the mountain ridges. Following the canyon to the high rock walls has breathtaking dramatic scenery.

Flaming Cliffs

Flaming Cliffs (65 kilometers northwest of Dalanzadgad) is where great dinosaur discoveries were made in the 1920s by Roy Chapman Andrews’ Expedition (See Below). The area around it appears to be a rolling steppe. Drive on and suddenly you realize you are at the top of an escarpment looking down on canyons of red cliffs. Beyond the cliffs is a flat desert floor.

The Flaming Cliffs (Bayanzag in the Bulgan sum) is where many of fossils in the Natural History Museum in Ulaan Baatar were found. Among the great finds made here by the Chapman expedition were petrified forests, remains of one of the largest mammals ever known, complete dinosaur skeletons and dinosaur eggs. Fossils of over a hundred different prehistoric animals were found here. Many significant dinosaur skeletons from the late Cretaceous period have been found in the Gobi desert's dry climate has also preserved later mammal and plant fossils. of great significance.

The area continues to searched today and new discoveries are still made. A "spectacular" fossil of a mother Oviraptor guarding a clutch of eggs was discovered near Ukhaa Toigod in southern Mongolia in 1993. The eggs were "arranged in a circular pattern, with the large end of the eggs facing inward," paleontologist mark Norell wrote. This finding was offered as proof of the bird-dinosaur connection by suggesting that dinosaurs engaged in nesting behavior that was more consistent with the behavior of birds than reptiles. Oviraptor means "egg thief" and the dinosaur was given the name because when it was first discovered in 1923 it was supposedly stealing eggs from a Protoceratops nest. Later it was discovered the eggs were Oviraptor eggs and not Protoceratops eggs and the Oviraptor was inappropriately named.

Petroglyphs of the Gobi

Petroglyphic Complexes in the Mongolian Gobi was nominated to be a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2014.According to a report submitted to UNESCO: Petroglyphs considered as one of the most widespread cultural heritage of the world, and Mongolia is one of the countries that rich with it. The following three petroglyphic complexes are outstanding representatives of the petroglyphs in the Mongolian Gobi. [Source: Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO]

1) Petroglyphic complex of Del Uul mountain
Ulziit soum, Dundgovi province
N44 27 12.3 E105 47 26.4
The mountain Del Uul, stretches 25 kilometers from east to west and is located in the territory of Ulziit soum, Dundgobi province. From its lower base to the peak the eastern face of the mountain is covered with petroglyphs of various types of animals, human beings and symbols that engraved in different historical time period. Animal images such as ibexes, horses, riders, camel, and anthropomorphic images are the most common.

2) Petroglyphic complex of Bichigtiin Am
Bayanlig soum, Bayankhongor province
N44 17 11.8 E100 31 20.7
The petroglyphs of Bichigtiin Am are entirely concentrated on a one small rocky mountain rising abruptly from the deep valley of Bichigtiin Am, Ikh Bayan mountain of Bayanlig soum, Bayankhongor province. There are hundreds of images of human beings, animals and symbols (tamga) there were engraved by the prehistoric people on the rocks. The first petroglyphs were likely to have been made approximately 3000 years ago BCE and people had continued to add illustrations until the 8th century CE. Men riding horse or camel with horse, cattle and camel herds as well as hunting scenes and men with carts are common image among these rock arts. Men are illustrated riding horse with or without saddle. An image of cattle pulling a plough and man directing it is one of the rare artefacts related to farming found in Mongolian Gobi region.

3) Petroglyphic complex of Javkhlant Khairkhan mountain
Khanbogd soum, Umnugovi province
N42 53 36.5 E106 53 36.5
The mountain of Javkhlant Khairkhan is higher than the mountains nearby. West of this mountain there are two hills in line, in south there is a wide steppe and in north there is a valley and dry river – this landscape make this mountain special and important. Therefore the local herders venerate and worship this mountain naming as “Khairkhan” and they maintain an ovoo (cairn) on its peak. This is connected with ancient peoples’ beliefs and worship as well – they engraved hundreds of petroglyphs on the rocks of this mountain. There are over 200 petroglyphic scenes of which most of them are engraved at the top.Roughly depicted images of human beings, animals, suns and other objects date them back to the Eneolithic time period, the transition period from stone tool production to bronze tool production. It is particularly notable that the three mountains of Javkhlant Khairkhan are drawn on one of the rocks of this mountain.

The three sites of “Petroglyphic complexes of the Mongolian Gobi” are outstanding representatives of the culture, art and religious beliefs of the Bronze Age peoples who lived in the Mongolian Gobi and its neighbouring areas. These three complex sites are not only a prominent evidence of the civilization and historical evolution of the North-eastern Asian nomads but also reflections of the culture, tradition, ritual and art that had been developed and followed by them for hundreds of years starting about 4000 years ago.

The three petroglyphic complex sites are exceptional and genuine evidences of the Bronze Age Central Asian nomads’ belief, sacrificial practice, culture and art of which greatly developed and disappeared in the 4th – 1st millennium BCE on the territory of what is now Mongolia and its neighbouring countries. Through the studies on the civilization and prehistory of the Central and North-eastern Asia these complex sites are found to have international significance. The petroglyphs of the Mongolian Gobi are evidences of some either currently existing or disappearing cultural traditions and civilizations and becoming an exceptional model of the heritage places that demonstrate the significant periods of history.

Gobi Petroglyph Images Compared to Other Petroglyph Sites

According to a report submitted to UNESCO: The Petroglyphic complexes of the Mongolian Gobi can be compared to the Petroglyph sites inscribed in the World Heritage List: Ecosystem and Relict Cultural Landscape of Lopé-Okanda –Gabon, Rock Drawings in Valcamonica – Italy, Wadi Rum Protected Area – Jordan, Petroglyphs within the Archaeological Landscape of Tamgaly – Kazakhstan, Petroglyphic Complexes of the Mongolian Altai, Twyfelfontein or /Ui-//aes – Namibia; and with Petroglyph sites submitted in the Tentative List: Daegokcheon Stream Petroglyphs – Republic of Korea, Sarmishsay – Uzbekistan, Petroglyphs of Eshkiolmes – Kazakhstan, Petroglyphs of Sikachi-Alyan – Russian Federation. [Source: Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO]

These are similar in many characteristics: number, size, theme, semantic and depicted method but there are some differences. A significant number of petroglyphs that related to ancient peoples’ belief are found rather than other petroglyph sites. This shows that this specific Gobi region had its own unique culture during the late Stone Age, Eneolithic and Bronze Age. For example, petroglyphs of Javkhlant Khairkhan Mountain distinguish with their remarkable style of depiction which makes them of the rarest and most mysterious heritage. These are dated back to the Eneolithic. Very few archaeological sites of this period have been found so far and that means petroglyphs of Javkhlant Khairkhan Mountain are invaluable heritage site for retracing the history of intellectual development of the people who lived during the Eneolithic.

Images of many horse and camels are very important data to trace the way of life of the Gobi desert nomads. There are few instances of camel images that found on mountain rocks of Mongolia, Inner Mongolia (Mandal mountain) and Kazakhstan (Eshkimolmes mountain), but camels on the rocks of Bichigtiin Am differentiate by their great number and sizes. For the ancient nomadic people the petroglyphic site of Bichigtiin Am, Bayanlig soum, Bayankhongor province, was a special place to make sacrificial and ritual ceremonies. This site contains a great number of images that are all together concentrated at one specific place. This is the biggest difference from other petroglyphic sites in Mongolia and its neighbouring countries.

The petroglyph subjects of the Mongolian Gobi remained virtually unchanged from the Bronze Age to the end of the Early Iron Age; however, petroglyphs underwent significant changes in terms of semantics and methods of execution.

Eej Khairkhan Mountain: Sacred Mountain

Eej Khairkhan Mountain (western Gobi Desert is one the Sacred Mountains of Mongolia, which were nominated to be a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2015. It is located in Tsogt soum, Govi-Altai province; Coordinates: N44° 56' 65" E44° 56' 30.65"

According to a report submitted to UNESCO: “The tradition of worshipping sacred mountains and waters is one of the outstanding cultural heritage elements created, developed and practiced by Mongolians since ancient times. The tradition initially developed and thrived during shamanic period and was later enriched with Buddhist ideologies and rituals. This significantly contributed to the preservation of our natural environment and wildlife as sacred and pristine. [Source: Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO]

“The tradition of worshipping mountains has very specific customs and rituals. There are many wonderful intangible cultural heritage elements associated with the worship of sacred mountains that have been preserved and continue to thrive, such as chanting sutras and sharing folk knowledge, legends, benedictions, odes, epics, folk songs, folk art and performing art.

Nomadic Mongols worship and revere the highest, lofty and beautiful of their local mountains. According to reliable sources, the khaans of the Xiongnu Empire, who established the first Statehood in the territory of Mongolia, and later Chinggis Khaan all revered the mountains, conducting and practicing them as rituals of state worship. In the legal sources such as “Khalkh Juram” (or Khalkha Rules) of 1709, especially beautiful and scenic Mongolian mountains and lakes were designated and protected by the State law, and in 1778, the Bogd Khan, Khan Khentii (Burkhan Khaldun) and Otgontenger Mountains were declared as State protected and worshipped sacred mountains.

Eej Kharikhan Mountain is located in the depression between the Mongol Altai mountain range and the Gobi Altai range in Tsogt soum, Gobi-Altai province. It is a granite mountain located 2274 meters ASL in the middle of the great desert at the Valley of Zakhui Zarman and surrounded by oases rich with saxaul, poplar, reed and tamarisk. Eej Khairkhan Mountain is a natural wonder, having unique formations with interesting shapes and structures naturally shaped over millions of years. The area is significant for the role it plays as a migration corridor for endangered large mammals such as argali, ibex and snow leopards. In early times, Eej Khairkhan was worshipped with shamanic rituals. The worship ritual Sutra is named "Khatan Khairkhanii Ariusgal Takhil, Uils Daatgal Orshvoi". The site has now become a favorite worship destination for pilgrims and tourists.

Great Bogd Mountain: Sacred Mountain

Great Bogd Mountian (northern fringes of the Gobi Desert, 600 kilometers southwest of Ulaan Baatar) is one the Sacred Mountains of Mongolia, which were nominated to be a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2015. It is located in Bogd, Jinst, Bayangovi and Bayanlig soums, Bayankhongor province; Coordinates:N44° 59' 35" E100° 13' 55"

According to a report submitted to UNESCO: “The tradition of worshipping sacred mountains and waters is one of the outstanding cultural heritage elements created, developed and practiced by Mongolians since ancient times. The tradition initially developed and thrived during shamanic period and was later enriched with Buddhist ideologies and rituals. This significantly contributed to the preservation of our natural environment and wildlife as sacred and pristine. [Source: Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO]

“The tradition of worshipping mountains has very specific customs and rituals. There are many wonderful intangible cultural heritage elements associated with the worship of sacred mountains that have been preserved and continue to thrive, such as chanting sutras and sharing folk knowledge, legends, benedictions, odes, epics, folk songs, folk art and performing art.

Nomadic Mongols worship and revere the highest, lofty and beautiful of their local mountains. According to reliable sources, the khaans of the Xiongnu Empire, who established the first Statehood in the territory of Mongolia, and later Chinggis Khaan all revered the mountains, conducting and practicing them as rituals of state worship. In the legal sources such as “Khalkh Juram” (or Khalkha Rules) of 1709, especially beautiful and scenic Mongolian mountains and lakes were designated and protected by the State law, and in 1778, the Bogd Khan, Khan Khentii (Burkhan Khaldun) and Otgontenger Mountains were declared as State protected and worshipped sacred mountains. The peak of Gobi-Altai Mountain Range – the Great Bogd Mountain is located at the boundaries of Bogd, Jinst, Bayangovi and Bayanlig soums of Bayankhongor province and continues over 60 kilometers. The peak point is 3957 meters high. The Great Bogd Mountain is a natural beauty of the Gobi region and a representative of a high mountain eco-system with rare and globally endangered animals and plants. The sutra created by Triumphant Abbot Damtsagdorj (1781-1855) is currently used in the worship ritual. By the Resolution of People’s Representatives Khural of the Province, the Mountain was declared as the "Totem Mountain" of Bayankhongor province.

Oyu Tolgoi Copper and Gold Project

Oyu Tolgoi is a huge copper and gold project in the southern Gobi Desert. The deposit contains at least 21.3 billion kilograms (47 billion pounds) of copper and 23 million ounces of gold. But the site has been expensive to develop. It is located in a remote area just north of the Chinese border. A lot of the infrastructure costs have gone to building a railroad to transport materials and metal and a power plant to supply energy. The deposits are about a quarter mile under the surface. Jjiuquan Iron & Steel built a 400-kilometer railroad in China to the Mongolian border near Oyu Tolgai. China built a 140-mile highway to the border near the mine.

In 2001 Canadian-based Ivanhoe Mines (now known as Turquoise Hill Resources) discovered the gold-copper ore deposit of what would be developed into the Oyu Tolgoi mine. The deposit is in the Gobi Desert in an area known as Oyu Tolgoi (Mongolian for Turquoise Hill, a name that's derived from the color copper turns when exposed to oxygen), where in the time of Genghis Khan outcropping rocks were smelted for copper. By 2003 there were 18 exploration drill rigs on the property employing approximately 200 people, and Oyu Tolgoi was the "biggest mining exploration project in the world." In addition to Copper, Oyu Tolgoi also has large reserves of gold, and the deposit is assessed to contain 14 million ounces of gold in addition to the 19 million tons of copper. This huge ore deposit is stated to be the second largest discovered and valued at US$ 46 billion at 2003 prices.[Source: Wikipedia]

Bill Donahue wrote in the Washington Post: In 2005, after Robert Friedland, the chief executive of Canada’s Ivanhoe Mines, arrived in Mongolia to develop Oyu Tolgoi, he seemed gleefully wanton. Speaking to a conference for investors, he said: “The nice thing about this, there’s no people around. There’s no NGOs.” He called Oyu Tolgoi a “cash machine” and explained the profit margin thus, “You’re making T-shirts for five bucks and selling them for $100.” Friedland proceeded, in 2009, to strike a deal that saw the Mongolian government ceding Ivanhoe mineral rights in exchange for 34 percent of all profits. [Source: Bill Donahue, Washington Post, September 20, 2013 |::|]

In October 2009, Mongolia passed long-awaited legislation on an investment agreement to develop the Oyu Tolgoi (OT) mine, considered to be among the world's largest untapped copper-gold deposits. However, Mongolia's ongoing dispute with foreign investors developing Oyu Tolgoi has called into question the attractiveness of Mongolia as a destination for foreign investment. This caused a loss of investor confidence, a severe drop in FDI, and a slowing economy, leading to the dismissal of Prime Minister Altankhuyag in November. [Source: CIA World Factbook =]

Michael Kohn of Bloomberg wrote: The Mongolian government needs to reach an “agreement with Rio Tinto over $4.2 billion in project financing to re-start the expansion of the Oyu Tolgoi copper and gold project. The mine is forecast to account for about a third of Mongolia’s economy once in full operation.The two sides have been locked in negotiations on how to finance the project for over a year. Turquoise Hill Resources Ltd., the Vancouver-based unit of Rio that owns 66 percent of the mine, said that commitments to finance the expansion have been extended to September 30. [Source: Michael Kohn, Bloomberg, January 13, 2014]

Oyu Tolgoi Copper and Gold Mine

The Oyu Tolgoi mine began construction in 2010. In January 2013, it started producing concentrate. After several delays the mine shipped its first batch of copper, 5,800 tons of it, on July 9, 2013. The Oyu Tolgoi mining project is the largest financial undertaking in Mongolia's history and is expected upon completion to produce 450,000 tonnes (500,000 short tons) of copper annually. +

The Oyu Tolgoi mine location in the South Gobi province, about 100 kilometers from the border with China and is termed as a mega-mine in Mongolia. Its mining operations are a joint venture of Rio Tinto (a UK-based mining transnational), Turquoise Hill and the Mongolian government. As of 2010, the estimated cost of bringing the Oyu Tolgoi mine into production was US$4.6 billion, making it (financially) the largest project in Mongolian history; however, by 2013 costs had increased to $10 billion. +

When in production Oyu Tolgoi will account for more than 30 percent of Mongolia's GDP. The copper production from this mine (the investment was reported to be of the order of US$ 5 billion) has been projected at 450,000 tonnes of copper for the next 50 years; the mining reserves are reported to extend up to 20 miles beneath the Gobi Desert and is also estimated to yield 330,000 ounces of gold annually. In January 2013 Oyu Tolgoi started producing concentrate from the mine. +

Impact of Oyu Tolgoi

Oyu Tolgoi is projected to be the world's third-largest copper and gold mine. It played a substantial economic role even before was operational, with construction, exploration and other preparations making up 30 percent of Mongolia’s GDP in the early 2000s.

Frank Langfitt of NPR reported: “Thousands of young Mongolians have moved to the middle of the Gobi to work at Oyu Tolgoi. The mining camp, a mix of prefab housing and gers, or yurts, feels like a cross between a boomtown and a college fraternity. The Mongolian workers are mostly in their 20s. At a recent birthday celebration, they sing Mongolian pop songs at the camp bar. [Source: Frank Langfitt, NPR, May 21, 2012 <=>]

“Solongo Namjil is a self-described country girl from the Mongolian steppe. The 22-year-old came to Oyu Tolgoi six months ago to work as a clerk and sees the mine as a crucial opportunity for her country. "Every Mongolian here is doing their best for this project, which is enormous to Mongolia's future," she says between sips of beer. "We all understand the significance of the project. We do hope that every Mongolian can benefit." <=>

“But Solongo — Mongolians go by their first names — worries about mining's broader impact, particularly in South Gobi province, and on the thousands of herders who live there. Many are struggling with water-supply issues, and the mines need huge amounts to operate. "I'm really concerned about that," she says, "that there won't be enough water for our children and children's children." <=>

Image Sources: Wikimedia Commons

Text Sources: Mongolia tourism and government websites, UNESCO, Wikipedia, Lonely Planet guides, New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, National Geographic, The New Yorker, Bloomberg, Reuters, Associated Press, AFP, Japan News, Yomiuri Shimbun, Compton's Encyclopedia and various books and other publications.

Updated in August 2020

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